The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is in the southwestern United States within southeastern California and southern Nevada, it occupies 47,877 sq mi. Small areas extend into Utah and Arizona, its boundaries are noted by the presence of Joshua trees, which are native only to the Mojave Desert and are considered an indicator species, it is believed to support an additional 1,750 to 2,000 species of plants. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Lancaster, Victorville, St. George; the Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains to the west, the San Gabriel Mountains and San Bernardino Mountains to the south; the mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults.
The Mojave Desert displays typical range topography. Higher elevations above 2,000 ft in the Mojave are referred to as the High Desert; the Mojave Desert occupies less than 50,000 sq mi, making it the smallest of the North American deserts. The Mojave Desert is referred to as the "high desert", in contrast to the "low desert", the Sonoran Desert to the south; the Mojave Desert, however, is lower than the Great Basin Desert to the north. The spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English. Both are used today, although the Mojave Tribal Nation uses the spelling Mojave; the Mojave Desert receives less than 2 inches of rain a year and is between 2,000 and 5,000 feet in elevation. The Mojave Desert contains the Mojave National Preserve, as well as the lowest and hottest place in North America: Death Valley at 282 ft below sea level, where the temperature surpasses 120 °F from late June to early August. Zion National Park in Utah lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin Desert, the Colorado Plateau.
Despite its aridity, the Mojave has long been a center of alfalfa production, fed by irrigation coming from groundwater and from the California Aqueduct. The Mojave is a desert of two distinct seasons. Winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which drop to around 25 °F on valley floors, below 0 °F at the highest elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest can bring rain and in some places snow. More the rain shadow created by the Sierra Nevada as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds and wind. In longer periods between storm systems, winter temperatures in valleys can approach 80 °F. Spring weather continues to be influenced by Pacific storms, but rainfall is more widespread and occurs less after April. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the region's weather. Summer weather is dominated by heat. Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 130 °F at the lowest elevations. Low humidity, high temperatures, low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon.
While the Mojave does not get nearly the amount of rainfall the Sonoran desert to the south receives, monsoonal moisture will create thunderstorms as far west as California's Central Valley from mid-June through early September. Autumn is pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events. October is one of the sunniest months in the Mojave. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave. Across the region windy days are common. During the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind events, hot air from the desert blows into the Los Angeles basin and other coastal areas. Wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds; the other major weather factor in the region is elevation. The highest peak within the Mojave is Charleston Peak at 11,918 feet, while the Badwater Basin in Death Valley is 279 feet below sea level. Accordingly and precipitation ranges wildly in all seasons across the region.
The Mojave Desert has not supported a fire regime because of low fuel loads and connectivity. However, in the last few decades, invasive annual plants such as some within the genera Bromus and Brassica have facilitated fire; this has altered many areas of the desert. At higher elevations, fire regimes are infrequent; the Mojave Desert is defined by numerous mountain ranges creating its xeric conditions. These ranges create valleys, endorheic basins, salt pans, seasonal saline lakes when precipitation is high enough. These
San Fernando Valley
The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, defined by the mountains of the Transverse Ranges circling it. Home to 1.77 million people, it is north of the more populous Los Angeles Basin. Nearly two thirds of the valley's land area is part of the city of Los Angeles; the other incorporated cities in the valley are Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas. The San Fernando Valley is about 260 square miles bound by the Santa Susana Mountains to the northwest, the Simi Hills to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains and Chalk Hills to the south, the Verdugo Mountains to the east, the San Gabriel Mountains to the northeast; the northern Sierra Pelona Mountains, northwestern Topatopa Mountains, southern Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown Los Angeles skyscrapers can be seen from higher neighborhoods and parks in the San Fernando Valley. The Los Angeles River begins at the confluence of Calabasas Creek and Bell Creek, between Canoga Park High School and Owensmouth Ave. in Canoga Park.
