FIFA U-17 World Cup
The FIFA U-17 World Championship is a competition that was inspired by the Lion City Cup that was created by the Football Association of Singapore in 1977. The Lion City Cup is the first under-16 football tournament in the world, following FIFAs secretary-general Joe Blatters recommendation after he was in Singapore for the 1982 Lion City Cup, FIFA created the FIFA U-16 World Championship. The first edition was staged in 1985 in China, and tournaments have been played two years since then. It began as a competition for players under the age of 16 with the age limit raised to 17 from the 1991 edition onwards, the most recent tournament was hosted by Chile and won by Nigeria, with the next edition being hosted by India in 2017. Nigeria is the most successful nation in the history, with five titles. Brazil is the second-most successful with three titles and two runners-up, Ghana and Mexico have won the tournament twice. A corresponding tournament for players, the FIFA U-17 Womens World Cup, began in 2008.
This continues until two remain to contest the final, which decides the tournament winner. The losing semi-finalists contest a match to third place. From 1985 to 2005 there were 16 teams in the competition, each team played the others in its group and the group winner and runner up qualified for the knockout phase. From 2007 the tournament was expanded to 24 teams, divided into six groups of four teams each, the top 2 places in each group plus the four best third-placed teams advanced to the knockout phase. Competition matches are played in two 45-minute halves, in the knockout phase, until the 2011 tournament, if tied at the end of 90 minutes an additional 30 minutes of extra time were played, followed by a penalty shoot-out if still tied. Starting with the 2011 tournament, the time period was eliminated to avoid player burnout. The host nation of each tournament qualifies automatically, the remaining teams qualify through competitions organised by the six regional confederations. For the first edition of the tournament in 1985, all of the teams from Europe plus Bolivia appeared by invitation of FIFA.
Key, aet - after extra time PSO - match won on penalty shootout Africa is the most successful continental zone with 7 tournament wins and 6 times as runner up. Notably the 1993 final was contested by two African teams, when the final has been contested by two teams from the same confederation. The African teams repeated the 1993 final with Mali replacing Ghana in 2015 when Nigeria, south America has 3 tournament wins and has been runner up three times
In British sport, a cap is a metaphorical term for a players appearance in a game at international level. The term dates from the practice in the United Kingdom of awarding a cap to every player in a match of association football. An early illustration of the first international match between Scotland and England in 1872 shows the Scottish players wearing cowls, and the English wearing a variety of school caps. These to be termed International Caps, the act of awarding a cap is now international and is applied to other sports. Thus, a cap is awarded for each game played and so a player who has played x games, the practice of awarding a physical cap varies from sport to sport. It may be awarded prior to a debut or, particularly for national teams. As an example, the England mens association football teams still awards physical caps, Players are awarded one cap for every match they play — unless they play in a World Cup or European Championship finals tournament. Then they are given a cap for the competition — with the names of all their opponents stitched into the fabric of the cap itself.
In mens association football, the record belongs to former player Ahmed Hassan of Egypt, the first footballer to win 100 international caps was Billy Wright of Englands Wolverhampton Wanderers. Wright went on to appear 105 times for England,90 of them he obtained whilst he was a captain, however, it is a players choice to refuse to play for or retire from his or her national team. In cricket, there are two types of caps, there is the international type, as described above. Some countries award a domestic type generally known as a county cap, the latter system is most commonly applied in English county cricket. Most counties do not automatically award caps to players on their first appearance, indeed, one can play at the highest domestic level for several years, and have a quite significant career in first-class cricket, without ever winning a cap. The world record for the number of caps in Test cricket is held by Sachin Tendulkar of India, Tendulkar holds the record for One Day Internationals, with 463 caps.
