Spandex, Lycra or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. It is a polyether-polyurea copolymer, invented in 1958 by chemist Joseph Shivers at DuPont's Benger Laboratory in Waynesboro, Virginia; the name "spandex" is an anagram of the word "expands". It is the preferred name in North America. Brand names for spandex include Lycra, Acepora, Creora, INVIYA, ROICA and Dorlastan, ESPA. Dupont textiles scientist Joseph C. Shivers was determined to find a fiber to replace rubber in garments, he made a breakthrough in the early 1950s when he used an intermediate substance to modify Dacron polyester. This modification produced a stretchy fiber. After nearly a decade of research the fiber was perfected in 1959. Called Fiber K, DuPont chose the trade name Lycra to distinguish its brand of spandex fiber. Spandex fibers are produced in four ways: melt extrusion, reaction spinning, solution dry spinning, solution wet spinning. All of these methods include the initial step of reacting monomers to produce a prepolymer.
Once the prepolymer is formed, it is reacted further in various ways and drawn out to make the fibers. The solution dry spinning method is used to produce over 94.5% of the world's spandex fibers, the process has five steps: 1. The first step is to produce the prepolymer; this is done by mixing a macroglycol with a diisocyanate monomer. The two compounds are mixed in a reaction vessel to produce a prepolymer. A typical ratio of glycol to diisocyanate is 1:2. 2. The prepolymer is further reacted with an equal amount of diamine; this reaction is known as chain extension reaction. The resulting solution is diluted with a solvent to produce the spinning solution; the solvent helps make the solution thinner and more handled, it can be pumped into the fiber production cell. 3. The spinning solution is pumped into a cylindrical spinning cell where it is cured and converted into fibers. In this cell, the polymer solution is forced through a metal plate called a spinneret; this causes the solution to be aligned in strands of liquid polymer.
As the strands pass through the cell, they are heated in the presence of solvent gas. This process causes the liquid polymer to form solid strands. 4. As the fibers exit the cell, an amount of solid strands are bundled together to produce the desired thickness; each fiber of spandex is made up of many smaller individual fibers that adhere to one another because of the natural stickiness of their surface. 5. The resulting fibers are treated with a finishing agent which can be magnesium stearate or a polymer; this treatment aids in textile manufacture. The fibers are transferred through a series of rollers onto a spool. In the post World War II era, DuPont Textiles Fibers Department, formed in 1952, became its most popular division, dominating the synthetic fiber market worldwide. At this time, women began to emerge as a significant group of consumers because of their need for underwear and hosiery. DuPont conducted market research to find out what women wanted from textiles began developing fibers to meet their needs.
The "need" was a better fiber solution for women's girdles, which were made of rubber at the time. DuPont became interested in developing a synthetic elastic fiber in the 1930s, perfected by chemist Joseph Shivers in 1959. Spandex's transformative nature allowed it to be incorporated into other garments besides girdles and undergarments. DuPont launched an extensive publicity campaign for its Lycra brand, taking advertisements and full-page ads in top women's magazines such as Vogue, Harper Bazaar, Mademoiselle, McCalls, Ladies Home Journal, Good Housekeeping. Fashion's original style icon, Audrey Hepburn helped catapult the brand on and off-screen in the late 1950s. By the mid-1970s, girdle sales began to drop with the emergence of the Women's Liberation Movement. Girdles came to be associated with anti-independence and emblematic of an era, passing away. DuPont was not ready to abandon a market that they were reliant on. In response, DuPont reimagined; this expansion furthered at the 1968 Winter Olympic Games when the French ski team wore Lycra garments to compete.