These creeks' headwaters are in the Santa Monica Calabasas foothills, the Simi Hills' Hidden Hills, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Santa Susana Pass Park lands. The river flows eastward along the southern regions of the Valley. One of the river's two unpaved sections can be found at the Sepulveda Basin. A seasonal river, the Tujunga Wash, drains much of the western facing San Gabriel Mountains and passes into and through the Hansen Dam Recreation Center in Lake View Terrace, it flows south along the Verdugo Mountains through the eastern communities of the valley to join the Los Angeles River in Studio City. Other notable tributaries of the river include Dayton Creek, Caballero Creek, Bull Creek, Pacoima Wash, Verdugo Wash; the elevation of the floor of the valley varies from about 600 ft to 1,200 ft above sea level. Most of the San Fernando Valley is within the jurisdiction of the city of Los Angeles, although a few other incorporated cities are located within the valley as well: Burbank and Glendale are in the southeastern corner of the valley, Hidden Hills and Calabasas are in the southwestern corner, San Fernando, surrounded by Los Angeles, is in the northeastern valley.
Universal City, an enclave in the southern part of the valley, is unincorporated land housing the Universal Studios filming lot and theme park. Mulholland Drive, which runs along the ridgeline of the Santa Monica Mountains, marks the boundary between the valley and the communities of Hollywood and the Los Angeles Westside; the valley's natural habitat is a "temperate grasslands and shrublands biome" of grassland, oak savanna, chaparral shrub forest types of plant community habitats, along with lush riparian plants along the river and springs. In this Mediterranean climate, post-1790s European agriculture for the mission's support consisted of grapes, figs and general garden crops; the San Fernando Valley contains five incorporated cities—Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas—and part of a sixth, Los Angeles, which governs a majority of the valley. The unincorporated communities are governed by the County of Los Angeles; the Los Angeles city section of the valley is divided into seven city council districts: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12.
Of the 95 neighborhood councils in the city, 34 are in the valley. The valley is represented in the California State Legislature by seven members of the State Assembly and five members of the State Senate; the valley falls into four congressional districts: the 28th, 29th, 30th, 33rd, represented by Adam Schiff, Tony Cárdenas, Brad Sherman, Ted Lieu. In the Los Angeles County board of supervisors, it is represented by two supervisorial districts, with the western portion represented by Sheila Kuehl and the eastern portion by Kathryn Barger; the San Fernando Valley, for the most part, tends to support Democrats in state and national elections. This is true in the southern areas, which include Sherman Oaks and the city of Burbank; the Los Angeles satellite administrative center for the valley, The Civic Center Van Nuys, is in Van Nuys. The area in and around the Van Nuys branch of Los Angeles City Hall is home to a police station and superior courts and Los Angeles city and county administrative offices.
Northridge is home to Northridge. Many branches of the Los Angeles Public Library are located in the valley. For independent libraries see "Incorporated Cities" in the "Municipalities and districts" list below. Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, independent valley city departments. Los Angeles Fire Department, Los Angeles County Fire Department, Burbank Police Department, independent valley city departments. City of Los Angeles neighborhood councils The Tongva known as the Gabrieleño Mission Indians after colonization, the Tataviam to the north and Chumash to the west, had lived and thrived in the valley and its arroyos for over 8,000 years, they had numerous settlements, trading and hunting camps, before the Spanish arrived in 1769 to settle in the Valley. The first Spanish land grant in the San Fernando Valley was called "Rancho Encino", in the northern part of the San Fernando Valley. Juan Francisco Reyes built an adobe dwelling beside a Tongva village or rancheria at natural springs, but the land was soon taken from him so that a mission could be built there
A movie ranch is a ranch, at least dedicated for the creation and production of motion pictures and television productions. They were all within the 30-mile studio zone in the foothills of the San Fernando Valley, Santa Clarita Valley and Simi Valley. Movie ranches first came into use for location shooting in Southern California during the 1920s with the rising popularity of westerns. Hollywood-based studios found it difficult to recreate the topography of the Old West on sound stages and studio backlots, so they looked to the rustic valleys and foothills of Southern California for filming locations. Other large-scale productions needed large, undeveloped settings for outdoor scenes, such as war films for their battle scenes. To achieve greater scope, productions would conduct location shooting in yonder parts of California and Nevada, but travel expenses for production staff created a dispute between workers and the studios; the studios agreed to pay union workers extra. The definition of out of town referred to a distance of greater than 30 miles from the studio, or beyond the studio zone.
