Spaghetti Western known as Italian Western or Macaroni Western, is a broad subgenre of Western films that emerged in the mid-1960s in the wake of Sergio Leone's film-making style and international box-office success. The term was used by American critics and those in other countries because most of these Westerns were produced and directed by Italians. According to veteran Spaghetti Western actor Aldo Sambrell, the phrase "Spaghetti Western" was coined by Spanish journalist Alfonso Sánchez; the denomination for these films in Italy is western all'italiana. Italo-Western is used in Germany. In addition, the term Paella Western has been used for the many Western films produced in Spain; the term Eurowesterns may be used to include similar Western movies that were produced in Continental Europe but without involvement by Italians, like the West German Winnetou films or Ostern Westerns. The majority of the films in the Spaghetti Western genre were international co-productions between Italy and Spain, sometimes France, West Germany, Greece, Yugoslavia, or the United States.
These movies were released in Italian or with Italian dubbing, but as most of the films featured multilingual casts and sound was post-synched, most "western all'italiana" do not have an official dominant language. The typical Spaghetti Western team was made up of an Italian director, Italo-Spanish technical staff, a cast of Italian, Spanish and American actors, sometimes a fading Hollywood star and sometimes a rising one like the young Clint Eastwood in three of Sergio Leone's films. Over six hundred European Westerns were made between 1960 and 1978; the best-known Spaghetti Westerns were directed by Sergio Leone and scored by Ennio Morricone, notably the three films of the Dollars Trilogy —A Fistful of Dollars, For a Few Dollars More and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly —as well as Once Upon a Time in the West. These are listed among the best Westerns of any variety. Sergio Leone's A Fistful of Dollars established the Spaghetti Western as a novel kind of Western. In this seminal film, the hero enters a town, ruled by two outlaw gangs, ordinary social relations are non-existent.
He plays the gangs against one another in order to make money. He uses his cunning and exceptional weapons skill to assist a family threatened by both gangs, his treachery is exposed and he is beaten, but in the end, he defeats the remaining gang. The interaction in this story between cunning and irony on the one hand, pathos on the other, was aspired to and sometimes attained by the imitations that soon flooded the cinemas. Italian cinema borrowed from other films without regard for infringement, Leone famously borrowed the plot for A Fistful of Dollars, receiving a letter from Japanese director Akira Kurosawa congratulating him on making "...a fine film. But it is my film". Leone had imitated one of the most respected directors in the world by remaking his film Yojimbo as A Fistful of Dollars and surrendered Asian rights to Kurosawa, plus 15% of the international box office proceeds. Leone moved from borrowing and established his own oft-imitated style and plots. Leone's films and other "core" Spaghetti Westerns are described as having eschewed, criticised or "demythologized" many of the conventions of traditional U.
S. Westerns; this was intentional and the context of a different cultural background. Use of pathos received a big boost with Sergio Corbucci's influential Django. In the years following, the use of cunning and irony became more prominent; this was seen with their emphasis on unstable partnerships. In the last phase of the Spaghetti Western, with the Trinity films, the Leone legacy had been transformed beyond recognition, as terror and deadly violence gave way to harmless brawling and low comedy. Most Spaghetti Westerns filmed between 1964 and 1978 were made on low budgets and shot at Cinecittà studios and various locations around southern Italy and Spain. Many of the stories take place in the dry landscapes of the American Southwest and Northern Mexico, hence common filming locations were the Tabernas Desert and the Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park, an area of volcanic origin known for its wide sandy beaches, both of which are in the Province of Almería in southeastern Spain; some sets and studios built for Spaghetti Westerns survive as theme parks, Texas Hollywood, Mini Hollywood, Western Leone, continue to be used as film sets.
