Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Bignan is a commune in the Morbihan department in Brittany in northwestern France. The town is based on the Landes de Lanvaux. Bignan is located between the townships of Saint-Jean-Brévelay. Bignan is only half an hour from the main cities of Morbihan: Vannes and Pontivy. In the 5th century Saint Noyale was said to be martyred near the town. In 1252, Guillaume de Bignan founded the nearby abbaye de prières; the earliest mention of Bingnen is in 1421, Buignen in 1428, Bignen in 1461. Bignen was part of the deanery of Porhoët, of the fief of the lords of Rohan; the town church was constructed between 1787 and 1801 with construction interrupted by the French revolution. Bignan was a active center of chouannerie from 1794 by the action of Pierre Guillemot, called "the king of Bignan", lieutenant of Georges Cadoudal. After the revolution Castle Kerguéhennec, sometimes nicknamed the " Versailles breton", served as a warehouse for the Chouans to remove crops to the law of requisition of grain applied by the Republican administration.
In 1906, traces of an Iron Age settlements and in particular of the Acheulean period were found near the town. At the start of the 2016 academic year, 49 students were enrolled in the Catholic bilingual stream The meaning of the towns toponym is obscure. Several hypotheses exist: A Beg but the nasalisation of Breton seems to oppose it. A similar origin A Breton origin via the term Bedun meaning birch, called beg beu today, there is a locality, the Bézo, which could confirm An idea of height based on the Celtic radicals benn and penn = height (approximation with pign: pignein; the village is indeed located on a height. In Breton the city is named Begnen; the municipality signed the charter Ya d'ar brezhoneg the November 20, 2009. Inhabitants of Bignan are called Bignanais. In 2015, the municipality had 2784 inhabitants, an increase of 2.02% compared to 2010. The Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul church is a Catholic church located in Bignan, it is dedicated to the apostles Paul. The building was built at the end of the 18th century on the site of a ruined Romanesque church.
On the initiative of the rector of the time, Pierre Nourry, following his plans, the construction of a new church was begun in 1787. The first stone is laid on August 19, 1787 but construction was Interrupted during the French Revolution and the exile of Abbot Nourry, work resumed in 1801. Pierre Nourry is buried there at his death in 18043. New bells are melted for the church and received in 1807; the bell tower is built between 1824 and 1857. The church - with the sacristy, the furniture, integrated and the placier - is registered as a historic monument by order of February 23, 2016; the Cross of Tenuel is located at a place called "Treuliec" in Bignan in Morbihan in the center of the town of Bignan. The cross is of seventeenth century origin, rebuilt in 1897 and the cross has a medallion with four leaves representing the crucifixion on the front and a pietà verso; the plinth is carved. The cross is the subject of an inscription as a historical monument since April 5, 1935; the cross of the village of Bignan is located near the south transept of the church.
The cross has been registered as a historical monument since March 29, 1935. The basement is an altar, accessed by two steps, it is surmounted by a patted cross. The fountain has been listed as a historic monument since October 18, 1944; the niche is surmounted by a shell. Access to the pool is via two steps. Château de Kerguéhennec, nicknamed the Versailles of Breton, is an 18th century castle located in Bignan. Today it houses a cultural meeting center; this castle has been classified and registered as a historical monument since October 1988. The Allée couverte de Kergonfalz is a stone structure near the town; the building is located at the crossroads of the Moustoir-Ac road and the road to the hamlet of Kergonfalz. It is located 470 m as the crow flies to the north of the latter and 200 m southwest of the hamlet of Kergal1. About 50 m to the west, on the other side of the Moustoir-Ac road, stands the Kergonfalz dolmen; the covered alley dates from the Neolithic, around 3000 to 2700 BC. The building is classified as historical monuments by order of January 10, 1970 In 2008, 17.36% of primary-school children attended bilingual schools.
Communes of the Morbihan department Henri Gouzien, sculptor of Bignan War Memorial INSEE statistics Mayors of Morbihan Association French Ministry of Culture list for Bignan Map of Bignan on Michelin
Holden Commodore (VK)
The Holden Commodore is a mid-size car, produced by the Australian manufacturer Holden from 1984 to 1986. It was the fourth iteration of the first generation of the Holden Commodore and introduced the luxury variant, Holden Calais sedan; the VK series was in production between February 1984 and February 1986 and was the first Commodore to have plastic bumpers and introduced rear quarter windows for a six-window design as opposed to the four-window design on previous Commodore models. Apart from the bumpers and "glasshouse", other changes for the VK Commodore included a front grille redesign and revamped dashboard instrumentation that included a full digital arrangement for the new luxury version, the Calais; the exterior of the VK Commodore was updated with a more modern and aggressive appearance. This included a new grille design different from previous models, with three bold strips rather than a metallic grille, the now plastic front and rear bumpers/skirts replacing the obsolete metal guards, a new rear tail light assembly, whereby they now spread from one side to another with a black panel in between.