To solve this problem, many movie studios invested in large tracts of undeveloped rural land, in many cases existing ranches, located closer to Hollywood. In most cases, the ranches were located just within the 30-mile perimeter in the Simi Hills in the western San Fernando Valley, the Santa Monica Mountains, the Santa Clarita area of the Greater Los Angeles Area; the natural California landscape proved to be suitable for other settings. As a result of the post-war era suburban development raising property values, rising taxes, the resulting urban sprawl of Los Angeles, most of these movie ranches have since been sold and subdivided. A few of these have survived as regional parks, are still used for filming. Movie ranches have moved to other regions such as New Mexico and Texas. Below is a partial listing of some of the classic Southern California movie ranches from the first half of the 20th century, including some other and newer locations. Apacheland Studio - The tail end of 1957 and all of 1958 saw movie studios calling on ranchers in the Superstition Mountain area, such as "Quarter Circle U", "Quarter Circle W" and the "Barkley Cattle Ranch" to use their facilities as makeshift towns.
One movie, filmed during this time was Gunfight at the O. K. Corral with Kirk Douglas and Burt Lancaster; the movie is inaccurate, but it shows the area known as Gold Canyon with the Superstitions towering over the Clanton ranch. During this time, Victor Panek contacted his neighbors in Apache Junction, Mr. and Mrs. J. K. Hutchens, to suggest the idea of building a studio in the Superstition area. Hutchens and Panek began to look for sites and soon found what they were looking for, located in the Superstition Mountains in central Arizona, intended to be the "Western Movie Capitol of the World". Construction on the Apacheland Studio "western town" began on February 12, 1959 by Superstition Mountain Enterprises and associates. By June 1960, Apacheland Studio was available for use by production companies and its first TV western Have Gun, Will Travel was filmed in November 1960, along with its first full-length movie The Purple Hills; this Arizona landmark has seen many western actors walk the streets on Kings Ranch Road in Gold Canyon, from its incorporation as Superstition Mountain Enterprises in 1959 as Apacheland Studio, to its demise in 2004 as Apacheland Movie Ranch.
Actors such as Elvis Presley, Jason Robards, Stella Stevens, Ronald Reagan, Audie Murphy filmed western television shows and movies, such as Gambler II, Death Valley Days, Charro!, Have Gun, Will Travel, The Ballad of Cable Hogue. The last full-length movie to be filmed was the 1994 HBO movie Blind Justice with Armand Assante, Elisabeth Shue, Jack Black. On May 26, 1969, fire destroyed most of the ranch. Only seven buildings survived; the sets were soon rebuilt, but another fire destroyed most of Apacheland on February 14, 2004, two days after its 45th anniversary. On October 16, 2004, Apacheland closed its doors to the public permanently; the causes of both fires has not been determined. "Apacheland Museum". Archived from the original on 2014-12-16. Big Sky Ranch is a movie ranch located in California, it has been used for the filming of Western television and film productions. Some of the past television episodes and productions filmed there include: Rawhide, Bonanza, Little House on the Prairie, Highway to Heaven, Father Murphy, The Thorn Birds and Carnivàle.
A fire in 2003 destroyed most of the standing sets, including a replica of the farm house from Little House on the Prairie and sets used in the TV series Gunsmoke and many movies. Circa 1937, Ray "Crash" Corrigan invested in property on the western Santa Susana Pass in California's Simi Valley and Santa Susana Mountains, developing his'Ray Corrigan Ranch' into the'Corriganville Movie Ranch.' Most of the Monogram Range Busters film series, which includes Saddle Mountain Roundup and Bullets and Saddles, were shot here, as well as features such as Fort Apache, The Inspector General, Mysterious Island, hundreds more. Corrigan opened portions of his vast movie ranch to the public in 1949 on weekends to explore such themed sets as a rustic western town, Mexican village, western ranch, outlaw hide-out shacks, cavalry fort, Corsican village, English hunting lodge, country schoolhouse, rodeo arena, mine-shaft, wooded lake, interesting rock formations. In spite of Corriganville's weekend tourist trade, production of films continued.