In rugby union,35 players have reached 100 international caps as of 5 June 2012, Players from England, Scotland and Ireland are eligible for selection to the British and Irish Lions touring squad. Lions matches are classed as full international tests, and caps are awarded, the Pacific Islanders team, composed of players from Fiji, Tonga and Cook Islands have a similar arrangement, although no players involved have so far reached 100 caps. Players still active at Test level are in bold type, the record for most caps is held by former Australian Kangaroos player & captain Darren Lockyer with 59 games and second place is former New Zealand Kiwis player & captain Ruben Wiki with 55 games. Players still active at Test level are in bold type, mens Records and Facts FIFA Players with 100+ Caps RSSSF Picture of International Football Cap National Museum of Scotland Gallery of International Caps and Honours Caps
Yugoslavia national under-21 football team
The Yugoslavia national under-21 football team existed in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The team had a record, reaching the last four in four tournaments. Yugoslavia won the competition in 1978. Since the under-21 competition rules insist that players must be 21 or under at the start of a two-year competition, yugoslavias record in U-23 competitions is shown. Yugoslavia were randomly chosen to play holders Bulgaria for the title and they faced other randomly chosen teams until the competition was abandoned in summer 1970 for a larger competition. October 26,1968, Bulgaria 1-2 Yugoslavia June 6,1969, Yugoslavia 3-0 Spain November 6,1969, Yugoslavia 2-0 Sweden March 24,1970, Greece 1-5 Yugoslavia 1972, finished 2nd of 3 in qualification group. Finished 2nd of 3 in qualification group and this was competed for on a basis similar to a boxing title belt. The holders played a randomly chosen opponent for the championship, finished 2nd of 3 in qualification group. Finished 4th of 4 in qualification group, finished 3rd of 3 in qualification group.
Finished 2nd of 4 in qualification group, three times Balkan Youth Championship winners. European Under-21 Football Championship UEFA Under-21 website Contains full results archive The Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation Contains full record of U-21/U-23 Championships
2011 UEFA European Under-21 Championship
UEFA European Under-21 Championship 2011 was the 18th staging of UEFAs European Under-21 Championship. The final tournament was hosted by Denmark between 11 and 25 June 2011, the Danish bid was chosen by UEFAs Executive Committee on 10 December 2008 in Nyon, Switzerland. This bid defeated the other bid from Israel, qualification for the final tournament took place between March 2009 and October 2010. Spain won their third title after defeating Switzerland 2–0 in the final, the organisation of the event was initially contested by only two bids and Israel. The bids were submitted on 15 June 2008, the bids were inspected between June and September 2008, and a report was given to the National Team Competition Committee in October. The committee discussed the bids on 27 November 2008 and issued a recommendation to the UEFA Executive Committee, the draw for the 2011 UEFA European Under-21 Championship qualifying round took place in Århus on 4 February 2009. The qualifying draw determined the makeup of ten groups, ten groups were formed in the qualifying draw including two sections of six sides and eight of five, as teams chase 7 finals places alongside host Denmark.
The seeding pots are formed on the basis of performance in the tournament. All groups contained one nation from the first five pots and two sections included a team from Pot 6, the six European federations that have qualified for the 2009 FIFA U-20 World Cup were each drawn in one of the six groups of five teams. The tournament was used as the European qualifying tournament for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London with the top teams qualifying for London 2012, the four British federations entered the qualification process as single entities, but are not eligible to qualify for the Olympics. If one or more British teams had qualified for the Championship, as Great Britain is the host nation for the 2012 Olympics, it is entitled to an automatic place in the competition. This caused controversy as in the Olympics, Great Britain competes as a unified country. Scotland and Northern Ireland all logged public objections to the idea of a GB team at the Olympics, a compromise was reached in 2009 whereby England would field a team for the tournament, while the other three would not participate, but not object to Englands involvement.
