Rogers Commission Report
The Rogers Commission Report was created by a Presidential Commission charged with investigating the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster during its 10th mission, STS-51-L. The failure of the O-rings was attributed to a design flaw, more broadly, the report determined the contributing causes of the accident. Most salient was the failure of both NASA and its contractor, Morton Thiokol, to respond adequately to the design flaw, the Commission found that as early as 1977, NASA managers had not only known about the flawed O-ring, but that it had the potential for catastrophe. This led the Rogers Commission to conclude that the Challenger disaster was an accident rooted in history, the report strongly criticized the decision making process that led to the launch of Challenger, saying that it was seriously flawed. There was a meeting the night before the launch to discuss any major pressing issues that might delay the launch further, several of the Morton Thiokol engineers stated their concerns about the O-rings and urged the council to delay the launch.
However, because there were no members of the safety council and it is certain that even though higher-ranking members of the council did know about the issues, there were plenty of members that could have stopped the launch but decided not to. This was done in part because of the management structure at NASA. One of the commissions members was theoretical physicist Richard Feynman. His style of investigating with his own direct methods rather than following the schedule put him at odds with Rogers. Feynmans own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASAs engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected and his interviews of NASAs high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts. One such concept was the determination of a safety factor, in one example, early tests resulted in some of the booster rockets O-rings burning a third of the way through. These O-rings provided the gas-tight seal needed between the vertically stacked cylindrical sections that made up the fuel booster. NASA managers recorded this result as demonstrating that the O-rings had a safety factor of 3.
If a 1,000 pound truck drove across the bridge and it cracked at all, even just a third of the way through a beam, the safety factor is now zero, Feynman was disturbed by two aspects of this practice. First, NASA management assigned a probability of failure to each individual bolt, sometimes claiming a probability of 1 in 108, Feynman pointed out that it is impossible to calculate such a remote possibility with any scientific rigor. Secondly, Feynman was bothered not just by this sloppy science, Feynman suspected that the 1/100,000 figure was wildly fantastical, and made a rough estimate that the true likelihood of shuttle disaster was closer to 1 in 100. He decided to poll the engineers themselves, asking them to write down an estimate of the odds of shuttle explosion. Feynman found that the bulk of the engineers estimates fell between 1 in 50 and 1 in 200, not only did this confirm that NASA management had clearly failed to communicate with their own engineers, but the disparity engaged Feynmans emotions
Columbia Accident Investigation Board
The Columbia Accident Investigation Board was convened by NASA to investigate the destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia during STS-107 upon atmospheric re-entry on February 1,2003. The panel recommended changes that should be made to increase the safety of future shuttle flights, the CAIB released its final report on August 26,2003. The board found both the physical cause of the accident and what it called organizational causes. During re-entry into the Earths atmosphere, this damage allowed super-heated gases to enter and it was the seventh known instance of a piece of foam, from this particular area of the external tank, breaking free during launch. The problem of debris shedding from the tank was well known and had caused shuttle damage on every prior shuttle flight. The damage was usually, but not always, over time, management gained confidence that it was an acceptable risk. NASA decided that it did not warrant an extra EVA for visual inspection, feeling that it would be like a car going down a highway, the board made 29 specific recommendations to NASA to improve the safety of future shuttle flights.
Only two further Space Shuttle missions were allowed to be flown before the implementation of these recommendations, after the CAIB report came out, NASA implemented all recommended changes and flew its first post-Columbia mission in 2005. As part of the CAIB recommendations, the Shuttle carried a 50-foot inspection boom attached to the robot arm, NASA retired the Space Shuttle fleet on July 21,2011 after completing the ISS and the final flight and subsequent landing of Atlantis. The Shuttles replacement, was to have consisted of an Apollo-derived spacecraft launched on the Ares I rocket, Orion would not face the dangers of either an O-ring failure or shedding foam. In addition to ferrying crews to the ISS, the Orion spacecraft was to allow NASA to return to the Moon, chairman of the board Admiral Hal Gehman, USN Board members Rear Admiral Stephen Turcotte, Naval Safety Center Maj. General John Barry, Director and Programs, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command Maj. General Kenneth W. Hess, Air Force Safety Center Dr.