The action TV series The
Vincent T. Bugliosi, Jr. was an American attorney and New York Times bestselling author. During his eight years in the Los Angeles County District Attorney's Office, he prosecuted 105 out of 106 felony jury trials, which included 21 murder convictions, without a single loss, he was best known for prosecuting Charles Manson and other defendants accused of the seven Tate–LaBianca murders of August 9–10, 1969. Although Manson did not physically participate in the murders at Sharon Tate's home, Bugliosi used circumstantial evidence to show that he had orchestrated the killings. After leaving the Los Angeles district attorney's office in 1972, Bugliosi turned to private practice and represented three criminal defendants, achieving successful acquittals on behalf of all three—the most famous of, Stephanie Stearns, whom he defended for the murder of Eleanor "Muff" Graham which occurred on the South Pacific island of Palmyra Atoll; the case was the subject of his 1991 #1 New York Times bestselling book And the Sea Will Tell that he wrote with Bruce Henderson.
He turned down opportunities to represent famous defendants Jeffrey MacDonald and Dan White because he did not represent anyone whom he believed to be guilty of murder. Bugliosi, along with Curt Gentry, authored the book Helter Skelter in 1974, which presented the account of the investigation and prosecution of Charles Manson and the Manson Family, he wrote Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy and The Prosecution of George W. Bush for Murder. Bugliosi was born on August 1934, in Hibbing, Minnesota to parents of Italian descent. During high school, his family moved to Los Angeles, Bugliosi graduated from Hollywood High School. Bugliosi graduated from the University of Miami in Coral Gables, which he attended on a tennis scholarship. In 1964, he received his law degree from UCLA, he had two children: Wendy and a son, Vince Jr.. He referred to his wife in his books, referencing her understanding and patience with him, he stated that he was an agnostic, although open to the ideas of deism.
After his death, a woman named Linda Alvarez claimed to have carried on a 23 year long affair with Vincent that produced a daughter named Nina, born in 1981, five grandchildren. According to her, the two met in 1978 in Tucson, AZ while she was working as a cocktail waitress, she claimed that they lived together for a time, despite the fact he was married, that he promised to marry her, but never did. She claims that she only revealed this information after his death in order for their daughter to be recognized, although she has no plans to sue his estate; as a Los Angeles County Deputy District Attorney, he prosecuted Charles Manson, Charles "Tex" Watson, Susan Atkins, Patricia Krenwinkel, Leslie Van Houten for the 1969 murders of Sharon Tate, Jay Sebring, Abigail Folger, Wojciech Frykowski, Steven Parent on August 8 and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca on August 9. He wrote, jointly with Curt Gentry, a book about the Manson trial called Helter Skelter; the book won an Edgar Award from the Mystery Writers of America for the best true crime book of the year, spawned two television movies, is the best-selling true crime book in publishing history, with over 7 million copies sold.
In 1972, Bugliosi ran as a Democrat for Los Angeles County District Attorney against longtime incumbent Joseph Busch. Joseph Gellman was his legal counsel for this campaign. Bugliosi narrowly lost the campaign. Bugliosi ran again in 1976, after Busch died of a heart attack in 1975, but lost to interim District Attorney John Van de Kamp. Bugliosi subsequently became an outspoken critic of the media and judges in major trials. Bugliosi wrote a bestselling book, Outrage: The Five Reasons Why O. J. Simpson Got Away with Murder, on the acquittal of O. J. Simpson for the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Lyle Goldman. Bugliosi argues Simpson's guilt and criticizes the work of the district attorney, defense lawyers, Judge Lance Ito, he criticized the media for characterizing Simpson's lawyers as the Dream Team, arguing the lawyers were unremarkable and of average ability. He uses these profiles to illustrate broader problems in American criminal justice, the media, the political appointment of judges.