On 20 September 2010 it was announced that Aarhus Stadion would host the final, further Aalborg Stadion was confirmed as the venue for the opening match and the eventual Olympic qualifying play-off. The semifinals were played at Herning Stadium and Viborg Stadion and it was published that Denmark would play all of its matches in Aalborg and Aarhus. The final tournament consisted of two groups of four, with the top two from each progressing to the semifinals where it becomes a knockout competition, in the finals held a year before a summer Olympic Games the championship serves as qualification for the Olympic Football Tournament. Players were eligible for the 2011 UEFA European Under-21 Championship if they were born on or than 1 January 1988, the draw for the final tournament took place on 9 November 2010 at Aalborg Congress & Culture Centre in Aalborg. Similar to former tournaments, the games in group are to be held at just two stadia
Gerard Deulofeu Lázaro is a Spanish professional footballer who plays for Italian club Milan, on loan from English club Everton. Mainly as a winger, he can play as a forward. He started his career with Barcelona, first appearing with the first team at the age of 17, in 2014, he made his debut for the Spain national football team. Born in Riudarenes, Catalonia, Deulofeu joined FC Barcelonas youth academy in 2003 at the age of nine, in 2005, he was promoted to the U-13 team. In late April 2011, Deulofeu was called up to the squad for the first time, for a La Liga match against Real Sociedad on 29 April. On 3 August he made his Barcelona first-team debut, in a 1–4 friendly loss against C. D, three days later, against Club América, he assisted Seydou Keita in the 90th minute of a 2–0 win. On 16 September 2012, Deulofeu scored his first goal as a senior, on 29 October he made his first official appearance with the main squad, replacing Cesc Fàbregas in the 63rd minute of a 5–0 league home success against RCD Mallorca.
Deulofeu scored 18 goals for the Bs in the 2012–13 season, on 15 May 2013 he signed a professional contract with the Blaugrana first team, running until June 2017. On 10 July 2013, Premier League side Everton signed Deulofeu on a season-long loan, the Liverpool Echo reported that any loan fee would be waived if he made appearances in more than 50% of his new clubs games. He scored on his debut for his new club, a 2–1 home win over Stevenage in the round of the Football League Cup on 29 August. On 30 November, Deulofeu scored his first league goal for the Toffees and his second came eight days later, through an 85th-minute strike at Arsenal to earn a 1–1 draw. On 14 December 2013, Deulofeu suffered an injury during Evertons 4–1 victory over Fulham. He scored his third and last goal on 15 March of the following year, in May 2014, Deulofeu was granted a first-team place by new Barcelona manager Luis Enrique. However, on 14 August 2014, Sevilla FC reached an agreement with Barcelona for the loan of Deulofeu for the coming season, with the player admitting surprise at Enriques decision.
After being a substitute in a 1–1 home draw against Valencia CF. He made his UEFA Europa League debut on 18 September and providing assists for goals in a 2–0 home victory against Feyenoord. On 24 September Deulofeu scored his first goal for the Andalusians and his loan was considered hugely unsuccessful, the Spanish newspaper Marca selected him in their La Liga Worst team of the season. Deulofeu joined Everton permanently on 1 July 2015, for a fee reported to be £4.2 million
El Ejido is a municipality of Almería province, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. It´s located 32 km from Almería with an area of 227 km². El Ejido is a centre of production for fruit and vegetables, the work opportunities the city provides attract many expatriates, who look for jobs mainly in the greenhouses that surround it. This gives a solid push to its economy and vegetables from El Ejido are grown using Biological pest control. In close proximity to the city along the coast line is situated Almerimar, El Ejido, la loi du profit Viva Almeria El Ejido - Sistema de Información Multiterritorial de Andalucía
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sports Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, footballers generally wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. Professional clubs usually display players surnames or nicknames on their shirts, Football kit has evolved significantly since the early days of the sport when players typically wore thick cotton shirts and heavy rigid leather boots. The Laws of the Game set out the equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4. Five separate items are specified, shorts, footwear, goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify that these are required, shirts must have sleeves, and goalkeepers must wear shirts which are easily distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts may be worn, but must be the colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered entirely by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, and provide a reasonable degree of protection.
