Space Shuttle Challenger was the second orbiter of NASA's Space Shuttle program to be put into service, after Columbia. Challenger was built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, in Downey, California, its maiden flight, STS-6, began on April 4, 1983. The orbiter was launched and landed nine times before breaking apart 73 seconds into its tenth mission, STS-51-L, on January 28, 1986, resulting in the deaths of all seven crew members including a civilian school teacher. Challenger was the first of two orbiters that were destroyed in flight, the other being Columbia in 2003; the accident led to a two-and-a-half-year grounding of the shuttle fleet. Challenger was replaced by Endeavour, built from structural spares ordered by NASA in the construction contracts for Discovery and Atlantis. Challenger was named after HMS Challenger, a British corvette, the command ship for the Challenger Expedition, a pioneering global marine research expedition undertaken from 1872 through 1876.
The Apollo 17 Lunar Module, which landed on the Moon in 1972, was named Challenger. Because of the low production volume of orbiters, the Space Shuttle program decided to build a vehicle as a Structural Test Article, STA-099, that could be converted to a flight vehicle; the contract for STA-099 was awarded to North American Rockwell on July 26, 1972, construction was completed in February 1978. After STA-099's rollout, it was sent to a Lockheed test site in Palmdale, where it spent over 11 months in vibration tests designed to simulate entire shuttle flights, from launch to landing. To prevent damage during structural testing, qualification tests were performed to a safety factor of 1.2 times the design limit loads. The qualification tests were used to validate computational models, compliance with the required 1.4 factor of safety was shown by analysis. STA-099 was a complete airframe of a Space Shuttle orbiter, with only a mockup crew module installed and thermal insulation placed on its forward fuselage.
NASA planned to refit the prototype orbiter Enterprise, used for flight testing, as the second operational orbiter. Modifying it for spaceflight was considered to be too difficult and time-consuming. Since STA-099 was not as far along in the construction of its airframe, it would be easier to upgrade to a flight article; because STA-099's qualification testing prevented damage, NASA found that rebuilding STA-099 as a flight worthy orbiter would be less expensive than refitting Enterprise. Work on converting STA-099 to operational status began in January 1979, starting with the crew module, as the rest of the vehicle was still being used for testing by Lockheed. STA-099 returned to the Rockwell plant in November 1979, the original, unfinished crew module was replaced with the newly constructed model. Major parts of STA-099, including the payload bay doors, body flap and vertical stabilizer had to be returned to their individual subcontractors for rework. By early 1981, most of these components had returned to Palmdale to be reinstalled.
Work continued on the conversion until July 1982. Challenger, as did the orbiters built after it, had fewer tiles in its Thermal Protection System than Columbia, though it still made heavier use of the white LRSI tiles on the cabin and main fuselage than did the orbiters. Most of the tiles on the payload bay doors, upper wing surfaces, rear fuselage surfaces were replaced with DuPont white Nomex felt insulation; these modifications and an overall lighter structure allowed Challenger to carry 2,500 lb more payload than Columbia. Challenger's fuselage and wings were stronger than Columbia's despite being lighter; the hatch and vertical-stabilizer tile patterns were different from those of the other orbiters. Challenger was the first orbiter to have a head-up display system for use in the descent phase of a mission, the first to feature Phase I main engines rated for 104% maximum thrust. After its first flight in April 1983, Challenger flew on 85% of all Space Shuttle missions; when the orbiters Discovery and Atlantis joined the fleet, Challenger flew three missions a year from 1983 to 1985.
Challenger, along with Discovery, was modified at Kennedy Space Center to be able to carry the Centaur-G upper stage in its payload bay. If flight STS-51-L had been successful, Challenger's next mission would have been the deployment of the Ulysses probe with the Centaur to study the polar regions of the Sun. Challenger flew the first American woman, African-American and Canadian into space. Challenger was the first space shuttle to be destroyed in an accident during a mission; the collected debris of the vessel is buried in decommissioned missile silos at Launch Complex 31, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. A section of the fuselage recovered from Space Shuttle Challenger can be found at the "Forever Remembered" memorial at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. From time to time, further pieces of debris from the orbiter wash up on the Florida coast; when this happens, they are transported to the silos for storage. Because of its early loss, Challenger was the only space shuttle that never wore the NASA "meatball" logo, was never modified with the MEDS "glass cockpit".
The tail was never fitted with a d
The annual Premios MTV Latinoamérica 2006 took place on October 19, 2006 in Mexico City at Palacio de los Deportes for the first time. They were the first MTV awards celebrated in Latin America and the ceremony returned in style after last year's awards were cancelled due to Hurricane Wilma approaching to the Riviera Maya and all of the presenters for the 2006 ceremony apologized to viewers during the broadcast for such. Winners in bold. Belanova Daddy Yankee Gustavo Cerati Julieta Venegas La Oreja de Van Gogh Calle 13 — "Atrévete-te-te" Gustavo Cerati — "Crimen" Julieta Venegas — "Me Voy" Maná — "Labios Compartidos" Miranda! — "El Profe" James Blunt — "You're Beautiful" Julieta Venegas — "Me Voy" Madonna — "Hung Up" Maná — "Labios Compartidos" Shakira — "Hips Don't Lie" Daddy Yankee Diego Torres Gustavo Cerati Julieta Venegas Tiziano Ferro Belanova La Oreja de Van Gogh Maná Miranda! Panda Belanova Diego Torres Julieta Venegas Kudai La Oreja de Van Gogh Babasónicos Bersuit Vergarabat Fobia Gustavo Cerati Maná Calle 13 División Minúscula El Otro Yo Panda Zoé Charlie 3 Chucknorris Dani Umpi Doctor Krápula Finde SubdivisiónNo public voting Ashlee Simpson Kelly Clarkson Madonna Nelly Furtado Robbie Williams AFI Coldplay My Chemical Romance Placebo Red Hot Chili Peppers Arctic Monkeys Fall Out Boy James Blunt Pussycat Dolls Rihanna Allison Belanova Julieta Venegas Maná Motel Allison Chetes Diego Motel Nikki Clan Andrea Echeverri Juanes Kudai La Pestilencia Líbido Doctor Krápula Fonseca Ilona Jeremías Maía Airbag Árbol Babasónicos Diego Torres Gustavo Cerati Axel Entre Ríos Flor Migue García Nerd Kids Daddy Yankee Don Omar Luis Fonsi Kumbia Kings Ricky Martin Allison Motel Kudai Panda Zoé Axel Calle 13 División Minúscula Fonseca Jesse & Joy Maná Shakira — "No" Julieta Venegas and Daddy Yankee — "Me Voy" / "¿A Dónde Van los Muertos?" / "Eres para Mí" Evanescence — "Call Me When You're Sober" and "Bring Me to Life" Belanova — "Por Ti" Miranda!