This all added up to a sharper look for the 1980s. Changes were made to the interior whereupon the panel of instruments were now square-shaped rather than the more conventional circular layout. In total, 135,705 VK Commodores were built; the VK range introduced new names for the specification levels, with Executive now a stand-alone nameplate alongside the base model SL. The Commodore Executive was a Commodore SL appointed with automatic transmission and power steering, was aimed at capturing the fleet market, a market that Holden had lost its share in when the smaller bodied Commodore replaced the Kingswood. Introduced was the Commodore Berlina and the Holden Calais; the station wagon body style was available in SL, Executive or Berlina variants only, however the limited edition Vacationer name plate was continued over for a period from the VH Commodore. Other variants produced were the Commodore SS sedan which featured its own specification – courtesy of HDT – high-performance 4.9-litre V8, the limited edition – available only through affiliated HDT Holden dealers – LM 5000, SS Group 3, SS Group A and Calais Director sedans.
Engine choices were two versions of a 5.0-litre Holden V8 engine and two versions of a 3.3-litre Black straight-six engine, the latter of, now available with either a carburettor or fuel injection. The 3.3 EST carburettor engine was standard equipment for most VK Commodores, with the 3.3 EFI injection engine nominated as standard equipment for the Calais sedan. The EFI engine was not available in the station wagon, as the fuel injected model's electric fuel pump is located in the fuel tank; the reengineering of the wagon specific fuel tank was not finished in time for the VK's release, requiring around another eight months. The 2.85-litre six-cylinder and the 4.2-litre V8, mainstays of the previous Commodore ranges were dropped, hence unavailable to the VK. However, Holden's 1.9-litre Starfire inline-four unit was offered on New Zealand market VK models. The VK was assembled by General Motors New Zealand at their Trentham assembly plant, near Wellington. New Zealand VKs were similar, but had slight differences to their Australian sold counterparts, notably smoke-tinted taillights, the lack of emissions gear, that a Holden Starfire powered 4-cylinder model was available, utilizing 13-inch wheels which had a smaller wheel stud pattern.
The 4-cylinder was considered an economic car. It was however remarkably successful unlike Australia. Positioned below the Calais, an upmarket model badged Commodore Royale was sold in New Zealand, available with both four- and six-cylinder engines; the luxury options included with this was air conditioning, electric windows, electric mirrors and a five-speed manual transmission. Towards the end of VK production in New Zealand, a limited run of 120 "GTS" sedans were produced. All featuring identical specs of 3.3 EFI engine, "Midnight Blue" paint with silver bumpers, 15-inch alloy wheels as per Royale/Calais, a unique "Cerulean Blue" interior with same cloth as VK SS Group A, black rubber boot spoiler, black Momo steering wheel, GTS badging, red pinstripe. These cars may have been fitted with FE2 suspension; the Commodore SS Group A was modified by Holden's official performance tuner the Holden Dealer Team. The SS Group A existed as a homologation special, created so a racing optimised version of the Commodore could be utilised for Group A touring car motor racing.
The regulations set down by the international governing body FISA for Group A motor racing specified that a minimum of 500 cars were to be built to a certain specification prior to said vehicle being allowed to compete. Group A regulations governed many touring car series at the 1980s and 1990s including series in Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, Italy and the European Touring Car Championship as well as the one-off 1987 World Touring Car Championship as well as significant races like the Bathurst 1000, Spa 24 Hours and the RAC Tourist Trophy; the SS Group A model run ran from 1985 until 1992. T
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The Nürburgring is a 150,000 person capacity motorsports complex located in the town of Nürburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It features a Grand Prix race track built in 1984, a much longer Nordschleife "North loop" track, built in the 1920s around the village and medieval castle of Nürburg in the Eifel mountains; the north loop is 20.8 km long and has more than 300 metres of elevation change from its lowest to highest points. Jackie Stewart nicknamed the old track "The Green Hell"; the track featured four configurations: the 28.265 km -long Gesamtstrecke, which in turn consisted of the 22.810 km Nordschleife, the 7.747 km Südschleife. There was a 2.281 km warm-up loop called Zielschleife or Betonschleife, around the pit area. Between 1982 and 1983 the start/finish area was demolished to create a new GP-Strecke, this is used for all major and international racing events. However, the shortened Nordschleife is still in use for racing and public access. In the early 1920s, ADAC Eifelrennen races were held on public roads in the Eifel mountains.