This popularized the brand as essential athletic wear because of its flexible and lightweight material. The fiber proved to be popular in mid-thigh-length shorts worn by cyclists. By the 1980s, the fitness trend had reached its height in popularity and fashionistas began wearing shorts on the street. Spandex proved such a popular fiber in the garment industry that by 1987 DuPont had trouble meeting worldwide demand. In the 1990s a variety of other items made with Spandex proved popular, including a successful line of body-shaping foundation garments sold under the trade name Bodyslimmers; as the decade progressed, pants and shoes were being made with spandex blends, mass-market retailers like Banana Republic were using it for menswear. The elasticity and strength (stretching up to five times its
Bhekumuzi Hyacinth Mseleku known as Bheki Mseleku, was a jazz musician from South Africa. He was a pianist, guitarist and arranger, self-taught. Mseleku's father was a musician and teacher, a Cambridge University music graduate, who had religious beliefs that prevented his children from ready access to the family's upright piano in case any of them should pursue something as "devilish" as music, his mother gave him the keys while his father was away, but the piano ended up as firewood one winter's evening. During his childhood, Mseleku suffered the loss of the upper joints of two fingers in his right hand from a go-karting accident, he explained in a 1994 South Bank Show dedicated to him that this was wholly due to the restricted health care available to Black South Africans under Apartheid. Mseleku started his musical career in Johannesburg in 1975 as an electric organ player for an R&B band, Spirits Rejoice. After performing at the Newport Jazz Festival in 1977, Mseleku settled in Botswana for a time, moved to London, England, in the late 1970s, made an attempt to settle into the jazz scene in Stockholm from 1980 to 1983, but returned to London.
It was not until 1987 that Mseleku made his debut at the prominent Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club, playing piano unaccompanied by other musicians, with a tenor saxophone in his lap. His 1991 album Celebration, which featured Courtney Pine among a number of British players as guests, was nominated for a Mercury Music Prize. After this, he was taken up by the major Verve label for several albums; the first of these featured a number of American players including Joe Henderson, Abbey Lincoln and Elvin Jones. In 1996, Mseleku won a KORA All Africa Music Award in the category Best Instrumentalist. With his last record, Home at Last, Mseleku, "a self-confessed'Citizen of the World'", explored "home" as being "a spiritual construct made up of special people and relationships, those that came along on the long hard road, those that were left behind to be re-visited later."Mseleku was diabetic and at one time had been diagnosed as bipolar. He died in his London flat, having spent most of his last years back in South Africa, but without finding an outlet for his skills there.
Over the two years prior to his death, he had established a new band in London, had made several well received appearances around the country. AlbumsCelebration Meditations Timelessness Star Seeding Beauty of Sunrise Home at Last Contributing artistThe Rough Guide to the Music of South Africa Waiting for the Rain Bheki Mseleku at AllMusic
Latika Nath is an Indian author and wildlife conservationist. Featuring her work, in 2001, she was awarded the title of'The Tiger Princess' by National Geographic who featured her in a one hour documentary film, she has worked since 1990 for the conservation of tigers in India. Latika Nath was born to Prof Lalit M Meera Nath. Prof Lalit Nath is ex-director AIIMS and was on the Indian Board of Wildlife and responsible for setting up the animal conservation movement in India in the 1970s, she spent much of her childhood visiting wilderness areas with her parents and received a sense of ecological ethics from them. Nath graduated in Environmental science from the University of Delhi and was awarded a Chevening Award by The British Council to complete a Masters in Rural Resource Management from the University College of North Wales, Bangor, UK, she obtained her D. Phil under the guidance of Prof. David Macdonald at the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Department of Zoology, Christ Church College, Oxford.
She was awarded a Research Fellowship at the Wildlife Institute of India and worked on Human-Elephant conflict resolution issues. Nath started to work as an academician and worked as a consultant with various national and international organisations including IUCN, UNDP, UNFPA and ICIMOD on environment and wildlife. Nath travelled the world to photograph various animal species (tigers, cheetahs, snow leopards, clouded leopards, Asian Elephant, the Gangetic Dolphin, the arna or wild water buffalo and worked for their conservation, she changed her focus to work with the tribal communities and to resolve human-wildlife conflicts. Omo- Where time stood still – 2019. Limited Editions. Academic Foundation. ISBN 9789332704985 Nath Latika & Nath Shloka. Hidden India 2018 – a journey to where the wild things are. Limited Editions. Academic Foundation. ISBN 9789332704626 Rana, Latika Nath 2005 Takdir the Tiger Cub. Tulika Books. ISBN 8181460618 Rana, LN 2005. Report on the status of large mammalian species and identification of biological corridors in the Khangchenjunga Conservation Landscape.