— "El Profe" Maná — "Labios Compartidos" Robbie Williams — "Rudebox" and "Rock DJ" Calle 13 and Nelly Furtado — "Atrévete-te-te" / "Maneater" / "No Hay Igual" Panda — "Narcicista por Excelencia" Allison and Belinda — "Frágil" / "Ni Freud, Ni Tu Mamá" / "Hips Don't Lie" Adrián Dárgelos, Manolo Cardona and Calle 13 — presented Best Group or Duet Roberto Pettinato — performed a comedy routine and introduced Evanescence Álex Ubago, Imanol Landeta and Axel — presented Best Pop Artist Diego Luna — presented Song of the Year Fall Out Boy — introduced Calle 13 Reik — introduced Belanova Johnny Knoxville, Chris Pontius and Blue Demon Jr. — presented Best Solo Artist Belinda and Kudai — introduced Robbie Williams Carolina "Pampita" Ardohain and Benjamín Vicuña — introduced Miranda! Sofía Zámolo, Naty Botero and Camila Sodi — presented Best Pop Artist—International Shakira — introduced Maná and presented them the MTV Legend Award Nelly Furtado and Sizu Yantra — presented Artist of the Year Julieta Venegas forgot the lyrics to her own song "Me Voy" and had to be helped by Kinky's lead singer.
While Robbie Williams was performing "Rudebox" his drummer lost a drumstick but he recovered it. Robbie Williams kissed some women from it. Robbie Williams, after winning a Lengua, screamed "I would like to put this on your clitoris"
Tzruya "Suki" Lahav is an Israeli violinist, actress, lyricist and novelist. Lahav was a member of Bruce Springsteen's E Street Band from September 1974 to March 1975 returned to Israel and found success there. Tzruya Lahav was born and raised in Kibbutz Ayelet HaShahar in the Upper Galilee in Israel, where she played kibbutz harvest music as well as classical music, growing up. Following her service in the Israeli military, she arrived in the United States in 1971 with her husband Louis Lahav, a recording engineer who in 1972 began working with Springsteen, who in turn was looking for a violinist. On record with Springsteen, most of Suki Lahav's parts did not make it to released form, but she sang the choir-like vocals on "4th of July, Asbury Park" from the album The Wild, The Innocent and The E Street Shuffle and played violin on "Jungleland" from the Born to Run album. In concert, Lahav's violin were a focal point of slow songs during Springsteen's shows of this time, her "pale" "willowy" presence on stage contrasted with Springsteen's.
During their time in the US, a daughter, Tal was born. She was killed in a road accident at the age of three and a half, they returned to Israel in the spring of 1975. The couple divorced in 1977. Lahav, now known by her Hebrew name Tzruya, established a family with Moshe Albalek in Jerusalem. By 1985, she had little involvement in the music industry, she began working as a violinist and violist, appearing with the Israeli Kibbutz Orchestra, as an actress. She became a successful lyricist, writing for prominent singers in Israel, she recast existing song lyrics from other languages into Hebrew, such as the Leonard Cohen song "Famous Blue Raincoat" in 1993. In 1999, she wrote the lyrics for the multi-ethnic collaborative, Glykeria's recording "Tfilat Ha'imahot", which featured Amal Murkus and Yehudit Tamir. In 2003, the album No Longer the Sea: A Collection Of Tzruya Lahav's Songs was released, featuring performances by Rita, Yehudit Ravitz, Meir Banai, Yehuda Poliker, others, her songs have been performed by Israeli artists Gidi Gov, Rami Kleinstein, Ricky Gal.
In 2004, a show of her songs was produced in Tel Aviv. Lahav authored screenplays, including the 1996 Israeli crime film Kesher Dam, two novels: Andre’s Wooden Clogs, based on the true-life story of a boy's survival of The Holocaust in the Netherlands, The Swamp Queen Does The Tango, an adult fairy tale. Both books won numerous awards and prizes for literature, including the Yad Vashem Prize and the Minister of Culture's prize for first work, she teaches creative writing in Jerusalem, where she lives in the German Colony neighborhood. Steven Allan, Interview with Suki Lahav. Backstreets magazine, December 1985. Cross, Charles R. Backstreets: Springsteen - The Man and His Music. Harmony Books, 1989/1992. ISBN 0-517-58929-X. Graff, Gary; the Ties That Bind: Bruce Springsteen A to E to Z. Visible Ink Press, 2005. ISBN 1-578-59157-0. Tzruya Lahav on IMDb Short biography Another short biography