In the book, Bugliosi is critical of prosecutors Marcia Clark and Christopher Darden. Bugliosi argued that a major mistake in the trial was the District Attorney's assigning Clark and Darden to prosecute it; this was because Bugliosi considered the two to be average prosecutors, who lacked the competence and skill to try such a significant murder case as Simpson's. Bugliosi noted. Bugliosi writes that the note "reeked" of guilt, the jury should have been allowed to see it, he noted that the jury was never told that Simpson was traveling with his friend Cowlings with a change of clothing, a large amount of cash, his passport, a disguise kit. Bugliosi criticized Clark and Darden for not allowing the jury to hear the tape of Simpson's statement to police about cutting his finger the night of the murders, in which he prevaricates over his story. Bugliosi writes that the prosecutors should have gone into more detail about Simpson's abuse of his wife, he writes that it should have been made clear to the African-American jury that Simpson had little impact in the black community and had done nothing to he
Bruce MacLeish Dern is an American actor playing supporting villainous characters of unstable nature. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Coming Home and the Academy Award for Best Actor for Nebraska, his other film appearances include The Cowboys, Family Plot, Black Sunday and The Hateful Eight. Dern was born in the son of Jean and John Dern, a utility chief and attorney, he grew up in Illinois. His paternal grandfather, was a Utah governor and Secretary of War. Dern's maternal grandfather was a chairman of the Carson and Scott stores, his maternal granduncle was poet Archibald MacLeish, his maternal great-grandfather was Scottish-born businessman Andrew MacLeish. Dern's godfather was Illinois governor and two-time presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson II, his ancestry includes Dutch, English and Scottish. He attended the University of Pennsylvania. Dern starred in the Philadelphia premiere of Waiting for Godot. Dern appeared in an uncredited role in Wild River as Jack Roper, so upset with his friend for hitting a woman that he punches himself.
He played the sailor in a few flashbacks with Marnie's mother in Alfred Hitchcock's Marnie. Dern played a murderous rustler in Clint Eastwood's Hang'Em High and a gunfighter in Support Your Local Sheriff!. He played cattle-thief Asa Watts, who murders John Wayne's character in The Cowboys. Wayne warned Dern, "America will hate you for this." Dern replied, "Yeah, but they'll love me in Berkeley." Having played a series of villains, that same year he played against type as a sensitive ecologist in the science-fiction film Silent Running. He played a psychotic Goodyear Blimp pilot who launches a terrorist attack at the Super Bowl in Black Sunday. Dern was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Coming Home. In 1983, he won the Silver Bear for Best Actor at the 33rd Berlin International Film Festival for That Championship Season. In 2013, Dern won the Best Actor Award at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival for Alexander Payne's Nebraska, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor.
Dern was married to Marie Dawn Pierce from 1957 to 1959. He married Diane Ladd in 1960, their first daughter, Diane Elizabeth Dern, died at eighteen months from head injuries after falling into a swimming pool on May 18, 1962. The couple's second daughter, Laura, is an actor. After his divorce from Ladd in 1969, Dern married Andrea Beckett. Dern and their daughter Laura received adjoining stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on November 1, 2010. Bruce Dern on IMDb Bruce Dern at the Internet Broadway Database Bruce Dern at the University of Wisconsin's Actors Studio audio collection Bruce Dern at AllMovie Cinema Retro's Evening with Bruce Dern at The Players, New York City
William Bradley Pitt is an American actor and film producer. He has received multiple awards and nominations including an Academy Award as producer under his own company Plan B Entertainment. Pitt first gained recognition as a cowboy hitchhiker in the road movie Louise, his first leading roles in big-budget productions came with the drama films A River Runs Through It and Legends of the Fall, horror film Interview with the Vampire. He gave critically acclaimed performances in the crime thriller Seven and the science fiction film 12 Monkeys, the latter earning him a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor and an Academy Award nomination. Pitt starred in the cult film Fight Club and the heist film Ocean's Eleven and its sequels, Ocean's Twelve and Ocean's Thirteen, his greatest commercial successes have been Troy, Mr. & Mrs. Smith, World War Z. Pitt received his second and third Academy Award nominations for his leading performances in The Curious Case of Benjamin Button and Moneyball, he produced The Departed and 12 Years a Slave, both of which won the Academy Award for Best Picture, The Tree of Life and The Big Short, all of which garnered Best Picture nominations.