James N. Hallock, Aviation Safety Division, U. S. Department of Transportation, Director of Accident Investigation, Federal Aviation Administration Brig
Roberts served as NASA’s first Flight Dynamics Officer with Project Mercury that put the first American into space. Roberts, alternately nicknamed Tec and Tex, was born 10 October 1925 at Trefnant Bach cottage in Llanddaniel Fab, Anglesey and he received his early education at Ysgol Parc y Bont, the small local primary school there. He left the school in 1938 after a successful Scholarship Examination and continued his studies at the Beaumaris Grammar School, from which he graduated in 1942. After serving briefly in the Royal Air Force, Roberts was released in 1944 and resumed work with Saunders-Roe at their Southampton works, from where he was transferred to the Isle of Wight in 1946. At that time, he attended the University of Southampton where he obtained a degree in Aeronautical Engineering in 1948 and was awarded the Institute of Mechanical Engineers Special Award. Whilst working for Saunders-Roe on the Isle of Wight, Roberts met Doris Sprake whom he married, in December 1952, Roberts and his wife left England for Canada to take up a position with the aircraft manufacturing company Avro Canada near Toronto.
From 1952 to 1959, he was a member of the team that developed the CF-105 Arrow. Of its original 37 engineers,27 were from Langley Research Center and 10 had been assigned from Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1959, Gilruths group was expanded by the addition of the engineers from Canada who had been left without jobs when the Avro Arrow project was cancelled. Roberts joined NASA in April 1959, one of a group of 25 engineers and he was involved immediately in formulating the requirements for the tracking and communications network, and the Mercury Mission Control Center to provide the flight control of the missions. In 1960, Roberts became NASAs first Flight Dynamics Officer at the Mercury Control Center, Roberts may have popularized the use of the phrase A-OK, making those three letters a universal symbol meaning in perfect working order. U. S. Air Force Lt. Col. John Shorty Powers popularized the expression while NASAs public affairs officer for Project Mercury, NASAs concept of Mission Control had previously been developed under the leadership of Christopher C.
When Roberts assumed his new position, Glynn Lunney succeeded him as Flight Dynamics Officer, for his accomplishments in that area, Roberts received the NASA Outstanding Achievement Award. On 21 May 1962, Roberts was appointed head of Manned Flight Division at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, at that time and his wife resided in Maryland. Their only child, attended Spalding High School in Severn, in July 1964, Roberts became Technical Assistant to the Deputy Assistant Director of Tracking and Data systems at Goddard Space Flight Center, and chief of the Manned Flight Engineering Division. This put Roberts in charge of NASAs Manned Space Flight Network, in summer 1964, he was honoured by Gilruth with the NASA Special Service Award for his contribution to the manned space flight program in the area of flight operations. The award was primarily for his determining the requirements of the Manned Spaceflight Control Center. Roberts became chief of the Manned Flight Support Division at the Goddard Space Flight Center during the Apollo Program in 1965, to support the Apollo program, Goddard commissioned three 85 ft, antennas that would be equally spaced around the world
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was a U. S. federal agency founded on March 3,1915, to undertake and institutionalize aeronautical research. On October 1,1958, the agency was dissolved, and its assets and personnel transferred to the newly created National Aeronautics, NACA was pronounced as discrete letters, rather than as a whole word. NACA was key in developing the area rule that is used on all modern supersonic aircraft and it was modeled on similar national agencies found in Europe. The most influential agency upon which the NACA was based was the British Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, in December 1912, President William Howard Taft had appointed a National Aerodynamical Laboratory Commission chaired by Robert S. Woodward, president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Legislation was introduced in both houses of Congress early in January 1913 to approve the commission, but when it came to a vote, assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt wrote that he heartily the principle on which the legislation was based.
