Space Shuttle Enterprise was the first orbiter of the Space Shuttle system. Rolled out on September 17, 1976, it was built for NASA as part of the Space Shuttle program to perform atmospheric test flights after being launched from a modified Boeing 747, it was constructed without a functional heat shield. As a result, it was not capable of spaceflight. Enterprise had been intended to be refitted for orbital flight to become the second space-rated orbiter in service. However, during the construction of Space Shuttle Columbia, details of the final design changed, making it simpler and less costly to build Challenger around a body frame, built as a test article. Enterprise was considered for refit to replace Challenger after the latter was destroyed, but Endeavour was built from structural spares instead. Enterprise was restored and placed on display in 2003 at the Smithsonian's new Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Virginia. Following the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet, Discovery replaced Enterprise at the Udvar-Hazy Center, Enterprise was transferred to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York City, where it has been on display since July 2012.
The design of Enterprise was not the same as that planned for the first flight model. A large number of subsystems—ranging from main engines to radar equipment—were not installed on Enterprise, but the capacity to add them in the future was retained, as NASA intended to refit the orbiter for spaceflight at the conclusion of its testing. Instead of a thermal protection system, its surface was covered with simulated tiles made from polyurethane foam. Fiberglass was used for the leading edge panels in place of the reinforced carbon–carbon ones of spaceflight-worthy orbiters. Only a few sample thermal tiles and some Nomex blankets were real. Enterprise used fuel cells to generate its electrical power, but these were not sufficient to power the orbiter for spaceflight. Enterprise lacked reaction control system thrusters and hydraulic mechanisms for the landing gear; as it was only used for atmospheric testing, Enterprise featured a large nose probe mounted on its nose cap, common on test aircraft because the location provides the most accurate readings for the test instruments, being mounted out in front of the disturbed airflow.
Enterprise was equipped with Lockheed-manufactured zero-zero ejection seats like those its sister Columbia carried on its first four missions. Construction began on Enterprise on June 4, 1974. Designated OV-101, it was planned to be named Constitution and unveiled on Constitution Day, September 17, 1976. Fans of Star Trek asked US President Gerald Ford, through a letter-writing campaign, to name the orbiter after the television show's fictional starship, USS Enterprise. White House advisors cited "hundreds of thousands of letters" from Trekkies, "one of the most dedicated constituencies in the country", as a reason for giving the shuttle the name. Although Ford did not publicly mention the campaign, the president said that he was "partial to the name" Enterprise, directed NASA officials to change the name. In mid-1976 the orbiter was used for ground vibration tests, allowing engineers to compare data from an actual flight vehicle with theoretical models. On September 17, 1976, Enterprise was rolled out of Rockwell's plant at California.
In recognition of its fictional namesake, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry and most of the principal cast of the original series of Star Trek were on hand at the dedication ceremony. On January 31, 1977, Enterprise was taken by road to Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base to begin operational testing. While at NASA Dryden Enterprise was used by NASA for a variety of ground and flight tests intended to validate aspects of the shuttle program; the initial nine-month testing period was referred to by the acronym ALT, for "Approach and Landing Test". These tests included a maiden "flight" on February 18, 1977, atop a Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft to measure structural loads and ground handling and braking characteristics of the mated system. Ground tests of all orbiter subsystems were carried out to verify functionality prior to atmospheric flight; the mated Enterprise/SCA combination was subjected to five test flights with Enterprise uncrewed and unactivated. The purpose of these test flights was to measure the flight characteristics of the mated combination.
These tests were followed with three test flights with Enterprise crewed to test the shuttle flight control systems. On August 12, 1977, Enterprise flew on its own for the first time. Enterprise underwent four more free flights where the craft separated from the SCA and was landed under astronaut control; these tests verified the flight characteristics of the orbiter design and were carried out under several aerodynamic and weight configurations. The first three flights were flown with a tailcone placed at the end of Enterprise's aft fuselage, which reduced drag and turbulence when mated to the SCA; the final two flights saw the tailcone mockup main engines installed. On the fifth and final glider flight, pilot-induced oscillation problems were revealed, which had to be addressed before the first orbital launch occurred. Following the conclusion of the ALT test flight program, on March 13, 1978, Enterprise was flown once again, but this time halfway across the country to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama for the Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Testing
Wilson v. Libby, 498 F. Supp. 2d 74, affirmed, 535 F.3d 697, was a civil lawsuit filed in the U. S. District Court for the District of Columbia on 13 July, 2006, by Valerie Plame and her husband, former Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, IV, against Richard Armitage for revealing her identity and thus irresponsibly infringing upon her Constitutional rights and against Vice President of the United States Dick Cheney, Lewis Libby, Karl Rove, the unnamed others because the latter, in addition "illegally conspired to reveal her identity." The lawsuit was dismissed. The plaintiffs in the suit are former CIA officer Valerie Plame Wilson and her husband Joseph Wilson; the defendants in the suit are I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby, the Vice President's former Chief of Staff. Unlike their charges against Rove and Libby, "claiming that they had violated her constitutional rights and discredited her by disclosing that she was an undercover CIA operative," the Wilsons sued Armitage "for violating the'Wilsons' constitutional right to privacy, Mrs. Wilson's constitutional right to property, for committing the tort of publication of private facts.'"