ICIMOD, Nepal Rana LN 2002. Conservation of Wetland Fauna in Nepal. Proceedings of the River Symposium 2002, Australia. C. Carbone1, S. Christie, K. Conforti, T. Coulson, N. Franklin, J. R. Ginsberg, M. Griffiths, J. Holden, M. Kinnaird, R. Laidlaw, A. Lynam, D. W. MacDonald, D. Martyr, C. McDougal, L. Nath, T. O'Brien, J. Seidensticker, J. L. D. Smith, R. Tilson and W. N. Wan Shahruddin; the use of photographic rates to estimate densities of cryptic mammals: response to Jennelle et al. Anim. Conserv. 5: 121–123. Latika Rana – Tiger Princess of India. National Geographic Television. Remembering Great Apes – 2018. Margot Raggett. Wildlife Photographers United. ISBN 978-1999643300 Macdonald, David 2001 The New Encyclopaedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198508239 Riding the Tiger: Tiger Conservation in Human-Dominated Landscapes. 1999. Seidensticker J, Christie S and Jackson P. ISBN 9780521648356 National Geographic. Dececmber 1997. Vol. 192. No 6. Wild Tigers A Tiger's Tale. BBC Wildlife Wild Things – Latika Nath A Tale of Two Tigers.
BBC Wildlife Omo – where time stood still. The Bikaner House, New Delhi. 5–12 November 2018 Omo – a preview. The Corridor Project @The Quorum Club, Delhi NCR. 6 November – 6 December 2018. Participated in a Group Show – An Eye on the Tiger, The World's Largest Tiger Photography Exhibition by the World's best Wildlife Photographers; the Royal Albert Hall, 18 September – 14 October 2018 Participated in a Group Show – Remembering Great Apes. La Galleria, Pall Mall, United Kingdom. 15–27 October 2018 Grant from Save the Tiger Fund for Camera Trap Development 1998–1999 Overseas Research Student Scholarship Oxford and Cambridge Society of India Scholarship Foreign and Commonwealth Office Scholarship for the Year Research Fellowship, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra dun, 1994 – 1997 Karmaveer Puraskaar for Work in the field of Environment and Conservation Award from ATOI for contribution to Ecotourism in India 2007. National Geographic featured Latika in an hour long program called "Latika Rana – Tiger Princess" for a series titled "True Originals" and "Truth Files" Latika was part of the campaign to launch National Geographic Channel in India along with Gerry Martin and Hritikh Roshan TEDxGurgaon 2012 Born to be Wild.
TEDxSIULavale 2019. Tiger Conservation and more
Barrington is an unincorporated Canadian rural community of about 4,000 people on the northeast corner of Barrington Bay in Shelburne County, Nova Scotia. Barrington is part of the much larger Municipality of the District of Barrington wholly within Shelburne County. Barrington's inhabitants are descendants of the first settlers from Chatham and Harwich on Cape Cod, Massachusetts who emigrated to the area during the 1760s. One such settler was Solomon Kendrick, father of John Kendrick and maritime fur trader. Solomon moved from Cape Cod, to Barrington in the 1760s. There are several interesting historical sites in the second of the villages which have as part of their name Barrington. Barrington Head is named only locally as such because of it being located at the head of Barrington Bay; the actual village is that of Barrington, but for geographical identity we shall accept the three names stated above. The first of the historical sites is that of the Barrington Woolen Mill situated on the Barrington River near where it lets out into Barrington Bay.
