The Spain national football team has represented Spain in international men's football competition since 1920. It is governed by the governing body for football in Spain. Spain are one of the eight national teams to have been crowned worldwide champions, having participated in a total of 15 of 21 FIFA World Cups and qualifying since 1978. Spain has won three continental titles, having appeared at 10 of 15 UEFA European Championships. Spain became the first European team to win a FIFA World Cup outside of Europe, having won the 2010 tournament in South Africa, as well as having won back-to-back European titles in Euro 2008 and Euro 2012, defeating Germany and Italy in the respective finals, making them the only national team with three consecutive major titles; because of this, from 2008 to 2013, the national team won the FIFA Team of the Year, the second-most of any nation, behind only Brazil. Between February 2007 and June 2009, Spain went undefeated for a record-equalling 35 consecutive matches, a record shared with Brazil.
Their achievements have led many experts and commentators to consider the 2008–2012 Spanish squads, among the best international sides in world football. Spain has been a member of FIFA since FIFA's foundation in 1904 though the Spanish Football Federation was first established in 1909; the first Spain national football team was constituted in 1920, with the main objective of finding a team that would represent Spain at the Summer Olympics held in Belgium in that same year. Spain made their debut at the tournament on 28 August 1920 against Denmark, silver medallists at the last two Olympic tournaments; the Spanish managed to win that match by a scoreline of 1–0 finishing with the silver medal. Spain qualified for their first FIFA World Cup in 1934, defeating Brazil in their first game and losing in a replay to the hosts and eventual champions Italy in the quarter-finals; the Spanish Civil War and World War II prevented Spain from playing any competitive matches between the 1934 World Cup and the 1950 edition's qualifiers.
At the 1950 finals in Brazil, they topped their group to progress to the final round finished in fourth place. Until 2010, this had been Spain's highest finish in a FIFA World Cup finals, which had given them the name of the "underachievers". Spain won its first major international title when hosting the 1964 European Championship held in Spain, defeating the Soviet Union 2–1 in the final at the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium; the victory would stand as Spain's lone major title for 44 years. Spain was selected as host of the 1982 FIFA World Cup, reaching the second round and four years they reached the quarter-finals before a penalty shootout defeat to Belgium. Spain reached the quarter-finals of the 1994 World Cup; the match became controversial when Italian defender Mauro Tassotti struck Luis Enrique with his elbow inside Spain's penalty area, causing Luis Enrique to bleed profusely from his nose and mouth, but the foul was not noticed nor sanctioned by referee Sándor Puhl. Had the official acknowledged the foul, Spain would have merited a penalty kick.
In the 2002 World Cup, Spain won its three group play matches defeated the Republic of Ireland on penalties in the second round. They faced co-hosts South Korea in the quarter-finals, losing in a shootout after having two goals controversially called back for alleged infractions during regular and extra time. At UEFA Euro 2008, Spain won all their games in Group D. Italy were the opponents in the quarter-final match, they met Russia again in the semi-final, beating them 3–0. In the final, Spain defeated Germany 1–0, with Fernando Torres scoring the only goal of the game; this was Spain's first major title since the 1964 European Championship. Xavi was awarded the player of the tournament. In the 2010 World Cup, Spain advanced to the final for the first time by defeating Germany 1–0. In the decisive match against the Netherlands, Andrés Iniesta scored the match's only goal, coming in extra time. Spain became the third team to win a World Cup outside their own continent, the first European team to do so.
Goalkeeper Iker Casillas won the golden glove for only conceding two goals during the tournament, while David Villa won the bronze ball and silver boot, tied for top scorer of the tournament. Spain qualified top of Group I in qualification for UEFA Euro 2012 with a perfect 100% record, they became the first team to retain the European Championship, winning the final 4–0 against Italy, while Fernando Torres won the Golden Boot for top scorer of the tournament. Two years however, they were eliminated from the group stage of the 2014 World Cup. At Euro 2016 and the 2018 World Cup, the side reached the last 16. Spanish team is known by fans as "La Furia Roja", meaning the Red Fury in Spanish. However, there are another unofficial nicknames to refer to the national team of Spain; the other most common nickname, known by fans, is "Los Toros", since Spanish Fighting Bull is one of Spain's famous national treasures and used to define Spanish culture, often depicted by Spanish supporters alike. Spanish football team is sometimes referred as the Bulls due to this cultural heritage.