Other filming locations used were in central and southern Italy, such as the parks of Valle del Treja, the area of Camposecco, the hills around Castelluccio, the area around the Gran Sasso mountain, the Tivoli's quarries and Sardinia. God's Gun was filmed in Israel. In the 1960s, critics recognized that the American genres were changing; the genre most identifiably American, the Western, seemed to be evolving into a rougher form. For many critics, Sergio Leone's films were part of the problem. Leone's Dollars Trilogy was not the beginning of the "Spaghetti Western" cycle in Italy, but for Americans Leone's films represented the true beginning of the Italian invasion of an American genre. Christopher Frayling, in his noted book on the Italian Western, describes American critical reception of the Spaghetti Western cycle as, to "a large exte
The Aero L-60 Brigadýr was a small, high-wing propeller-driven Czechoslovakian STOL utility aircraft developed for both civil and military use. A prototype, designated XL-60, with Argus As 10C engine, first flew on December 24, 1953, but it was not successful; the plane was redesigned and the second improved prototype, with M-208B flat-six engine, flew on June 8, 1954. The aircraft's configuration bears a strong resemblance to the Fieseler Fi 156 "Storch" licence-produced in Czechoslovakia during and after World War II, which this aircraft was intended to replace. By the end of production in 1960, 273 had been built by Aero, including an improved version, the L-160 with an all-metal tail. Aircraft retrofitted with a PZL-built Ivchenko AI-14R radial engine are known as the L-60S. XL-60: Prototype. L-60: Single-engined light utility transport, observation aircraft. L-60A: 50 production aircraft for the Czech Air Force. Known as the K-60. Armed with MG-15 7.92 mm machine gun in a rear cab. First flew on June 24, 1955.
L-60B: Agricultural crop spraying aircraft. L-60D: Glider tug aircraft. L-60E:Air ambulance aircraft. L-60F: Glider tug aircraft. L-60S: Aircraft fitted with the PZL-built 260-hp Ivchenko AI-14R radial piston engine. L-60SF: Fitted with the M-462RF radial piston engine. L-160: Improved version with all-metal tail. Argentina Austria Bulgaria Cuba CzechoslovakiaSlov-Air East Germany HungaryMÉM Flight Service used 2 L-60 from 1959 for short period. New Zealand People's Republic of China PolandPolish Air Ambulance Service used 3 L-60F in 1957–1974 Romania Soviet Union United Arab Emirates Yugoslavia CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakian Air Force East GermanyEast German Air Force Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1961–62General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 3 passengers Length: 8.54 m Wingspan: 13.96 m Height: 2.72 m Wing area: 24.30 m2 Aspect ratio: 8.07:1 Airfoil: NACA 4412 Empty weight: 968 kg Gross weight: 1,460 kg Max takeoff weight: 1,560 kg Fuel capacity: 200 L Powerplant: 1 × Praga Doris M 208-B air-cooled flat-six engine, 140 kW Propellers: 2-bladed Type V-411 wooden controllable pitch, 2.70 m diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 193 km/h Cruise speed: 175 km/h at sea level Stall speed: 52 km/h Range: 720 km at 1,000 m Service ceiling: 4,200 m Time to altitude: 4.3 min to 1,000 m 17.5 min to 3,000 m Takeoff run to 15 m: 240 m Landing run from 15 m: 195 m Aircraft of comparable role and era Dornier Do 27 Yakovlev Yak-12 Notes BibliographyTaylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1961–62.