This popular site houses some of the equipment used for preparation and manufacturing of woolen products. The site is open about five months of the year with a guide in period costume to interpret the nature of the exhibits for the public; the second of the sites is that of the Old Meeting House. This church was the earliest in the area and is a favorite for many of the history buffs travelling through the area, it has a raised pulpit, accessed by a stairs up the back. The minister was closer to heaven when preaching there. Another of the curious items found there is the offering boxes on long handles so as to allow the ushers to not have to bodily pass in front of the parishioners while receiving the offerings; the third historical site is the 2/3 replica of the lighthouse on Seal Island. The original was located on Seal Island some 20 miles at sea, west of Clark's Harbour on Cape Sable Island. Visitors love to view the vistas available on clear sunny days; this is a favourite for those maritime enthusiasts.
Disguised as "Barringford," Barrington is the main setting of Canadian novelist Hugh Hood's debut 1964 novel, White Figure, White Ground. List of communities in Nova Scotia Barrington on Destination Nova Scotia
"The Boys of Bummer" is the eighteenth episode of The Simpsons' eighteenth season. It aired on the Fox network in the United States on April 29, 2007, it was the first episode to be directed by Rob Oliver. The Simpsons are at a Little League Baseball game and Bart catches a fly ball, pushing the Springfield Isotots into the championships; the next day, Marge is shopping at a department store, but Homer is tired and cannot find a place to sit - so he lies down on a mattress and falls asleep. When he wakes up, everybody is staring at him; the store manager hires him as a mattress salesman. Springfield is playing Shelbyville in the championship and leading 5-2 in the bottom of the ninth with two outs, but Shelbyville has the bases loaded; when their batter hits a pop up towards Bart, he drops the ball and fails to pick it up - letting all four runners score and thus giving Shelbyville the 6-5 victory. The crowd turns against Bart. Chief Wiggum offers him a ride to safety, but drives him back inside the stadium to let people throw food at him.
At Homer's new job, the Lovejoys approach him with a sex problem, so Homer sells them a new mattress. The Lovejoys bring it to the Simpsons house the next day with their problem unresolved; as Homer writes them a refund check, they begin making out on his and Marge's mattress, trade their new mattress for it. That night, when Homer and Marge are unsuccessfully trying to have sex, Homer admits he traded their mattress. Homer and Marge sneak in to the Lovejoys' home to steal back their mattress, but have sex on it until the Lovejoys return and catch them. Reverend Lovejoy solves the problem Solomon-style by cutting the mattress in half diagonally and gives one half to Homer and Marge. On the way Homer convinces Marge to drive behind a billboard where they try to have sex as they did on their honeymoon with the same bum watching them. Bart's humiliation goes on as Bill and Marty tell everyone on the radio, Jimbo and Kearney sing a song about it called Bart Stinks, while the townspeople continue to mock and boo Bart.
Lisa tries to cheer him up by taking him to see an old baseball star who dropped a fly ball in the 1943 World Series but still grew up to be rich and famous, but after La Boot learns who Bart is, he makes everybody in the building boo him, making him cry. The next morning Lisa awakes to find a deranged Bart has spray-painted "I HATE BART SIMPSON" all over the town—including a water tower; as Bart hovers by the edge, he jumps. A shocked La Boot tries to catch him, but misses, Bart is knocked unconscious, he is treated by Dr. Hibbert at a hospital; when the angry townspeople outside chant "Bart sucks!" over and over, who has had enough of Bart being treated so horribly, lambastes them for their actions. The entire town apologizes to Bart and agree to do the game over. After 78 tries, Bart catches the ball. 60 years a 70-year-old Milhouse nearly lets it slip to a 70-year-old Bart that the game was faked. Bart cries again, the ghosts of Homer and Marge watch him taunt Milhouse; the episode was written by Michael Price.