Spanish team received other nicknames "Toreros" or "Matador", both meanings are Bullfighters in Spanish, to describe its passionate and romantic style of football playing. During Spain's most successful period between 2008 and 2012, the team played a style of football dubbed'tiki-taka', a systems approach to football founded upon the ideal of team unity and a comprehensive understanding in the geometry of space on a football field. Tiki-taka has been variously described as "a style of pl
Makemake is an IAU-recognized dwarf planet and the second largest Kuiper belt object in the classical population, with a diameter two-thirds that of Pluto. Makemake has one known satellite, S/2015 1. Makemake's low average temperature, about 40 K, means its surface is covered with methane and nitrogen ices. Makemake was discovered on March 31, 2005, by a team led by Michael E. Brown, announced on July 29, 2005, it was known as 2005 FY9 and given the minor-planet number 136472. In July 2008 it was named after Makemake, the creator god of the Rapa Nui people of Easter Island, under the expectation by the International Astronomical Union that it would prove to be a dwarf planet. Makemake was discovered on March 31, 2005, by a team at the Palomar Observatory, led by Michael E. Brown, was announced to the public on July 29, 2005; the team had planned to delay announcing their discoveries of the bright objects Makemake and Eris until further observations and calculations were complete, but announced them both on July 29 when the discovery of another large object they had been tracking, was controversially announced on July 27 by a different team in Spain.
Despite its relative brightness, Makemake was not discovered until after many much fainter Kuiper belt objects. Most searches for minor planets are conducted close to the ecliptic, due to the greater likelihood of finding objects there, it escaped detection during the earlier surveys due to its high orbital inclination, the fact that it was at its farthest distance from the ecliptic at the time of its discovery, in the northern constellation of Coma Berenices. Precovery images have been identified back to January 29, 1955. Besides Pluto, Makemake is the only other dwarf planet, bright enough that Clyde Tombaugh could have detected it during his search for trans-Neptunian planets around 1930. At the time of Tombaugh's survey, Makemake was only a few degrees from the ecliptic, near the border of Taurus and Auriga, at an apparent magnitude of 16.0. This position, was very near the Milky Way, Makemake would have been impossible to find against the dense background of stars. Tombaugh continued searching for some years after the discovery of Pluto, but he did not find Makemake or any other trans-Neptunian objects.
The provisional designation 2005 FY9 was given to Makemake. Before that, the discovery team used the codename "Easterbunny" for the object, because of its discovery shortly after Easter. In July 2008, in accordance with IAU rules for classical Kuiper belt objects, 2005 FY9 was given the name of a creator deity; the name of Makemake, the creator of humanity and god of fertility in the myths of the Rapa Nui, the native people of Easter Island, was chosen in part to preserve the object's connection with Easter. As of April 2019, Makemake is 52.5 AU from the Sun as far from the Sun as it reaches on its orbit. Makemake follows an orbit similar to that of Haumea: inclined at 29° and a moderate eccentricity of about 0.16. Makemake's orbit is farther from the Sun in terms of both the semi-major axis and perihelion, its orbital period is more than Pluto's 248 years and Haumea's 285 years. Both Makemake and Haumea are far from the ecliptic. Makemake is approaching its 2033 aphelion, whereas Haumea passed its aphelion in early 1992.
Makemake is a classical Kuiper belt object, which means its orbit lies far enough from Neptune to remain stable over the age of the Solar System. Unlike plutinos, which can cross Neptune's orbit due to their 2:3 resonance with the planet, the classical objects have perihelia further from the Sun, free from Neptune's perturbation; such objects have low eccentricities and orbit the Sun in much the same way the planets do. Makemake, however, is a member of the "dynamically hot" class of classical KBOs, meaning that it has a high inclination compared to others in its population. Makemake is coincidentally, near the 13:7 resonance with Neptune. Makemake is visually the second-brightest Kuiper belt object after Pluto, having a March opposition apparent magnitude of 17.0 it will pass from its present constellation Coma Berenices to Boötes in December 2027. It is bright enough to be visible using a high-end amateur telescope. Combining the detection in infrared by the Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Telescope with the similarities of spectrum with Pluto yielded an estimated diameter from 1,360 to 1,480 km.