This was soon recognised as dangerous. The construction of a dedicated race track was proposed, following the examples of Italy's Monza and Targa Florio courses, Berlin's AVUS, yet with a different character; the layout of the circuit in the mountains was similar to the Targa Florio event, one of the most important motor races at that time. The original Nürburgring was to be a showcase for racing talent. Construction of the track, designed by the Eichler Architekturbüro from Ravensburg, began in September 1925; the track was completed in spring of 1927, the ADAC Eifelrennen races were continued there. The first races to take place on 18 June 1927 showed sidecars; the first motorcycle race was won by Toni Ulmen on an English 350 cc Velocette. The cars followed a day and Rudolf Caracciola was the winner of the over 5000 cc class in a Mercedes-Benz Compressor. In addition, the track was opened to the public in the evenings and on weekends, as a one-way toll road; the whole track consisted of 174 bends, averaged 8 to 9 metres in width.
The fastest time around the full Gesamtstrecke was by Louis Chiron, at an average speed of 112.31 km/h in his Bugatti. In 1929 the full Nürburgring was used for the last time in major racing events, as future Grands Prix would be held only on the Nordschleife. Motorcycles and minor races used the shorter and safer Südschleife. Memorable pre-war races at the circuit featured the talents of early Ringmeister such as Rudolf Caracciola, Tazio Nuvolari and Bernd Rosemeyer. After World War II, racing resumed in 1947 and in 1951, the Nordschleife of the Nürburgring again became the main venue for the German Grand Prix as part of the Formula One World Championship. A new group of Ringmeister arose to dominate the race – Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Stirling Moss, Jim Clark, John Surtees, Jackie Stewart and Jacky Ickx. On 5 August 1961, during practice for the 1961 German Grand Prix, Phil Hill became the first person to complete a lap of the Nordschleife in under 9 minutes, with a lap of 8 minutes 55.2 seconds in the Ferrari 156 "Sharknose" Formula One car.
Over half a century even the highest performing road cars still have difficulty breaking 8 minutes without a professional race driver or one familiar with the track. Several rounds of the German motorcycle Grand Prix were held on the 7.7 km Südschleife, but the Hockenheimring and the Solitudering were the main sites for Grand Prix motorcycle racing. In 1953, the ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring race was introduced, an Endurance race and Sports car racing event that counted towards the World Sportscar Championship for decades; the 24 Hours Nürburgring for touring car racing was added in 1970. By the late 1960s, the Nordschleife and many other tracks were becoming dangerous for the latest generation of F1 cars. In 1967, a chicane was added before the start/finish straight, called Hohenrain, in order to reduce speeds at the pit lane entry; this made the track 25 m longer. This change, was not enough to keep Stewart from nicknaming it "The Green Hell" following his victory in the 1968 German Grand Prix amid a driving rainstorm and thick fog.
In 1970, after the fatal crash of Piers Courage at Zandvoort, the F1 drivers decided at the French Grand Prix to boycott the Nürburgring unless major changes were made, as they did at Spa the year before. The changes were not possible on short notice, the German GP was moved to the Hockenheimring, modified. In accordance with the demands of the F1 drivers, the Nordschleife was reconstructed by taking out some bumps, smoothing out some sudden jumps, installing Armco safety barriers; the track was made straighter, following the race line. The German GP could be hosted at the Nürburgring again, was for another six years from 1971 to 1976. In 1973 the entrance into the dangerous and bumpy Kallenhard corner was made slower by adding another left-hand corner after the fast Metzgesfeld sweeping corner. Safety was improved again on, e.g. by removing the jumps on the long main straight and widening it, taking away the bushes right next to the track at the main straight, which had made that section of the Nürburgring dangerously narrow.