It was his sixth episode. The episode features several cultural references; the "Bart Stinks" song that Jimbo and Kearney sing is a parody of "Love Stinks" by The J. Geils Band, when Bart notices this he rips down his J. Geils Band posters off his room wall in disappointment. Bart spinning in a circle while his clothes fly off after having been hit by the ball is a reference to Charlie Brown in Peanuts. "The Boys of Bummer" aired on the Fox network in the United States on April 29, 2007. Since it has received mixed reviews from critics. Adam Finley of TV Squad commented. At least, it had a lot more laugh-out-loud moments for me than last week's episode. I don't think the town has turned on Bart so savagely since that time he cut the head off the Jebediah Springfield statue. I thought the absurdity of everyone getting upset over children's sport made it funnier." He concluded that "I thought the scene where Bart paints'I Hate Bart Simpson' all over town might have had more of an emotional weight to it, giving the episode that nice funny/emotional balance, the stuff of all the best Simpsons episodes, but this episode was meant to be played for laughs."IGN's Robert Canning was more critical, criticizing the episode for losing heart when "the residents of Springfield are all cruel to Bart for his error."
He added that the plot of the episode sounds "like a typical Simpsons storyline, one the show is capable of pulling off with humor and heart, but the episode failed to find the funny in Bart's situation." Canning further wrote that the subplot with Homer was "one of the dullest'B' storylines The Simpsons have had," and "the flash-forward to 60 years in the future only made the episode worse." He concluded: "This entire episode was poorly executed – it lacked all warmth and humor." "The Boys of Bummer" on IMDb "The Boys of Bummer" at TV.com
Alice Upcott is a retired British female acrobatic gymnast and the sister of Edward Upcott, world champion in 2010. With Dominic Smith, she was awarded the gold medal in the 2013 World Games, the gold medal at the 2013 European Acrobatics Championships and the silver medal in the 2014 Acrobatic Gymnastics World Championships. Upcott was a member of spelbound, the gymnastic group who rose to fame in 2010, winning the fourth series of Britain's Got Talent; the prize was £ the opportunity to appear at the 2010 Royal Variety Performance. Her older brother, Edward is a former member of Spellbound and 2010 World Champion, 2012 world silver medalist and 2008 world bronze medalist in Men's pair, while her younger brother Adam is the 2012 World Junior Champion and 2016 world bronze medalist in Men's Group. Alice Poppy Rebekah Upcott is the second to last youngest out of five siblings. Upcott was raised in Egham, Surrey by her parents; when she was just two years old, she decided she wanted to try out gymnastics after her older brother, Edward began training and competing in the sport.
From on, she followed in his footsteps. Upcott joined the acrobatic gymnastic elite group at Spelthorne School of Gymnastics in the summer of 2008. In 2009, she began her competing as an 11-16 mixed pair with Christopher Longley. Upcott and Longley won the British Championships in 2009 and the European Championships that year. In 2010, Upcott moved with her coaches Andrew Griffiths to Heathrow School of Gymnastics. In 2011, Upcott competed at the European Championships in Bulgaria, this time as a junior mixed pair with Dominic Smith, they finished with a silver medal overall. In 2012, Upcott and Smith won the British Championships before competing at the World Championships in Orlando Florida where they won a silver medal. In 2013, Upcott and Smith moved to the senior level in acrobatic gymnastics, they won the British Championships before competing at the World Games in Cali where they were crowned World Games Champions. On in the year they gained the title of European Champions at the European Championships in Odivelas.
In 2014, Upcott and Smith maintained the title of British Champions. In the April, whilst still competing as an acrobatic gymnast, Upcott began rehearsals with Michael Flatley's Lord of the Dance: Dangerous Games where she recreated the role of The Little Spirit; this lead her to perform in Trafalgar Square for West End Live. Both Upcott and Smith competed at their final competition in July in Paris at the World Championships before they both retired finishing with a silver medal behind Russia. In September 2014, Upcott performed her first show with Michael Flatley's Lord of the Dance: Dangerous Games at the London Palladium where she did a two-month run before a two-month tour around Europe to finish off the year. In March 2015, Upcott continued with the show at the Dominion Theatre for five months before her final three-month tour with the show. Upcott finished performing with Michael Flatley's Lord of the Dance: Dangerous Games in December 2015. Upcott is now training in Contemporary Dance at Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance where she will graduate in Summer 2021