London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1961. Specs & Photo at Flugzeuginfo.net Aero L‑60 Brigadýr article at AirHistory.net
Ribbit is a 2014 Malaysian 3D computer-animated comedy film produced by KRU Studios and Crest Animation Studios. It is directed by Chuck Powers from a screenplay by Powers and Hamir Afizi and features the voices of Sean Astin, Russell Peters, Tim Curry, Cherami Leigh. All his life, Ribbit has felt different from all the other frogs. To find purpose in his life, Ribbit embarks on an incredible journey through the Amazon Rainforest. During this journey, Ribbit is accidentally hypnotised into believing he is a human prince trapped in a frog's body. Convinced that he now understands why he is different, Ribbit heads out in his search for the Princess whose kiss will solve all his problems. Joined by his best friend, a female squirrel named Sandy, Ribbit encounters an amazingly zany cast of unique and colourful characters. Sean Astin as Ribbit, a frog with an identity crisis Russell Peters as Deepak, a bat with the answers to life's questions Tim Curry as Terrence, a toucan with a flair for colours Cherami Leigh as Sandy, a squirrel, Ribbit's best friend Elza Irdalynna as Rafa and Luciano, two leopard cubs Amelia Henderson as Marcella and Luciano's sister Abigail Cole as Bianca, a baby howler monkey Lydia Lubon as Carla, Bianca's mother Carey Van Driest as Avelina, Carla's sister Chuck Powers as Grandpa and Avelina's father Sonny Franks as Kai, a Caiman Alligator Christina Orow as Jojo, a Manatee Sonny Franks as Ollie, Jojo's partner Kennie Dowle as the Spider Valentine Cawley as the Witch Doctor, an evil bad-guy Martin Dysart as Inego, a heroic frog Dilly Shakir as Callie, Inego's wife Ali Astin as the Princess, future leader of an Amazonian tribe The film is co-produced by KRU Studios and Crest Animation Studios with partial financing from the Malaysian government's Multimedia Development Corporation.
The development and post-production work was completed in Cyberjaya, while the animation took place in Cyberjaya and Mumbai, most of the rendering was done in Hong Kong. The lead voices were recorded in Los Angeles with additional voices recorded in Dallas and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; the film's main musical theme is Magical Moment, a duet by American R&B group Az Yet and Jaclyn Victor, winner of Malaysian Idol. The other song on the original sound track is Destiny, produced by DJ Motiv8 and performed by SuPreme featuring Felice LaZae; the film was presented at the Cannes Film Market in 2012 at the project stage. It premiered at the Niagara Integrated Film Festival on 21 June 2014, it was released theatrically in Malaysia on 4 September 2014. It was released in the United States on DVD on 25 November 2014. Ribbit on IMDb
Rexford Sefah Ahima is a Professor of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing. Ahima's research focuses on central and peripheral actions of adipocyte hormones in energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism. Ahima is the Editor In Chief of the Journal of Clinical Investigation. Rexford Ahima had his high school education at Accra Academy in Ghana, he gained a Bachelor of Science degree in Endocrinology from the Middlesex Hospital Medical School, University of London. He received his M. D. from the University of Ghana Medical School in 1985 and a Ph. D from Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1992. Ahima had his residency training in Internal Medicine at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack D. Weiler Hospital and Jacobi Medical Center in New York. Ahima did his clinical and research fellowship training in Endocrinology and Metabolism at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School in Boston. At Harvard, he had his research fellowship in the laboratory of Dr.
Jeffrey S. Flier, after which he served as an instructor in Medicine at Harvard before moving to the University of Pennsylvania in 1999, he became a tenured Professor of Medicine at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and was the Director of Obesity Unit, Institute for Diabetes and Metabolism and Director of Diabetes Research Center Mouse Phenotyping Core. In 2016, Ahima joined Johns Hopkins University as a Professor of Medicine, Public Health, Nursing. Ahima has been elected member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, he is a past Associate Editor of the journals Gastroenterology. He is Editor in Chief of the Journal of Clinical Investigation. Dr. Ahima’s investigates CNS and peripheral actions of adipokines in energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism, he has performed seminal studies to define the roles of leptin and resistin in obesity and diabetes using genetic techniques and metabolic phenotyping of mouse models. Moreover, he is involved in clinical and population studies focusing on the pathogenesis of obesity and Diabetes.
Google Scholar Citations.