As a public figure, Pitt has been cited as one of the most influential and powerful people in the American entertainment industry. For a number of years, he was cited as the world's most attractive man by various media outlets, his personal life is the subject of wide publicity. In 2000, he married actress Jennifer Aniston. In 2014, Pitt married actress Angelina Jolie, they have six children together. In 2016, Jolie filed for a divorce from Pitt, pending. Pitt was born in Shawnee, Oklahoma, to William Alvin Pitt, the proprietor of a trucking company, Jane Etta, a school counsellor; the family soon moved to Springfield, where he lived together with his younger siblings, Douglas Mitchell and Julie Neal. Born into a conservative household, he was raised as Southern Baptist but has since stated that he does not "have a great relationship with religion" and that he "oscillate between agnosticism and atheism". Pitt has described Springfield as "Mark Twain country, Jesse James country", having grown up with "a lot of hills, a lot of lakes".
Pitt attended Kickapoo High School, where he was a member of the golf and tennis teams. He participated in the school's Key and Forensics clubs, in school debates, in musicals. Following his graduation from high school, Pitt enrolled in the University of Missouri in 1982, majoring in journalism with a focus on advertising; as graduation approached, Pitt did not feel ready to settle down. He loved films—"a portal into different worlds for me"—and, since films were not made in Missouri, he decided to go to where they were made. Two weeks short of completing the coursework for a degree, Pitt left the university and moved to Los Angeles, where he took acting lessons and worked odd jobs, he has named his early acting heroes as Sean Penn and Mickey Rourke. While struggling to establish himself in Los Angeles, Pitt took lessons from acting coach Roy London. Pitt's acting career began in 1987, with uncredited parts in the films No Way Out, No Man's Land and Less Than Zero. In May 1987, his television debut came with a two-episode role on the NBC soap opera Another World.
In November of the same year, Pitt had a guest appearance on the ABC sitcom Growing Pains. He appeared in four episodes of the CBS primetime series Dallas between December 1987 and February 1988 as Randy, the boyfriend of Charlie Wade. In 1988, Pitt made a guest appearance on the Fox police drama 21 Jump Street. In the same year, the Yugoslavian–U. S. Co-production The Dark Side of the Sun gave Pitt his first leading film role, as a young American taken by his family to the Adriatic to find a remedy for a skin condition; the film was shelved at the outbreak of the Croatian War of Independence, was not released until 1997. Pitt made two motion picture appearances in 1989: the first in a supporting role in the comedy Happy Together, he made guest appearances on television series Head of the Class, Freddy's Nightmares and Growing Pains. Pitt was cast as Billy Canton, a drug addict who takes advantage of a young runaway in the 1990 NBC television movie Too Young to Die?, the story of an abused teenager sentenced to death for a murder.
Ken Tucker, television reviewer for Entertainment Weekly wrote: "Pitt is a magnificent slimeball as her hoody boyfriend. The same year, Pitt co-starred in six episodes of the short-lived Fox drama Glory Days and took a supporting role in the HBO television film The Image, his next appearance came in the 1991 film Across the Tracks. After years of supporting roles in film and frequent television guest appearances, Pitt attracted wider recognition in his supporting role in Ridley Scott's 1991 road film Thelma & Louise, he played J. D. a small-time criminal. His love scene with Davis has been cited as the event. After Thelma & Louise, Pitt starred in the 1991 film Johnny Suede, a low-budget picture about an aspiring rock star, the 1992 live-action/animated fantasy film Cool Wor
Chatsworth, Los Angeles
Chatsworth is a neighborhood in the northwestern San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, United States. The area was home to Native Americans. Chatsworth was colonized by the Spanish beginning in the 18th century; the land was part of a Spanish land grant, Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando, in the 19th century, after the United States took over the land following the Mexican–American War, it was the largest such grant in California. Settlement and development followed. Chatsworth has seven public and eight private schools. There are large open-space and smaller recreational parks as well as a public library and a transportation center. Distinctive features are the Santa Susana Field Laboratory. Overall, Chatsworth has one of the lowest densities of any neighborhood in the city, a high income level. Chatsworth is the home of the Iverson Movie Ranch, a 500-acre area, the most filmed movie ranch in history, as more than 2000 productions used it as a filming location; the 2000 U. S. census counted 35,073 residents in the 15.24-square-mile Chatsworth neighborhood, or 2,301 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities for both the city and the county.