United States District Court for the District of Columbia Judge John D. Bates dismissed the Wilsons' lawsuit on jurisdictional grounds on July 19, 2007, stating that the Wilsons had not shown that the case belonged in federal court. Bates ruled that the court lacked jurisdiction over the claim because the couple had not yet exhausted their administrative remedies. Bates noted that "there can be no serious dispute that the act of rebutting public criticism, such as that levied by Mr. Wilson against the Bush administration's handling of prewar foreign intelligence, by speaking with members of the press is within the scope of defendants' duties as high-level Executive Branch officials," if "the alleged means by which defendants chose to rebut Mr. Wilson's comments and attack his credibility" were "highly unsavory". On July 20, 2007, the Wilsons and Melanie Sloan, of Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington, which represents them, announced publicly that they had filed an appeal of the U.
S. District Court's decision to dismiss their lawsuit, heard on May 8, 2008. On August 12, 2008, in a 2–1 decision, the three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit upheld the dismissal. On behalf of the Wilsons, Sloan said that CREW "is considering asking the full D. C. Circuit to review the case and an appeal to the U. S. Supreme Court." Agreeing with the Bush administration, the Obama Justice Department argues the Wilsons have no legitimate grounds to sue. On the current justice department position, stated: "We are disappointed that the Obama administration has failed to recognize the grievous harm top Bush White House officials inflicted on Joe and Valerie Wilson; the government’s position cannot be reconciled with President Obama’s oft-stated commitment to once again make government officials accountable for their actions."On June 21, 2009, the U. S. Supreme Court refused to hear the appeal. CIA leak grand jury investigation CIA leak scandal timeline Plame affair United States v. Libby Text of Wilson v. Libby, 535 F.3d 697 is available from: Google Scholar Leagle "Defendant Vice President of the United States Richard B. Cheney's Motion to Dismiss Plaintiffs' Amended Complaint" in Plame v. Cheney.
In "Documents: Plame/Wilson Civil Case", members.cox.net, November 14, 2006. Accessed June 10, 2008. "Legal Filings". The Joseph and Valerie Wilson Legal Support Trust, wilsonsupport.org. Accessed June 10, 2008. "Special Coverage: Iraq Aftermath" at FindLaw. Accessed May 5, 2007
William Henry Andrews known as Bill Andrews, was the first chairman of the South African Labour Party and the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of South Africa. He was active in the formation of the Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union. Born in Suffolk, England, UK, Andrews joined the Amalgamated Society of Engineers in 1890, he travelled to Johannesburg in holding jobs on gold mines in the West Rand in the 1890s. Prominent as a trade union organiser, he became the official South African organiser of the ASE, the President of the Witwatersrand Trades and Labour Council and the Political Labour League in 1905, the Labour Representation Committee in 1906 and the South African Labour Party in 1909. Andrews was first elected as a Labour MP at the 1912 Georgetown by-election; the South African Labour Party was the first political party that wanted full segregation in South Africa. Andrews served as a Member of Parliament until his defeat at the 1915 election. A fighter for the rights of ″White″ labour, he was always quick to complain when he perceived that an African, referred by him as a ″Kaffir,″ might take away a job from a White man.
In 1915, he was elected as the first President of the International Socialist League, which formed when anti-war socialists split from the SALP. He visited the United Kingdom in 1918, where he was impressed by the British shop stewards' movement. In 1921, he became the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of South Africa, in 1922 the editor of the party's newspaper The International. In 1925, he was elected as the first Secretary of the South African Trades Union Council, he was expelled from the South African Communist Party in a series of purges over the "Black Republic" policy. He was permitted to rejoin at the age of 68 after Solly Sachs, Moses Kotane, Brian Bunting were re-admitted. CPSA Timeline R. K. Cope, Comrade Bill; the Life and Times of W. H. Andrews, Workers' Leader, Cape Town, 1943. Works by or about William H. Andrews in libraries