46-56 Gloucester Street, The Rocks is a heritage-listed residence located at 46-56 Gloucester Street, in the inner city Sydney suburb of The Rocks in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built during 1914, it is known as Edwardian Cottages. The property is privately owned, with the residue owned by Property NSW, an agency of the Government of New South Wales, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 10 May 2002. The site now occupied by the Terraces was part of Section 76 of the Parish of St Philip and appears to have been granted and claimed by at least four parties during the 1830s; the northernmost portion, Allotment 4, was claimed by G. Gibbs; the adjacent lot, Allotment 3 was granted William Long in June 1839. Allotment 2 was granted to Jane Farrell in May 1836 and Allotment 11, the southernmost portion, was granted to Mary Lupton in April 1839. Primary Applications relating to part of Allotments 2 and 3 shows that the sites were both conveyed in the 1860s and consolidated by William and John Smith, Customs House Agents, during the 1870s.
The 1865 Trigonometrical Survey of Sydney indicates that part of this land had been developed by this time. A number of buildings are shown in the middle and northern sections of the site which appears to be broken up into small allotments facing Cambridge Street; the southern portion is vacant. The four terraces, now known as Susannah Place are shown, numbered Nos. 64-70. A plan of Lot 11, which shows Lot 2 and part of Lot 3 dated 1863 notes that W. Smith was the owner and occupier of an L shaped structure on Lot 2. W. Smith is noted as the owner of the adjacent property to the north, occupied by Burne. In the same year John Stone Lord purchased a rectangular shaped parcel of land, part of Lot 11, extending between Cambridge and Gloucester Sts, with just over 22 feet frontage to each; the parcel of land illustrated on the title, southern most section of the subject site, is occupied by a rectangular structure constructed to the party wall of what is now known as Susannah Place. A note on the drawing indicates that Mrs Riley owned/ occupied the site to the immediate south and W Smith the land to the immediate north.
The title shows that this parcel was transferred again in 1876 and 1893. In May 1873, the northern part of Lot 11 was purchased by John Bros and George Wall Customs House Agents, from William Smith; the L shaped parcel featured just over 22 feet frontage to Cambridge St and just over 52 feet frontage to Gloucester St and wrapped around land and buildings owned by William Smith. This land was subsequently transferred to John Smith in 1890; the building outlines are clear on the c. 1880 Percy H. Dove map of the area and highlights the fact that the earlier buildings on the site faced Cambridge St and the harbour. Two single storey structures are shown on the northern portion of the site; the structures are set back from the Cambridge St boundary with smaller structures and yard area behind in the western portion of the allotments, fronting Gloucester St. A two-storey structure is shown on the middle section of the site with shed and what is assumed privy behind, extending to the Gloucester St boundary.
A passage separates the building from an L shaped, single storey structure constructed to the Cambridge St boundary with yard extending to the Gloucester St frontage. The adjacent allotment features a smaller structure abutting the L shaped between and open area noted as garden; the four terraces to the immediate south of the site are shown, numbered Nos. 38-44. The southern allotment, adjacent to these terraces is now labelled vacant land. A Sydney Water survey plan dated 1887 amended in 1895 shows the land occupied by several substantial buildings, all appearing to face Cambridge St; the northern portion of the site is occupied by a large stone, L shaped structure with two small brick outbuildings, one constructed to the Cambridge St boundary line. A regular shaped stone building is shown in the next allotment to the south, this has been struck out indicating that it had been demolished by the time the plan was amended in 1895. Another L shaped and stone building noted as Tyrone Cottage occupies the adjacent lot.
The building, present on the earlier plans faces Cambridge St with open land around. The southernmost portion of the site, adjacent to Susannah Place, is shown vacant at this time; the plan indicates that the street numbering altered to the present numbers, in the period between 1887 and 1895. The various parcels of land that make up the subject site continued to be sold. Purchasers predominantly worked in the area. In December 1896 John Smith and James Augustus Adrian, both Customs House Agents, acquired part of Allotment 3. At the same time, John Smith acquired part of Allotment 2. In July 1897 Smith purchased part of Allotment 2 with over 29 feet frontage to Cambridge St. In the same year Smith and Adrian consolidated all of Allotment 3 granted to William Long on 22 June 1839 and part of Allotment 2 granted to Jane Farrell in May 1836; the site featured just over 19 feet frontage to Gloucester St and nearly 29 feet frontage to Cambridge St. In 1901 the entire site was vested with the Minister for Public Works.