The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player must not use equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player. In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour. The England national team plays in red shirts even when it is not required. Many professional clubs have a kit, ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the basic colour scheme for several decades. Teams representing countries in international competition generally wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation, shirts are normally made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed, competitions such as the Premier League may require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition.
The captain of team is usually required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify him as the captain to the referee. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be either of leather or a synthetic material. Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread
The Union of European Football Associations is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia. It is one of six continental confederations of world footballs governing body FIFA, UEFA consists of 55 national association members. Until 1959 the main headquarters were located in Paris, and in Bern, in 1995, UEFA headquarters were transferred to Nyon, Switzerland. Henri Delaunay was the first general secretary and Ebbe Schwartz the first president, UEFA was founded on 15 June 1954 in Basel, Switzerland after consultation between the Italian and Belgian associations. The European football union began with 25 members, that number doubled by the early 1990s, UEFA membership coincides for the most part with recognition as a sovereign country in Europe, although there are some exceptions. Some UEFA members are not sovereign states, but form part of a recognized sovereign state in the context of international law. Some UEFA members are transcontinental states, countries which had been members of the Asian Football Confederation were admitted to the European football association, particularly Israel and Kazakhstan.
Additionally some UEFA member associations allow teams from outside their associations main territory to take part in their domestic competition, saarland Football Union 1954–1956 German football association of the German Democratic Republic 1954–1990 Football Federation of the Soviet Union 1954–1991, in 1992 became Russian Football Union. The newly independent 14 Soviet Republics created their own football associations, Football Association of Yugoslavia 1954–1992, became Football Association of Serbia and Montenegro. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia became independent, Football Association of Serbia and Montenegro 1992–2006, became Football Association of Serbia. Montenegro, which became independent, created its own football association, the main competition for mens national teams is the UEFA European Football Championship, started in 1958, with the first finals in 1960, and known as the European Nations Cup until 1964. It is called UEFA or the EURO, UEFA runs national competitions at Under-21, Under-19 and Under-17 levels.
For womens national teams, UEFA operates the UEFA Womens Championship for senior sides as well as Womens Under-19. UEFA organized the UEFA-CAF Meridian Cup with CAF for youth teams in an effort to boost youth football, UEFA launched the UEFA Regions Cup, for semi-professional teams representing their local region, in 1999. In futsal there is the UEFA Futsal Championship and UEFA Futsal Under-21 Championship, the Italian, German and French mens national teams are the sole teams to have won the European football championship in all categories. A second, lower-ranked competition is the UEFA Europa League and this competition, for national knockout cup winners and high-placed league teams, was launched by UEFA in 1971 as a successor of both the former UEFA Cup and the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. A third competition, the UEFA Cup Winners Cup, which had started in 1960, was absorbed into the UEFA Cup in 1999, in womens football UEFA conducts the UEFA Womens Champions League for club teams. The competition was first held in 2001, and known as the UEFA Womens Cup until 2009, the UEFA Super Cup pits the winners of the Champions League against the winners of the Europa League, and came into being in 1973
2013 UEFA European Under-21 Championship
2013 UEFA European Under-21 Championship was the 19th staging of UEFAs European Under-21 Championship. The final tournament was hosted by Israel between the 5–18 June 2013, the Israeli bid was chosen by UEFAs Executive Committee on 27 January 2011 in Nyon, Switzerland. This bid defeated the other bids from Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Spain defended the title they won two years prior, winning their fourth title after defeating Italy 4–2 in the final. The draw for the stage of qualifying for the 2013 UEFA European Under-21 Championship took place on 3 February in Nyon. 52 national teams took part in the qualifying, the group stage of qualifying began on 25 March 2011. There were a total of ten groups, consisting of five or six teams each, all the teams in each group faced each other two times, at home and away. The team at the top of group and the four best second-placed teams qualified to the playoff round. In the playoff round, the 14 teams were drawn to play seven two-legged matches, the winners joined Israel in the tournament finals.