From the 2011 stellar occultation by Makemake, its dimensions have been measured to be × km. However, the occultation data was reanalyzed, which led to the dimension estimate of × without a pole-orientation constraint. Makemake was the fourth dwarf planet recognized, because it has a bright V-band absolute magnitude of −0.2. Makemake has a high geometrical albedo of 0.81+0.01−0.02. The rotation period of Makemake is estimated at 22.83 hours. A rotation period of 7.77 hours published in 2009 turned out to be an alias of the actual rotation period. The possibility of this had been mentioned in the 2009 study, the data from that study agrees well with the 22.83 hour period. This rotation period is long for a dwarf planet. Part of this may be due to tidal acceleration from Makemake's satellite, it has been suggested that a second large, undiscovered satellite might better explain the dwarf
Who's Singin' Over There? is a 1980 Yugoslav film written by Dušan Kovačević and directed by Slobodan Šijan. It features an ensemble cast; the film tells a story about a group of passengers traveling by bus to Belgrade in 1941, during the last days of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, just before the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia. The film was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1981 Cannes Film Festival. In 1996, the Yugoslav Board of the Academy of Film Art and Science voted this movie the best Serbian movie made in the 1947–1995 period. On Saturday, 5 April 1941, one day before the Axis invasion of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, a colourful group of random passengers on a country road deep in the heart of Serbia board a dilapidated bus, headed for the capital Belgrade; the group includes two Gypsy musicians, a World War I veteran, a Germanophile, a budding singer, a sickly looking man, a hunter with a shotgun. The bus is driven by his impressionable and dim-witted son Miško. Along the way, they are joined by a priest and a pair of young newlyweds who are on their way to the seaside for their honeymoon, are faced with numerous difficulties: a flat tire, a shaky bridge, a farmer who's ploughed over the road, a funeral, two feuding families, Krstić Jr.'s recruitment into the army, a lost wallet.
All these expose rifts among the travelers. During the early morning of Sunday, 6 April, amid rumours of war, they reach Belgrade only to be caught in the middle of the Luftwaffe raid; the only surviving passengers are the two Gypsy musicians who sing the film's theme song before the end. Right from the start, through conversations about current events, issues of the day, general chit-chat, the characters' individual traits and sensibilities are established. None of the passengers refer to each other by name considering they're seeing each other for the first time and don't seem too keen on forging any deeper relationships. Although a comedy on the outer level, the movie's layers reveal many observant details that indicate the Serbian society's structure and atmosphere at the time; the old World War I veteran is a cranky oldtimer on his way to Belgrade to visit his drafted son. He's gratified that his successor is continuing the family's proud military tradition and doesn't miss an opportunity to let anybody caring to listen know about it.
He's the only passenger whose name we learn when he defiantly states it along with his military regalia during a random conversation. Being irritable, he is cantankerous in his dealings with the other passengers, he only addresses them when he's got something to complain and vent his anger about. The old man expresses non-verbal concern about German rampage through Europe, in full swing at the time, but doesn't indicate a shred of fear regarding a possible attack on Yugoslavia. At one point, in response to Germanophile's praise of German medicine and work ethic, he confidently and angrily retorts: "I gather you'd kinda like it if those scumbags came again. Bring'em on, I was picking them off like fleas'round these parts in 1917". In another situation while paying for the bus ticket, the veteran asks conductor Krstić Sr. if he can ride for free, reasoning that he's taking money to his son in the military who "needs every dinar he can get". Krstić Sr. refuses, to which budding singer chimes in cynically from the back of the bus: "C'mon, let the old-timer ride for free, you can see he doesn't have a pot to piss in".
Steamed by the snide comment, the veteran hops to his feet fuming and demanding to be sold 5 tickets in order to prove his buying power. Krstic Sr. turns him down again, this time angrily, sells him a single ticket. The Germanophile is the polar opposite of the impulsive veteran, hence serving as a character foil to him. Speaking in proper and pointed tone, he displays constant subtle disdain for the surroundings he moves about in. From his straight posture with a nose pointed upwards to frequent condescending remarks, everything about him seems to indicate a personal opinion about being too good for people that surround him, it is never explicitly indicated. He is, however, in utter awe of all aspects of German lifestyle. In the above testy discussion with the veteran, his parting shot regarding a possible Nazi invasion of Yugoslavia is: "Well, listen sir, at least we'd see some order around here"; the Germanophile is quick to criticize. While talking to the consumptive about a personal propensity for collecting rare rocks and folk tales, he laments the lack of interest in his activities that he encounters from everyday people.
He is the first to castigate, chastising the young married couple for having been seen enjoying sex in the woods. As the two are doing the deed, unknowingly being peeped on by the rest of the passengers, he remarks while watching them in disgust: "Have they no shame?". When reminded by the budding singer about the fact that "we came here to watch them", the Germanophile reasons that "that has no relevance". On the bus, the humiliated young bride offers him her seat, but he vehemently refuses: "You've shown yourself in that bush - who you are and what you are". Still when it is discovered that the veteran's wallet is missing and as Krstic Sr. announces he'd search every one of the passengers until wallet is produced, the Germanophile stops him: "Why bother all these honest people when we know who around here likes to steal" pointing to two Gypsies, thus prompting their wrongful beating since the wallet was dropped along the way. The speech patterns, manne