Walcott suggested the tactic of adding the resolution to the Naval Appropriations Bill, according to one source, The enabling legislation for the NACA slipped through almost unnoticed as a rider attached to the Naval Appropriation Bill, on 3 March 1915. The committee of 12 people, all unpaid, were allocated a budget of $5,000 per year. President Woodrow Wilson signed it into law the day, thus formally creating the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. On January 29,1920, President Wilson appointed pioneering flier, by the early 1920s, it had adopted a new and more ambitious mission, to promote military and civilian aviation through applied research that looked beyond current needs. NACA researchers pursued this mission through the impressive collection of in-house wind tunnels, engine test stands. Commercial and military clients were permitted to use NACA facilities on a contract basis, facilities Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory Ames Aeronautical Laboratory Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory Muroc Flight Test Unit In 1922, NACA had 100 employees.
In addition to assignments, staff were encouraged to pursue unauthorized bootleg research. The result was a string of fundamental breakthroughs, including thin airfoil theory, NACA engine cowl, the NACA airfoil series. The full-size 30-by-60-foot Langley wind tunnel operated at no more than 100 miles per hour and these were speeds Lockheed engineers considered useless for their purposes. Arnold took up the matter and overruled NACA objections to higher air speeds, NACA built a handful of new high-speed wind tunnels, and Mach 0.75 (570 mph was reached at Moffetts 16-foot wind tunnel late in 1942. In the years immediately preceding World War II, NACA was involved in the development of designs that served key roles in the war effort. This enabled the B-17 to be used as a key aircraft in the war effort, the designs and information gained from NACA research on the B-17 were used in nearly every major U. S. military powerplant of the Second World War. Nearly every aircraft used some form of forced induction that relied on information developed by NACA, because of this, U. S.
-produced aircraft had a significant power advantage above 15,000 feet, which was never fully countered by Axis forces
Budget of NASA
As a federal agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration receives its funding from the annual federal budget passed by the United States Congress. The following charts detail the amount of federal funding allotted to NASA each year over its past fifty-year history to operate aeronautics research and manned space exploration programs. Seen in the year-by-year breakdown listed below, the amounts that NASA has been budgeted from 1958 to 2011 amounts to $526.178 billion—an average of $9.928 billion per year. By way of comparison, total spending over this period by the National Science Foundation was roughly one-fifth of NASAs expenditures, $101.5 billion, or $2 billion a year. Notes for table, Sources for a part of data, U. S. Office of Management and Budget, Air Force Associations Air Force Magazine 2007 Space Almanac Secondary references. CS, Year 1959-1968, 1989-1996, NASA Pocket Stats, http, CS, Year 1993-2011, Workforce Information Cubes, https, //wicn. nssc. nasa. gov 8. Contractors,1969, http, //history. nasa. gov/SP-4102/ch5.
htm NASAs budget peaked in 1964-66, the agency was building up to the first moon landing, the Apollo program involved more than 34,000 NASA employees and 375,000 employees of industrial and university contractors. In March 1966, NASA officials told Congress that the 1959-72 run-out cost of the Apollo program would be an estimated $22.718 billion, the total cost turned out to be between $20 and $25.4 billion in 1969 dollars. The costs of the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn rockets came to about $83 billion in 2005 dollars, Apollo spacecraft cost $28 billion, including the Command/Service Module, $17 billion, Lunar Module, $11 billion, and launch vehicles. The discounted rate of return for investment will have been 33 percent. A1992 commentary in the British science journal Nature reported, The economic benefits of NASAs programs are greater than generally realized, the main beneficiaries may not even realize the source of their good fortune. Only a scaled-back Space Shuttle was approved, and NASAs funding leveled off at just under 1% in 1976, after a brief increase to 1. 01% in 1992, it declined to about 0. 49% in 2013.
The American public, on average, believes NASAs budget has a larger share of the federal budget than it actually does. It is estimated that most Americans spent less than $9 on NASA through personal income tax in 2009, there has been a recent movement to communicate discrepancy between perception and reality of NASAs budget as well as lobbying to return the funding back to the 1970-1990 level. The United States Senate Science Committee met in March 2012 where astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson testified that Right now, to help with public perception and to raise awareness regarding the widespread benefits of NASA-funded programs and technologies, NASA instituted the Spinoffs publication. According to the NASA Spinoff about page the technologies in these reports created interest in the technology transfer concept, its successes, the reports generated such keen interest by the public that NASA decided to make them into an attractive publication. Thus, the first four-color edition of Spinoff was published in 1976, in the 2010s conservatives have opposed the earth science aspects of NASA spending.
These opponents are skeptical of climate change and they argue that current spending on earth science, particularly climate research is in pursuit of political agendas
Houston is the most populous city in the state of Texas and the fourth-most populous city in the United States. With a census-estimated 2014 population of 2.239 million within an area of 667 square miles, it is the largest city in the southern United States and the seat of Harris County. Located in Southeast Texas near the Gulf of Mexico, it is the city of Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land. Houston was founded on August 28,1836, near the banks of Buffalo Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5,1837. The city was named after former General Sam Houston, who was president of the Republic of Texas and had commanded, the burgeoning port and railroad industry, combined with oil discovery in 1901, has induced continual surges in the citys population. Houstons economy has an industrial base in energy, aeronautics. Leading in health care sectors and building equipment, Houston has more Fortune 500 headquarters within its city limits than any city except for New York City. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled, the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community.
Houston is the most diverse city in Texas and has described as the most diverse in the United States. It is home to cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has a visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District. In August 1836, two real estate entrepreneurs from New York, Augustus Chapman Allen and John Kirby Allen, purchased 6,642 acres of land along Buffalo Bayou with the intent of founding a city. The Allen brothers decided to name the city after Sam Houston, the general at the Battle of San Jacinto. The great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the slave trade. New Orleans was the center of trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved African Americans lived near the city before the Civil War, many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. Houston was granted incorporation on June 5,1837, with James S.
Holman becoming its first mayor, in the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County and the temporary capital of the Republic of Texas
Langley Research Center
Langley Research Center is the oldest of NASAs field centers, located in Hampton, United States. It directly borders Langley Field and the city of Poquoson, LaRC has focused primarily on aeronautical research, but the Apollo lunar lander was flight-tested at the facility. In addition, a number of the earliest high-profile space missions were planned and designed on-site, established in 1917 by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, in the early 21st century the Center devotes two-thirds of its programs to aeronautics, and the rest to space. LaRC researchers use more than 40 wind tunnels to study improved aircraft and spacecraft safety, between 1958 and 1963, when NASA started Project Mercury, LaRC served as the main office of the Space Task Group. In 1962-1963 this office was transferred to the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, the current director is David E. Bowles. After US-German relations had deteriorated from neutral to hostile around 1916, on February 15,1917, the newly established Aviation Week warned that the U. S.
military aviation capability was less than what was operating in the European war. President Woodrow Wilson sent Hunsaker to Europe to investigate, and Hunsakers report prompted Wilson to command the creation of the nation’s first aeronautics laboratory, in 1917, less than three years after it was created, the NACA established Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory on Langley Field. Both Langley Field and the Langley Laboratory are named for aviation pioneer Samuel Pierpont Langley, the Aviation Section, U. S. Signal Corps had established a base there earlier that same year. The first research facilities were in place and aeronautical research was started by 1920, initially the laboratory included four researchers and 11 technicians. Langley Field and NACA began parallel growth as air power proved its utility during World War I, the center was originally established to explore the field of aerodynamic research involving airframe and propulsion engine design and performance. In 1934 the worlds largest wind tunnel was constructed at Langley Field with a 30 ×60 foot test section and it remained the worlds largest wind tunnel until the 1940s, when a 40 ×80 foot tunnel was built at NASA Ames in California.