The draw for the tournament took place on 28 November 2012 in Tel Aviv. As the highest-ranked team according to the competition coefficient rankings, Spain are one of the top two seeds alongside hosts Israel and those two sides will be drawn into separate groups, as will the second and third-ranked teams in the list and the Netherlands. The remaining four countries are unseeded and will be placed in the positions in the two four-team sections. The deadline for the submission of the final 23-man squads was ten days before the opening match, the draw for the group stage was held on 28 November 2012 in Tel Aviv. The UEFA Technical Team was charged with naming a squad composed of the 23 best players over the course of the tournament, with eleven, have the most players in the team of the tournament. UEFA Team of the Tournament 4 goals 3 goals Thiago Isco 2 goals 1 goal The official ball for the UEFA European Under-21 Championship was unveiled during the draw in Tel Aviv on 28 November 2012. The ball has the blue and white colours as tournament hosts Israel and its design features the same thermally bonded triangular patterns as the adidas Tango 12.
After Israel was announced as host, there were calls to boycott the tournament, the most prominent petition against the tournament taking place in Israel was organised by the Palestine Solidarity Campaign, which demanded UEFA President Michel Platini reverse his decision. Didier Drogba, for example, claimed he never signed the petition, is it List of UEFA European Under-21 Championship United States, ESPN, ESPN2 or ESPN3 Brazil, SporTV Spanish speaking Latin America, DirecTV Sports / SKY. Free TV Uruguay, Monte Carlo TV Paraguay, SNT and Paravisión Ecuador, RTS, Telecanal Perú ATV and Global TV Venezuela, RCTV and TVes Official website The official website of the tournament in Hebrew
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established and episkyros were Greek ball games.
An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. It is located in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately 122 m above sea level. In the last official census of 2011 the population of the City of Zagreb was 792,875, the wider Zagreb metropolitan area includes the City of Zagreb and the separate Zagreb County bringing the total metropolitan area population up to 1,237,887. It is the biggest metropolitan area in Croatia, and the one with a population of over one million. Zagreb is a city with a history dating from the Roman times to the present day. The oldest settlement located in the vicinity of the city was the Roman Andautonia, the name Zagreb is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at Kaptol in 1094. Zagreb became a royal town in 1242. In 1851 Zagreb had its first mayor, Janko Kamauf, and in 1945 it was made the capital of Croatia when the demographic boom, the city extends over 30 kilometres east-west and around 20 kilometres north-south.
The transport connections, concentration of industry and research institutions, Zagreb is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, and almost all government ministries. Almost all of the largest Croatian companies and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city and it is a city known for its diverse economy, high quality of living, museums and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are high-tech industries and the service sector, the etymology of the name Zagreb is unclear. It was used of the city only from 1852, but it had been in use as the name of the Zagreb dioecese since the 12th century. The name is first recorded in a charter by Ostrogon archbishop Felician, dated 1134, the older form of the name is Zagrab, the modern Croatian form Zagreb is first recorded in a 1689 map by Nicolas Sanson. An even older form is reflected in Hungarian Zabrag, for this, Desy proposes the etymology of Chabrag, a well-attested hypocorism of the name Cyprian. The same form is reflected in a number of Hungarian toponyms, the name Agram was used in German in the Habsburg period, this name has been classified as probably of Roman origin but according to Desy it could be an Austrian German reanalysis of *Zugram.
In Middle Latin and Modern Latin, Zagreb is known as Agranum, in Croatian folk etymology, the name of the city has been derived from either the verb za-grab-, meaning to scoop or to dig. One folk legend illustrating this derivation ties the name to a drought of the early 14th century, in another legend, a city governor is thirsty and orders a girl named Manda to scoop water from Manduševac well, using the imperative, Mando. The oldest settlement located near todays Zagreb was a Roman town of Andautonia, now Šćitarjevo and Kaptol were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić, who was credited for this, with the naming the main city square, Ban Jelačić Square in his honour
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously