Spaceflight is ballistic flight into or through outer space. Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft without humans on board. Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union was the first human to conduct a spaceflight. Examples of human spaceflight include the U. S. Apollo Moon landing and Space Shuttle programs and the Russian Soyuz program, as well as the ongoing International Space Station. Examples of uncrewed spaceflight include space probes that leave Earth orbit, as well as satellites in orbit around Earth, such as communications satellites; these operate either by telerobotic control or are autonomous. Spaceflight is used in space exploration, in commercial activities like space tourism and satellite telecommunications. Additional non-commercial uses of spaceflight include space observatories, reconnaissance satellites and other Earth observation satellites. A spaceflight begins with a rocket launch, which provides the initial thrust to overcome the force of gravity and propels the spacecraft from the surface of the Earth.
Once in space, the motion of a spacecraft – both when unpropelled and when under propulsion – is covered by the area of study called astrodynamics. Some spacecraft remain in space indefinitely, some disintegrate during atmospheric reentry, others reach a planetary or lunar surface for landing or impact; the first theoretical proposal of space travel using rockets was published by Scottish astronomer and mathematician William Leitch, in an 1861 essay "A Journey Through Space". More well-known is Konstantin Tsiolkovsky's work, "Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами", published in 1903. Spaceflight became an engineering possibility with the work of Robert H. Goddard's publication in 1919 of his paper A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes, his application of the de Laval nozzle to liquid fuel rockets improved efficiency enough for interplanetary travel to become possible. He proved in the laboratory that rockets would work in the vacuum of space, his attempt to secure an Army contract for a rocket-propelled weapon in the first World War was defeated by the November 11, 1918 armistice with Germany.
Working with private financial support, he was the first to launch a liquid-fueled rocket in 1926. Goddard's paper was influential on Hermann Oberth, who in turn influenced Wernher von Braun. Von Braun became the first to produce modern rockets as guided weapons, employed by Adolf Hitler. Von Braun's V-2 was the first rocket to reach space, at an altitude of 189 kilometers on a June 1944 test flight. Tsiolkovsky's rocketry work was not appreciated in his lifetime, but he influenced Sergey Korolev, who became the Soviet Union's chief rocket designer under Joseph Stalin, to develop intercontinental ballistic missiles to carry nuclear weapons as a counter measure to United States bomber planes. Derivatives of Korolev's R-7 Semyorka missiles were used to launch the world's first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik 1, on October 4, 1957, the first human to orbit the Earth, Yuri Gagarin in Vostok 1, on April 12, 1961. At the end of World War II, von Braun and most of his rocket team surrendered to the United States, were expatriated to work on American missiles at what became the Army Ballistic Missile Agency.
This work on missiles such as Juno I and Atlas enabled launch of the first US satellite Explorer 1 on February 1, 1958, the first American in orbit, John Glenn in Friendship 7 on February 20, 1962. As director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, Von Braun oversaw development of a larger class of rocket called Saturn, which allowed the US to send the first two humans, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, to the Moon and back on Apollo 11 in July 1969. Over the same period, the Soviet Union secretly tried but failed to develop the N1 rocket to give them the capability to land one person on the Moon. Rockets are the only means capable of reaching orbit or beyond. Other non-rocket spacelaunch technologies have yet to remain short of orbital speeds. A rocket launch for a spaceflight starts from a spaceport, which may be equipped with launch complexes and launch pads for vertical rocket launches, runways for takeoff and landing of carrier airplanes and winged spacecraft. Spaceports are situated well away from human habitation for safety reasons.
ICBMs have various special launching facilities. A launch is restricted to certain launch windows; these windows depend upon the position of celestial orbits relative to the launch site. The biggest influence is the rotation of the Earth itself. Once launched, orbits are located within constant flat planes at a fixed angle to the axis of the Earth, the Earth rotates within this orbit. A launch pad is a fixed structure designed to dispatch airborne vehicles, it consists of a launch tower and flame trench. It is surrounded by equipment used to erect and maintain launch vehicles. Before launch, the rocket can weigh many hundreds of tonnes; the Space Shuttle Columbia, on STS-1, weighed 2,030 tonnes at take off. The most used definition of outer space is everything beyond the Kármán line, 100 kilometers above the Earth's surface; the United States sometimes defines outer space as everything beyond 50 miles in altitude. Rockets are the only practical means of reaching space. Conventional airplane engines cannot reach space due to the lack of oxygen.
Rocket engines expel propellant to provide forward thrust that generates enough delta-v to reach orbit. For crewed launch systems launch
LeRoy S. Jolley was an American Hall of Fame Thoroughbred horse trainer; the son of horse trainer Moody Jolley, LeRoy Jolley had been around horses all his life and at age nineteen received a New York State trainer's license. In 1961, the 24-year-old LeRoy Jolley was the trainer of the colt Ridan who at age two went undefeated in seven races including wins in the Arlington Futurity and the Washington Park Futurity. Owned by his family along with two other partners, at age three Ridan gave LeRoy Jolley victory in record time in the Hibiscus Stakes, plus the first of his three Blue Grass Stakes wins, he earned the first of his two Florida Derbys while defeating the future Hall of Fame filly, Cicada. The heavy favorite going into the Kentucky Derby, Ridan ran wide throughout the race and wound up third in a hard fought race where he and Roman Line finished a neck behind upset winner Decidedly whom Ridan had beaten in the Blue Grass Stakes. In that year's Travers Stakes at the Saratoga Race Course, Ridan lost by a fraction of a nose to Jaipur in one of the most dramatic races in American Thoroughbred racing history and one, still written and talked about today.
Jolley went on to train two Kentucky Derby winners, first with Foolish Pleasure in 1975 with Genuine Risk in 1980. He won numerous other important American graded stakes races including the 1986 Breeders' Cup Turf and the 1987 Arlington Million with Manila plus the 1990 Breeders' Cup Juvenile Fillies with Meadow Star. In 1987, LeRoy Jolley was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame
Hunts Mesa is a rock formation located in Monument Valley, south of the border between Utah and Arizona in the United States and west of the border between Arizona's Navajo County and Apache County. It is one of two popular interior destinations in the Monument Valley Navajo Tribal Park for tourists to experience panoramic views of the popular sandstone formations from a distance; the other is Mystery Valley. A Navajo guide is required to hike to either. Hunts Mesa forms the southeastern edge of Monument Valley and the northern edge of Little Capitan Valley, its elevation is 6,370 feet. Access to Hunts Mesa is not through the general entrance of the park but rather through the sand dunes northeast of the town of Kayenta, Arizona. On October 16, 1984, a United States Air Force B-52G bomber crashed on Hunts Mesa, killing two of the seven crewmen. Hunt's Arizona; the Natural Arch and Bridge Society
The Tri-Institutional Training Program in Computational Biology and Medicine or Tri-I CBM is a PhD program that exists as a partnership between the Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. The program is in part designed to encourage collaboration and a sense of connectedness between the two branches of Cornell University and the other institutions in Manhattan. Dr. Christina Leslie is a current director of the program. Students may choose a thesis advisor from any of the three institutions for the completion of their PhD; the focus of study is on the various forms of mathematical and computational modeling of biological systems as they are relevant to medicine. Each year the program accepts 6 students funded by an anonymous gift that established the program in 2000. Training begins around July 1 when students will begin their first rotation in one of the institutions in Manhattan. Students travel to Ithaca for coursework and more rotations at Cornell University for the Fall and Spring terms.
During the winter and summer breaks, students return to New York City to complete further rotations. After this first year, students choose a thesis advisor from the three institutions and complete their thesis within the lab. For students staying in Manhattan, subsidized housing is guaranteed by the program either in Olin Hall, a dorm-style building, or Lasdon Hall, a modernized apartment building; some students live off-campus. Tri-Institutional MD-PhD Program Cornell University Weill Medical College of Cornell University Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Tri-Institutional CBM website Weill Medical College of Cornell University website Cornell University website Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center website Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences website
Kent Falls State Park is a public recreation area located in the town of Kent, within the Litchfield Hills region of the southern Berkshires. The state park is home to Kent Falls, a series of waterfalls on Falls Brook, a tributary of the Housatonic River; the falls drop 250 feet in under a quarter mile. The largest cascade drops more than 70 feet into a reflecting pool, before traveling over the lesser falls; the Indian name of the falls is Scatacook, there is evidence that the area was used by Native Americans for fishing and camping. Mills stood along the brook during colonial times. Kent Falls was established as a state park after 200 acres of land was given to the state in 1919 as a gift from the White Memorial Foundation. Workers with the Civil Works Administration contributed to the park's development in the 1930s. In the 1970s, trail reconstruction was done by the Youth Conservation Corps of America. In 2006, observation platforms were constructed along a trail next to the falls; the park has a replica of a covered bridge that allows visitors to cross the brook and access the falls.
In addition to its scenery, the park offers hiking and picnicking. Kent Falls State Park Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Kent Falls State Park Map Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection
Paul Stanley was a German-born American composer and vaudeville comedian who some credit with writing the music for the ditty Ta-ra-ra Boom-de-ay for Henry F. Sayers' 1891 musical entertainment, Tuxedo. Paul Sonnenberg was born in Hamburg and came to America at the age of 16, where he began entertaining as a vaudeville and club comedian under a stage name, Paul Stanley, he became an American citizen in 1869 and resided in New York City for most of his life before relocating to San Francisco after the turn of the 20th century. He was married to Franziska, a native of St. Louis, some six years his junior. Stanley's vaudeville career included a stint with Wright's Comedians in a two-man act with Jay Brennan. Stanley's claims to be the writer of the music for Henry F. Sayer's production of Tuxedo is discussed and rejected in several sources that conclude that he was not the writer. Stanley's health began to fail, he and his wife moved to Denver, where he died in 1909 at the age of sixty-one. News of his death was carried in newspapers nationwide, including The New York Times, Chicago Daily Tribune and Los Angeles Times.
In a column printed some two months after his death, a musician friend recalled Stanley's disappointment at failing to succeed as a composer of grand opera. "When he lived here he talked with a quaint kind of melancholy about the high ambitions of his youth, how they had become humbler as he got older. A man's ambitions dwindle". "like a girl's matrimonial aims. At 10 a girl wants a fairy nothing less. At 20 she is resigned to a millionaire Duke. At 25 a member of Congress is good enough. At 30 a country minister will do nicely and at 35 she'll take anything from a song writer down." Stanley and his wife Franziska, who died in 1919, are interred at Denver's Fairmount Cemetery