Early in 1945, the center expanded to include research, leading to the establishment of a flight station at Wallops Island. A further expansion of the research program permitted Langley Research Center to orbit payloads, as rocket research grew, aeronautics research continued to expand and played an important part when subsonic flight was advanced and supersonic and hypersonic flight were introduced. Langley Research Center can claim many firsts, some of which have proven to be revolutionary scientific breakthroughs. The center developed standards for the grooving of aircraft based on a previous British design used at Washington National Airport. Grooved runways reduce aquaplaning which permits better grip by aircraft tires in heavy rain and this grooving is now the international standard for all runways around the world. Langley Research Center performs critical research on aeronautics, including wake vortex behavior, fixed-wing aircraft, rotary wing aircraft, air safety, human factors, LaRC supported the design and testing of the hypersonic X-43, which achieved a world speed record of Mach 9.6.
LaRC assisted the NTSB in the investigation of the crash of American Airlines Flight 587, work began in July 2011 to remove the 1940s era 16 feet transonic wind tunnel
John A. Powers
John Anthony Powers, better known as Shorty Powers, was an American public affairs officer for NASA from 1959 to 1963 during Project Mercury. A U. S. Air Force lieutenant colonel and war veteran, he was known as the voice of the astronauts, the voice of Mercury Control, and he received his nickname for his 5-foot, 6-inch height. Powers was born August 22,1922, to first generation Welsh immigrant parents in Toledo, Powers fathers last name was actually Power, upon signing the immigration documents, Power became Powers. When Powers was an infant his family moved to Downers Grove, Illinois where he was a cheerleader at Downers Grove North High School, from which he graduated in 1941. After graduation, he enlisted in the U. S. Army Air Corps in 1942 and became a C-46, Powers left the service in January 1947, but was recalled to active duty in December 1948 and flew as part of the Berlin Airlift, making 185 round-trip flights. He volunteered for the Korean War and he flew 55 night missions in B-26 bombers with the 13th Bombardment Squadron and received the Bronze Star Medal, the Air Medal, the Distinguished Flying Cross and a combat promotion to Major.
Following Korea, Powers bounced around the Air Force, helping establish the first Community Relations Program in 1955, Powers replied, in part, Were all asleep down here, which made headlines. He served as commentator for the six manned Mercury flights. He claimed astronaut Alan Shepard first used the expression during his Freedom 7 flight, for example, he told reporters the day before Gus Grissoms flight that the astronaut had gone fishing that day and had cooked and eaten his catch, which would have violated his pre-flight diet. Powers objected to the HQ decision to release the missions 22-orbit flight plan in advance and he was succeeded by Paul Haney on September 1, and Powers soon resigned. Powers retired from the Air Force in 1964 and opened a public firm in Houston. He became part owner of KMSC-FM in Clear Lake, Texas and he served a spokesman for products including the 1965 Oldsmobile Delta 88, Carrier air conditioners, Triptone motion sickness pills, and Tareyton cigarettes. He lectured extensively about the program, and in 1967, he authored a newspaper column syndicated by Field Enterprises called Space Talk.
Powers was married three times and was the father of three children and he married Sara Kay McSherry, womens editor of the Indianapolis News, on August 7,1965. Powers moved to Phoenix, Arizona in 1978, and died there at his home on December 31,1979 at age 57 from a hemorrhage related to chronic alcoholism. Powers appeared as himself in the 1963 episode entitled Junior Astronaut of CBSs sitcom, Dennis the Menace and he was the narrator for the 1966 Jerry Lewis space comedy, Way. Way Out. He is referenced in the 1988 cult film, Miracle Mile, by actor Kurt Fuller when, as Soviet warheads appear over Los Angeles, he states, Talk me down and this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Five subsequent Apollo missions landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. In these six spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon, Apollo ran from 1961 to 1972, with the first manned flight in 1968. It achieved its goal of manned lunar landing, despite the setback of a 1967 Apollo 1 cabin fire that killed the entire crew during a prelaunch test. After the first landing, sufficient flight hardware remained for nine follow-on landings with a plan for extended lunar geological and astrophysical exploration, Budget cuts forced the cancellation of three of these. The crew returned to Earth safely by using the Lunar Module as a lifeboat for these functions, Apollo set several major human spaceflight milestones. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low Earth orbit, Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while the final Apollo 17 mission marked the sixth Moon landing and the ninth manned mission beyond low Earth orbit. The program returned 842 pounds of rocks and soil to Earth, greatly contributing to the understanding of the Moons composition.