The cleansing operations in the area included the photographing and recording of buildings to be demolished. A set of photographs, dated 1901 show buildings occupying the site at this time, including Tyrone Cottage. A photograph looking south west along Cambridge St shows the building that occupied the northern section of the site at this time. Elevated high above Cambridge St, it was a gable roofed structure; the small brick building constructed on the street a
The Pashupatabrahma Upanishad called Pasupathabrahmopanishad, is a minor Upanishadic text written in Sanskrit. It is one of the 31 Upanishads attached to the Atharvaveda, is classified as one of the 20 Yoga Upanishads. In the Telugu language anthology of 108 Upanishads of the Muktika canon, narrated by Rama to Hanuman, it is listed by Paul Deussen – a German Indologist and professor of Philosophy, at number 77; the text is a later era Upanishad. The text is structured in two khanda; the opening verses are in the form of questions addressed to Hindu creator god Brahma by his son Vaishravana. The text discusses soul as Hamsa, meditation, the uselessness of external rituals and the need for inner reflection with the help of Om, how a man of true wisdom should behave; the Upanishad uses Hamsa for its concepts. The text asserts that the supreme soul is of the nature of Hamsa, it migrates. Om, states the text, is the true sacred thread, that there is no difference between Om and the Atman. In AUM, asserts the text, "A" represents the past, "U" represents the present, "M" represents the future.
The realization of "hamsa-so'ham", is equivalent to completing all yajna, this realization destroys "anger, self deception, infatuation" states the Upanishad. In verses 19 to 22 of Purva-khanda, the Pashupatabrahma Upanishad asserts that the Hamsa, the Paramataman, is the internal sun that radiates within, one in quest of Brahman must meditate within, through Pranava and the knowledge that the Brahman is within oneself. One must abandon all external ritual sacrifices and worship, instead meditate within, asserts the text in verses 27–30; the Dharma-yoga that leads to freedom and liberation is non-violence against others, states the Upanishad. One's soul is the conductor, Pashupati is the Paramatman within; the second section of the text discusses yoga and meditation, asserting the goal of yoga is inner liberation, the realization that the Brahman is within oneself. The Upanishad is notable for asserting in verses 32–33 that the Highest Truth is within one's own body; the knowledge of Atman, asserts the text, comes to the Jivanmukta through his own efforts and on his own accord.
Once he reaches this state, he sees everyone as himself, he sees no Ashramas, no Varnas, no good, no evil, no prohibitions, no mandates. He lives by his own accord, he is the liberated, he is the one free from distinguishing and discriminating others, he is beyond the appearance, he is beyond the self, he is one with Brahman. The text is notable for asserting that the one who knows his inner soul and thus the Brahman, there is nothing whatever, prohibited as food, because the entire universe is just food for each other, everything is he himself in various manifestations of Brahman; the liberated person knows, "I am the food always, I am the eater of the food" too. And yet, the liberated person moderates, caring for everything, seeing the world of his perception always, translates Ayyangar, but never in any way apart from his own soul; the Upanishad presents the Advaita Vedanta doctrines. Ayyangar, TR Srinivasa; the Yoga Upanishads. The Adyar Library. Desai, S. G.. A critical study of the Upanishads.
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Deussen, Paul. Sixty Upanishads of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7. Hattangadi, Sunder. "पाशुपतब्रह्मोपनिषत्". Retrieved 23 February 2016. Mahadevan, T. M. P.. Upaniṣads: Selections from 108 Upaniṣads. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1611-4. Larson, Gerald James. Pasupatabrahma Upanishad, in The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Yoga: India's philosophy of meditation. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-3349-4. Tinoco, Carlos Alberto. Upanishads. IBRASA. ISBN 978-85-348-0040-2