Space Shuttle Endeavour is a retired orbiter from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the fifth and final operational Shuttle built. It embarked on its first mission, STS-49, in May 1992 and its 25th and final mission, STS-134, in May 2011. STS-134 was expected to be the final mission of the Space Shuttle program, but with the authorization of STS-135, Atlantis became the last shuttle to fly; the United States Congress approved the construction of Endeavour in 1987 to replace Challenger, destroyed in 1986. Structural spares built during the construction of Discovery and Atlantis were used in its assembly. NASA chose, on cost grounds. Following the loss of Challenger, in 1987 NASA was authorized to begin the procurement process for a replacement orbiter. Again, a major refit of the prototype orbiter Enterprise was looked at and rejected on cost grounds, with instead the cache of structural spares that were produced as part of the construction of Discovery and Atlantis earmarked for assembly into the new orbiter.
Assembly was completed in July 1990, the new orbiter was rolled out in April 1991. As part of the process, NASA ran a national competition for schools to name the new orbiter - the criteria included a requirement that it be named after an exploratory or research vessel, with a name "easily understood in the context of space". Amongst the entries, Endeavour was suggested by one-third of the participating schools, with President Bush selecting it on the advice of the NASA Administrator, Richard Truly; the national winners were Senatobia Middle School in Senatobia, Mississippi, in the elementary division and Tallulah Falls School in Tallulah Falls, Georgia, in the upper school division. They were honored at several ceremonies in Washington, D. C. including a White House ceremony where President Bush presented awards to each school. Endeavour was delivered by Rockwell International Space Transportation Systems Division in May 1991 and first launched a year in May 1992, on STS-49. Rockwell International claimed that it had made no profit on Space Shuttle Endeavour, despite construction costing US$2.2 billion.
The orbiter is named after the British HMS Endeavour, the ship which took Captain James Cook on his first voyage of discovery. This is; this has caused confusion, including when NASA itself misspelled a sign on the launch pad in 2007. The Space Shuttle carried a piece of the original wood from Cook's ship inside the cockpit; the name honored Endeavour, the command module of Apollo 15, named for Cook's ship. On its first mission, it redeployed the stranded INTELSAT VI communications satellite; the first African-American woman astronaut, Mae Jemison, was launched into space on the mission STS-47 on September 12, 1992. Endeavour flew the first servicing mission STS-61 for the Hubble Space Telescope in 1993. In 1997 it was withdrawn from service for eight months for a retrofit, including installation of a new airlock. In December 1998, it delivered the Unity Module to the International Space Station. Endeavour's last Orbiter Major Modification period began in December 2003 and ended on October 6, 2005.
During this time, Endeavour received major hardware upgrades, including a new, multi-functional, electronic display system referred to as a glass cockpit, an advanced GPS receiver, along with safety upgrades recommended by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board for the shuttle's return to flight following the loss of Columbia during reentry on 1 February 2003. The STS-118 mission, Endeavour's first since the refit, included astronaut Barbara Morgan assigned to the Teacher in Space project, a member of the Astronaut Corps from 1998 to 2008, as part of the crew. Morgan was the backup for Christa McAuliffe, on the ill-fated mission STS-51-L in 1986; as it was constructed than its elder sisters, Endeavour was built with new hardware designed to improve and expand orbiter capabilities. Most of this equipment was incorporated into the other three orbiters during out-of-service major inspection and modification programs."Endeavour's upgrades include: A 40-foot diameter drag chute that reduced the orbiter's landing roll-out distance from 3,000 feet to 2,000 feet.
The plumbing and electrical connections needed for Extended Duration Orbiter modifications to allow up to a 28-day mission. Updated avionics systems that included advanced general purpose computers, improved inertial measurement units and tactical air navigation systems, enhanced master events controllers and multiplexer-demultiplexers, a solid-state star tracker and improved nose wheel steering mechanisms. An improved version of the Auxiliary Power Units that provided power to operate the Shuttle's hydraulic systems. Modifications resulting from a 2005–2006 refit of Endeavour included: The Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System, which converted 8 kilowatts of DC power from the ISS main voltage of 120VDC to the orbiter bus voltage of 28VDC; this upgrade allowed Endeavour to remain on-orbit while docked at ISS for an additional 3- to 4-day duration. The corresponding power equipment was added to the ISS during the STS-116 station assembly mission, Endeavour flew with SSPTS capability during STS-118.
Endeavour flew its final mission, STS-134, to the International Space St
Jérôme de Bontin is a Franco-American businessman and football administrator. Jérôme de Bontin was born on September 1957 in Paris, France, he graduated with a B. A. in Economics from Amherst College in Massachusetts, where he attended at the same time as Albert II, Prince of Monaco. De Bontin started a career in finance with Drexel Burnham Lambert in futures and derivates, he spent seven years with DBL from 1981 to 1988. He was managing director of Rodman and Renshaw from 1988 to 1993, he joined Credit Agricole Future and became CEO and President of Credit Agricole, a position he kept until 1997. He founded Sustainability Investments L. L. C. and Mékar Financial Services, both companies based in Northbrook, Illinois. After his ventures in the financial sector, de Bontin pursued roles in soccer administration. In addition to holding coaching and referee licenses in the United States, he sits on the board of trustees for the United States Soccer Foundation. In June 2002, de Bontin was named director of Ligue 1 side AS Monaco FC.
In April 2008, he was promoted to interim president of the club after the resignation of Michel Pastor. He became the first non-Monégasque President of the club. In March 2009, he was replaced by Étienne Franzi. In October 2012, de Bontin was appointed General Manager of Major League Soccer side New York Red Bulls, following the departure of Erik Solér, he resigned in April 2014. His nickname is FSM, believed to translate to "French Scoring Machine", or "French Silly Man"
At the Gates is a 4X strategy video game by Jon Shafer, the lead designer of Civilization V. Like Civilization V, the game is played on a hex map. Players control a barbarian tribe, their aim is to accelerate the fall of the Western Roman Empire; the map changes with the seasons, resources are depleted, forcing the players to migrate their tribe. Shafer's team at Conifer Games comprises only three members, all unpaid, with only Shafer being full time on the project; the game was part-funded through a Kickstarter crowdfunding campaign, raising $106,283 towards its development in March 2013. Scheduled for release in June 2014, the game was still unfinished as Shafer began working for Paradox Interactive full-time in May 2017, with development continuing in Shafer's spare time. After seven years of development, At the Gates was released on January 23, 2019. Official website