The program laid the foundation for NASAs subsequent human spaceflight capability, Apollo spurred advances in many areas of technology incidental to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, and computers. The Apollo program was conceived during the Eisenhower administration in early 1960, while the Mercury capsule could only support one astronaut on a limited Earth orbital mission, Apollo would carry three astronauts. Possible missions included ferrying crews to a station, circumlunar flights. The program was named after the Greek god of light and the sun by NASA manager Abe Silverstein, who said that I was naming the spacecraft like Id name my baby. Silverstein chose the name at home one evening, early in 1960, in July 1960, NASA Deputy Administrator Hugh L. Dryden announced the Apollo program to industry representatives at a series of Space Task Group conferences. Preliminary specifications were laid out for a spacecraft with a mission module cabin separate from the module.
On August 30, a feasibility study competition was announced, and on October 25, meanwhile, NASA performed its own in-house spacecraft design studies led by Maxime Faget, to serve as a gauge to judge and monitor the three industry designs. In November 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected president after a campaign that promised American superiority over the Soviet Union in the fields of space exploration and missile defense. Beyond military power, Kennedy used aerospace technology as a symbol of prestige, pledging to make the US not first but, first and, first if. Despite Kennedys rhetoric, he did not immediately come to a decision on the status of the Apollo program once he became president and he knew little about the technical details of the space program, and was put off by the massive financial commitment required by a manned Moon landing. On April 12,1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to fly in space, Kennedy was circumspect in his response to the news, refusing to make a commitment on Americas response to the Soviets
William Marsh Rice University, commonly referred to as Rice University or Rice, is a private research university located on a 295-acre campus in Houston, United States. The university is situated near the Houston Museum District and is adjacent to the Texas Medical Center, Rice is generally considered the top university and the most selective institute of higher education in the state of Texas. Opened in 1912 after the murder of its namesake William Marsh Rice, Rice is now a university with an undergraduate focus. Its emphasis on education is demonstrated by a student body and 6,1 student-faculty ratio. The university has a high level of research activity for its size. Rice is noted for its science programs in the fields of artificial heart research, structural chemical analysis, signal processing, space science. It was ranked first in the world in materials science research by the Times Higher Education in 2010, Rice is a member of the Association of American Universities. Graduate programs are offered through the Jesse H.
Jones Graduate School of Business, School of Architecture, Shepherd School of Music, Rice students are bound by the strict Honor Code, which is enforced by a student-run Honor Council. Rice competes in 14 NCAA Division I varsity sports and is a part of Conference USA, intramural and club sports are offered in a wide variety of activities such as jiu jitsu, water polo, and crew. In 1891, Rice decided to charter a free-tuition educational institute in Houston, bearing his name, to be created upon his death, Rices will specified the institution was to be a competitive institution of the highest grade and that only white students would be permitted to attend. On the morning of September 23,1900, age 84, was dead by his valet. Shortly thereafter, a large check made out to Rices New York City lawyer. The lawyer, Albert T. Patrick, announced that Rice had changed his will to leave the bulk of his fortune to Patrick, rather than to the creation of Rices educational institute. Rices friend and personal lawyer in Houston, James A.