In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 37,102. In 2000 the median age for residents was 40, considered old for county neighborhoods; the neighborhood was considered to be ethnically "moderately diverse" for both the city of Los Angeles and its county, with a high percentage of whites and of Asian people, a sizable Hispanic/Latino community. The breakdown was Whites, 65.7%. Korea and the Philippines were the most common places of birth for the 25.2% of the residents who were born abroad—a low figure for Los Angeles. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $84,456, considered high for the city; the percentages of families that earned more than $40,000 was considered high for the county. Renters occupied 28.9% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 71.1%. The average household size of 2.6 people was considered average for Los Angeles. In 2000 there were 2,933 military veterans, or 10.8% of the population, a high percentage compared to the rest of the city.
The percentage of married people was among the county's highest. The rate of 10% of families headed by single parents was low for the city. Chatsworth is flanked by the Santa Susana Mountains on the north, Porter Ranch and Northridge on the east, Canoga Park, West Hills on the south, the Simi Hills, unincorporated Los Angeles County and Ventura County on the west, Twin Lakes, a community founded by San Francisco's George Haight in the early 20th century and unincorporated Los Angeles County which includes a 1,600 acre park with equestrian trails, to the north; this region experiences hot and dry summers, with average daily high temperatures of 90–100 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Chatsworth has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. Chatsworth was inhabited by the Tongva-Fernandeño, Chumash-Venturaño, Tataviam-Fernandeño Native American tribes. Native American civilizations had inhabited the Valley for an estimated 8,000 years. Stoney Point is the site of the Tongva Native American settlement of Asha'awanga or Momonga, a trading place with the neighboring Tataviam and Chumash people.
The nearby Burro Flats Painted Cave remains a legacy of the Chumash culture's rock art and solstice ceremony spirituality. The first European explorers came into the Chatsworth area on August 5, 1769, led by the Spanish military leader Gaspar de Portolà. With its establishment in 1797 and subsequent Spanish Land Grant by the King of Spain, Mission San Fernando gained dominion over the San Fernando Valley's lands, including future Chatsworth; the Native American trail that had existed from the Tongva-Tatavium village called rancheria Santa Susana to another village, replaced by Mission San Fernando, became the route for missionaries and other Spanish travel up and down California. It was part of the El Camino del Santa Susana y Simi trail that connected the Valley's Mission, Los Angeles pueblo, the southern missions with the Mission San Buenaventura, the Presidio of Monterey, the northward missions; the trail crossed over the Santa Susana Pass to the Simi Valley, through present day city park Chatsworth Park South and the Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park.
In 1795, the Spanish land grant had been issued for Rancho Simi, reconfirmed in 1842 by the Mexican governor. Its lands included part of current Chatsworth, westward from Andora Avenue. In 1821, after the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, the Mission San Fernando became part of Alta California, Mexico. In 1834, the Mexican government began redistributing the mission lands. In 1846, the Mexican land grant for Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando was issued by Governor Pío Pico, it was bounded on the north by Rancho San Francisco and the Santa Susana Mountains, on the west by the Simi Hills, on the east by Rancho Tujunga, on the south by the Montañas de Portesuelo. The Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando received a Federal land patent to retain ownership by the United States Public Land Commission in 1873 and was the single largest land grant in California. In 1869, the grantee's son, Eulogio F. de Celis, returned from Spain to Los Angeles. In 1874, the family sold their northern half of Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando to northern Californians, California State Senator Charles Maclay and his part