A second series of three more F1 races was held until 1976. Howe
The NSU Prinz is an automobile, produced in West Germany by the NSU Motorenwerke AG from 1958 to 1973. The first post-war NSU car, the Prinz I, was launched at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 1957 accompanied by the advertising slogan "Fahre Prinz und Du bist König". After a pilot run of 150 preproduction cars, volume production began in March 1958; the Prinz I was available as a 2-door saloon featuring an upright roof line and seating for four people. The doors opened wide enough to permit reasonable access to the rear seats, although leg room was restricted if attempting to accommodate four full sized adults. In addition to a luggage compartment accessed via a hatch at the front of the car and shared with the spare wheel and fuel filler, there was a narrow but deep full width space behind the rear seat sufficient to accommodate a holiday suitcase; the noisy two-cylinder 600 cc 20 PS engine was located at the back where it drove the rear wheels via a "crash" gearbox. Versions gained a four-speed all-synchromesh gearbox.
Contemporaries were impressed by the brevity of the maintenance schedule, with the engine, gear box and final drive operating as a single chamber and all lubricated by means of oil, added through a filler in the rocker box cover. There were just two grease nipples requiring attention, positioned on the steering kingpins; the engine was commended in contemporary reports for its fuel economy and longevity. Although noisy, the engine offered impressive flexibility, recalling NSU's strengths as a motorcycle manufacturer; the Prinz II was released in 1959 with an all-synchromesh gearbox. A 30E export version was equipped with a 30 hp engine; the Prinz III was launched in October 1960 featuring the 30 hp motor. NSU received government approval to build the Prinz in Brazil in the late 1950s, but nothing came of the project; the Sport Prinz was a 2-seater sports coupe variant. It was designed by Franco Scaglione at Bertone studios in Turin. 20,831 were manufactured between 1958 and 1968. The first 250 bodies were built by Bertone in Turin.
The rest were built in Neckarsulm at a company called Drautz, bought by NSU. The Sport Prinz was powered by the 583 cc Prinz 50 straight-2 engine but a maximum speed of 160 km/h was claimed. From late 1962 a 598 cc engine was fitted; the NSU Spider was a Wankel rotary powered 2-seater roadster based on the Sport Prinz platform. One of the revelations of the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 1961, the Prinz 4 replaced the original Prinz, its new body resembled the fashionable Chevrolet Corvair, but was of course much smaller. Like the original Prinz, it was powered by a two-cylinder air-cooled engine in the rear; the Prinz 4 continued to be a well-engineered car, like its predecessors. The engine carried on the tradition of eccentric rod driven camshaft inherited from NSU motorcycle engines and had a dynastart built into the crankcase. Four-cylinder engines adopted the more conventional separate starter motor and alternator. In 1968, Britain's Autocar road tested a Super Prinz, they had tested a Prinz 4 in 1962, in commenting on how little the car had changed in the intervening six years quipped some of their road testers appeared to have gained more weight than the commendably light-weight Prinz in that period.
The test car accelerated to 97 km/h in 35.7 seconds. The home grown Mini 850 reached 97 km/h in 29.5 seconds in an equivalent recent test and managed to beat the NSU's top speed, albeit only by about 3%. At this time, the UK car market was protected by tariffs, the Prinz's UK manufacturer's recommended retail price was £597, more than the £561 asked for the 850 cc Mini, but not out of touch with it; the testers concluded their report that the car was competitively priced in its class and performed adequately. They opined, cautiously, it offered'no more than the rest' but neither did it'lack anything important'; the NSU Prinz evolved into the somewhat larger bodied NSU Prinz 1000, introduced at the 1963 Frankfurt Motor Show. A sporting NSU 1000 TT appeared, developed into the NSU TT and NSU TTS models. All had the same body with inline-four air-cooled OHC engines and were driven as sports cars, but as economical family cars as well; the engines were lively, reliable. Paired with the low total weight, excellent handling and cornering, both the NSU 1000 and the much higher powered NSU 1200 TT/TTS outperformed many sportscars.
The Prinz 1000 lost the "Prinz" part of the name in January 1967, becoming the NSU 1000 or 1000 C depending on the equipment. It has 40 PS DIN, while the 1200 TT has 65 PS DIN and the most potent TTS version has 70 PS DIN from only one litre; the 1000 received large oval headlights, while the sportier TT versions have twin round headlights mounted within the same frame. The first 1000 TT has 55 PS DIN and uses the engine first introduced in the larger NSU Typ 110; the NSU Prinz 1000 TT was built in 14,292 examples between 1965 and 1967, when it was replaced by the bigger engined TT. This, with a 1.2-liter engine, was built until July 1972 for a total of 49,327 examples. The TT can be recognized by its broad black stripe between its headlights; the TTS was built for competition, being successful in both hillclimbs and circuit racing. It has a front-mounted oil cooler and was built in 2,402 examples from February 196