Baker, Jones was not prosecuted since he cooperated with the district attorney, and testified against Patrick. Patrick was found guilty of conspiring to steal Rices fortune and convicted of murder in 1901, Baker helped Rices estate direct the fortune, worth $4.6 million in 1904, towards the founding of what was to be called the Rice Institute. The board took control of the assets on April 29 of that year and he came recommended by Princetons president, Woodrow Wilson. In 1908, Lovett accepted the challenge, and was inaugurated as the Institutes first president on October 12,1912. Lovett undertook extensive research before formalizing plans for the new Institute, Lovett called for the establishment of a university of the highest grade, an institution of liberal and technical learning devoted quite as much to investigation as to instruction
Vision for Space Exploration
The Vision for Space Exploration was a plan for space exploration announced on January 14,2004 by President George W. Bush. It was conceived as a response to the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, the state of human spaceflight at NASA and it was replaced by the space policy of the Barack Obama administration in June 2010. S. Outlining some of the advantages, U. S. President George W. NASA has outlined plans for manned missions to the far side of the Moon, all of the Apollo missions have landed on the near side. Unique products may be producible in the nearly limitless extreme vacuum of the surface. The Moon would become a proving ground toward the development of In-Situ Resource Utilization, the NSS believes that the Moon may be a repository of the history and possible future of our planet, and that the six Apollo landings only scratched the surface of that treasure. For example, Rep. Dave Weldon said, I think this is the best thing that has happened to the program in decades. Throughout much of 2004, it was whether the U. S.
Congress would be willing to approve. However, in November 2004, Congress passed a bill which gave NASA the $16.2 billion that President Bush had sought to kick-start the Vision. According to then-NASA chief Sean OKeefe, that spending bill “was as strong an endorsement of the space exploration vision, as any of us could have imagined. ”In 2005, Congress passed S.1281, the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, which explicitly endorses the Vision. NASAs Lunar Architecture forms a key part of its Global Exploration Strategy, the first part of the Lunar Architecture is the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which launched in June 2009 on board an Atlas V. The preliminary design review was completed in February 2006 and the design review was completed in November 2006. An important function of the orbiter will be to look for evidence that the increased concentrations of hydrogen discovered at the moons poles is in the form of lunar ice. After this the flights will make use of the new Ares I. However, VSE itself is poised to propel a host of beneficial Moon science activities, including lunar telescopes, selenological studies, with or without VSE, human spaceflight will be made sustainable.
However, without VSE, more funds could be directed toward reducing human spaceflight costs sufficiently for the betterment of low Earth orbit research, alternatively, VSE could afford advances in other scientific research, in-situ lunar business industries, and lunar-space tourism. The VSE budget required termination the Space Shuttle by 2010 and of any US role in the International Space Station by 2017 and this would have required, even in the most optimistic plans, in a period of years without human spaceflight capability from the US. Termination of the Space Shuttle program, without any planned alternatives and this severely limited any future of low earth orbit or deep space exploration. Ultimately, the lack of funding caused the VSE to fall short of its original goals
Jim Chamberlin was a Canadian aerodynamicist who contributed to the design of the Canadian Avro Arrow, NASAs Gemini spacecraft and the Apollo program. In addition to his air and space efforts, he is often cited as an example of Canadian brain drain to the U. S. He left NASA in 1970 and worked for McDonnell Douglas, in their Houston offices, james Arthur Chamberlin was born in Kamloops, British Columbia on May 23,1915. Chamberlin began his career with the British aircraft company Martin-Baker before returning to Canada. His longest tenure began as an engineer at Noorduyn Aircraft in Montreal, working on the Norseman. Later, as chief of design for the CF-105 Avro Arrow jet interceptor. Following the Canadian governments cancellation of the Avro Arrow project in 1959, while designing the Gemini spacecraft in 1961, Chamberlin proposed that Gemini be paired with a “bug” that would land a single astronaut on the Moon. Chamberlin had been impressed with NASA engineer John Houbolt’s advocacy of Lunar orbit rendezvous as the method to go to the Moon, Chamberlin was described by space historian David Baker as “probably one of the most brilliant men ever to work for NASA.
He and his wife had a son and a daughter, NASA awarded Chamberlin its Exceptional Scientific Achievement, Exceptional Service and Exceptional Engineering Achievement medals. Chamberlin was a Professional Engineer of the Province of Ontario, a member of the Institute of Aeronautical Scientists, in 2001, he was inducted into Canadas Aviation Hall of Fame. Arrow Recovery Canada This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration