Republic of Formosa
The Republic was proclaimed on 23 May 1895 and extinguished on 21 October, when the Republican capital Tainan was taken over by the Japanese. In 1894, China and Japan went to war, in a few short months the Japanese defeated Chinas Beiyang fleet, routed the Chinese armies in Manchuria, and captured Port Arthur and Weihaiwei. Although nearly all the fighting took place in northern China, Japan had important territorial ambitions in southern China. As the war approached its end, the Japanese took steps to ensure that Taiwan would be ceded to Japan under the peace treaty. In March 1895 peace negotiations between Japan and China opened in the Japanese city of Shimonoseki, although hostilities in northern China were suspended during these negotiations and the Pescadores were specifically excluded from the scope of the armistice. This exclusion allowed the Japanese to mount an operation against the Pescadores Islands in March 1895 without imperilling the negotiations. The Pescadores, lying midway between mainland China and Taiwan, were the key to an occupation of Taiwan.
In a swift campaign in the last week of March the Japanese captured the islands and this brisk fait accompli influenced the peace negotiations, and the ensuing Treaty of Shimonoseki, concluded on 17 April 1895, duly provided for the cession by China of Taiwan to Japan. On 10 May, Admiral Kabayama Sukenori was appointed the first Japanese governor-general of Taiwan, when the news of the treatys contents reached Taiwan, a number of notables from central Taiwan led by Qiu Fengjia decided to resist the transfer of Taiwan to Japanese rule. On 23 May, in Taipei, these men declared independence, proclaiming the establishment of a free, Chiu was appointed Grand Commander of Militia, with the power to raise local militia units throughout the island to resist the Japanese. His job would be to sell the Republic abroad, davidsons version reads as follows, Official Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Formosa. The Japanese have affronted China by annexing our territory of Formosa, and the supplications of us and we now learn that the Japanese slaves are about to arrive.
If we suffer this, the land of our hearths and homes will become the land of savages and barbarians, frequent conferences have been held with the Foreign Powers, who all aver that the People of Formosa must establish their independence before the Powers will assist them. Now therefore we, the People of Formosa, are resolved to die before we will serve the enemy. An official seal has been cut, and on the day of fifth moon, at the ssu hour, it will be publicly presented with all respect by the notables. A Declaration of the whole of Formosa, an announcement by the whole of Formosa. Since the island had already been ceded to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki, there was therefore little sympathy in Europe for the Republic, despite its impeccably Parisian manifesto. During this period the empress dowager and her officials were not to offend Japan
Tamsui is a sea-side district in New Taipei, Taiwan. It is named after the Tamsui River, the name means fresh water, the town is popular as a site for viewing the sun setting into the Taiwan Strait. Though modest in size, it has a role in Taiwanese culture. Originally settled by the Ketagalan aborigines, the location was called Hoba, Hoba was loaned into Taiwanese Hokkien as Hobe. Historical works in English have referred to the place as Hobe, Hobé, the Spanish arrived in the 17th century and called this place Casidor and the Tamsui River Kimalon. Dutch records have used the placenames Tamsuy and Tampsui to refer to this area, the first variant Tamsui is consistent with Hokkien literary readings, and is equal to the Church Romanization of an older pronunciation minus tone markings and hyphen. The variant Tan-sui, with exception of the hyphen, is consistent with the romanization of Japanese, the first variant was apparently already well-known circa 1900, and features prominently in two English-language maps of the same era.
Furthermore, at time, the term Tamsui was used in a most liberal way, it may mean the harbor, the river, the village of Hobe, Twatutia, or Banka. From 1950 until the 2010 creation of New Taipei City, Tamsui was officially Tamsui urban township in the former Taipei County, the spelling Danshui, formerly used officially by the Taiwan government, Taipei Metro, and other sources, is based on the Mandarin pronunciation. Meanwhile, the name Tamsui is based on the Taiwanese pronunciation, having long used Tamsui as the official English name, the local government of the district informed the national government in 2011 that Tamsui rather than Danshui should be used in English. The Spanish arrived in the area of Tamsui in the 17th century, in the fall of 1629, the Spanish established the first major non-aboriginal settlement comprising the town and mission of Santo Domingo. In 1641, the Spanish were expelled from Taiwan by the Dutch, the Spanish had already abandoned their settlement in Tamsui in 1638 and the Dutch built a new fort which they named Fort Anthonio.
It is today known as Angmo Siaa and is the building of the Fort San Domingo museum complex. In 1668, the Dutch left Keelung after getting harassed by aboriginals from Tamsui, because of its proximity to mainland China, as well as its location in a natural harbor, Tamsui quickly became a major fishing and trade port. The Qing naval patrol established an outpost in Tamsui in 1808, in 1862, the Qing government opened Tamsui to foreign trade under the terms of the Treaty of Tientsin, exporting tea, sulfur, coal and dyes. By the mid-19th century Tamsui had become the largest port in Taiwan, during the Sino-French War the French attempted an invasion of Taiwan during the Keelung Campaign. Liu Mingchuan, who was leading the defence of Taiwan, recruited Aboriginals to serve alongside the Chinese soldiers in fighting against the French. The French were defeated at the Battle of Tamsui and the Qing forces pinned the French down at Keelung in a campaign before the French withdrew
Taiwan under Qing rule
Taiwan under Qing rule refers to the rule of the Qing dynasty over Formosa and the Pescadores from 1683 to 1895. The Qing court sent an army led by general Shi Lang and it was governed as Taiwan Prefecture of Fujian Province until the declaration of Fujian-Taiwan Province in 1887. Qing rule over Taiwan ended when Taiwan was ceded to Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895, in 1683 following the Battle of Penghu, Qing troops landed in Taiwan. The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty annexed Taiwan to remove any threat to his dynasty from remaining resistance forces on the island, Qing authorities did not want to develop Taiwan over aggressively as this might have encouraged potential resistances force to build a base there. Accordingly, the early Qing dynasty initially ruled Taiwan passively as part of Fujian, in 1721, a Hakka-Fujianese rebellion led by Zhu Yigui captured Taiwan-fu and briefly established a government reminiscent of the Ming dynasty. In the immediate aftermath of Zhu Yigui rebellion, the desire to open up new land for cultivation saw government encouraging the expansion of Han Chinese migration to areas of the island.
For instance, the population in the Tamsui area had grown to the point where the government needed a centre there. The government tried to build a centre with local aboriginal corvée labor, aboriginal groups split their loyalties —most joined the uprising, some remained loyal to the Qing, perhaps because they had pre-existing feuds with the other groups. The aboriginal revolt was put down within a few months with the arrival of additional troops, the Lin Shuangwen rebellion occurred in 1787–1788. Lin, who was an immigrant from Zhangzhou, had come to Taiwan with his father in the 1770s and he was involved in the secret Heaven and Earth Society whose origins are not clear. There was initial success in pushing government forces out of Lins home base in Changhua, by this point, the fighting was drawing in Zhangzhou people beyond just the society members, and activating the old feuds, this brought out Quanzhou networks on behalf of the government. Though they never again were serious to push out the government or encompass the whole island, feuds went on sporadically for most of the 19th century, there were more than a hundred rebellions during the early Qing.
The frequency of rebellions and civil strife in Qing Taiwan is evoked by the saying every three years an uprising, every five years a rebellion. Some British and Americans advocated the annexation of Taiwan, in 1841 during the First Opium War in the Battle of Keelung the British attempted to attack in failed efforts three times against Keelung on the northeast coast of Taiwan under Qing rule. The ventures to seize Daan and Keelung by the British failed, the successful defense was directed by Yao Ying who led the Chinese naval forces on Taiwan. On Taiwan some British were taken as prisoners by the taotai Yao Ying and European crew members of the Nerbudda, a British ship, were captured on Taiwan after being abandoned by their British officers and were executed by local Qing officials. Portuguese, Indian and European crew members of the Ann, another British ship, were shipwrecked in Tamsuis vicinity in March 1842, captured, at Tainan 197 of the Nerbudda and Anns crew were killed and due to causes related to imprisonment 87 others died.
The Aboriginals often slaughtered the shipwrecked crews of western ships, in 1867 the entire American crew of the Rover were massacred by aboriginals in the Rover incident
The East Indies or Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia. In a more restricted sense, the Indies can be used to refer to the islands of Southeast Asia, the name Indies is derived from the river Indus and is used to connote parts of Asia that came under Indian cultural influence. The East Indies may include the former French-held Indochina, former British territories Brunei and Singapore and it does not, include the former Dutch New Guinea western New Guinea, which is geographically considered to be part of Melanesia. In colonial times they were just natives, the peoples of the East Indies comprise a wide variety of cultural diversity, and the inhabitants do not consider themselves as belonging to a single ethnic group. The major languages in this area draw from a variety of language families, and should not be confused with the term Indic. The extensive East Indies are subdivided into two sections, archaically called Hither India and Further India, the first is the former British India, the second is Southeast Asia.
Historically, the king of Abyssinia was identified with Prester John of the Indies, exploration of these regions by European powers first began in the late 15th century and early 16th century led by the Portuguese explorers. The Portuguese described the region they discovered as the Indies. Eventually, the region would be broken up into a series of Indies, the East Indies, which was called Old Indies or Great Indies, consisting of India, and the West Indies, called New Indies or Little Indies, consisting of the Americas. The New World was initially thought to be the easternmost part of the Indies by explorer Christopher Columbus, later, to avoid confusion, the New World came to be called the West Indies, while the original Indies came to be called the East Indies. Greater India History of the Americas Indian Spanish West Indies
Taiwan under Japanese rule
The short-lived Republic of Formosa resistance movement ended to no avail when it was suppressed by Japanese troops. The fall of Tainan ended organized resistance to Japanese occupation, the annexation of Taiwan into the Japanese Empire can be viewed as Japans first steps in implementing their Southern Expansion Doctrine of the late 19th century. Taiwan was Japans first overseas colony, Japanese intentions were to turn the island into a showpiece model colony. As a result, much effort was made to improve the economy and public works. These efforts served to support the necessities of the war machine of Japanese military aggression in the Asia-Pacific, on 17 March 1945, the Imperial Diet in Tokyo passed a reform bill to grant Formosan inhabitants the right to vote representatives into the House of Representatives. In other words, Formosans were granted rights in the Empire of Japan. Japan formally renounced rights to Taiwan in April 1952, Japan had sought to expand its imperial control over Taiwan since 1592, when Toyotomi Hideyoshi undertook a policy of overseas expansion and extending Japanese influence southward.
Several attempts to invade Taiwan were unsuccessful, mainly due to disease, in 1609, the Tokugawa Shogunate sent Harunobu Arima on an exploratory mission of the island. In 1616, Murayama Toan led an invasion of the island. In November 1871,69 people on board a vessel from the Kingdom of Ryukyu were forced to land near the tip of Taiwan by strong winds. They had a conflict with local Paiwan aborigines and many were killed, in October 1872, Japan sought compensation from the Qing dynasty of China, claiming the Kingdom of Ryukyu was part of Japan. The Japanese refused to leave and asked if the Chinese government would punish those barbarians in Taiwan, the Qing authorities explained that there were two kinds of aborigines on Taiwan, those directly governed by the Qing, and those unnaturalized raw barbarians. Beyond the reach of Chinese culture, thus could not be directly regulated. They indirectly hinted that foreigners traveling in areas settled by indigenous people must exercise caution. The Qing pointed to similar cases all over the world where a population within a national boundary was not under the influence of the dominant culture of that country.
The Japanese nevertheless launched an expedition to Taiwan, with a force of 3,000 soldiers in April 1874, in May 1874, the Qing dynasty began to send in troops to reinforce the island. By the end of the year, the government of Japan decided to withdraw its forces after realizing Japan was still not ready for a war with China, the number of casualties for the Paiwan was about 30, and that for the Japanese was 543. By the 1890s, about 45 percent of Taiwan was under standard Chinese administration while the lightly populated regions of the interior were under aboriginal control
Eighty Years' War
The Eighty Years War or Dutch War of Independence was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces, under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the northern provinces continued their resistance. They eventually were able to oust the Habsburg armies, and in 1581 they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, after a 12-year truce, hostilities broke out again around 1619 which can be said to coincide with the Thirty Years War. An end was reached in 1648 with the Peace of Münster, in the decades preceding the war, the Dutch became increasingly discontented with Habsburg rule. A major cause of discontent was heavy taxation imposed on the population, while support. At that time, the Seventeen Provinces were known in the empire as De landen van herwaarts over, the presence of Spanish troops, under the command of the Duke of Alba, brought in to oversee order, further amplified this unrest.
Spain attempted a policy of religious uniformity for the Catholic Church within its domains. The Reformation meanwhile produced a number of Protestant denominations, which gained followers in the Seventeen Provinces and these included the Lutheran movement of Martin Luther, the Anabaptist movement of the Dutch reformer Menno Simons, and the Reformed teachings of John Calvin. This growth lead to the 1566 Beeldenstorm, the Iconoclastic Fury which saw many churches in northern Europe stripped of their Catholic statuary, in October 1555, Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire began the gradual abdication of his several crowns. The balance of power was heavily weighted toward the local and regional governments, Philip did not govern in person but appointed Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy as governor-general to lead the central government. When Philip left for Spain in 1559 political tension was increased by religious policies, not having the liberal-mindedness of his father Charles V, Philip was a fervent enemy of the Protestant movements of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and the Anabaptists.
Towards the end of Charles reign enforcement had become lax. Philip, insisted on rigorous enforcement, which caused widespread unrest, the new hierarchy was to be headed by Granvelle as archbishop of the new archdiocese of Mechelen. The reform was unpopular with the old church hierarchy, as the new dioceses were to be financed by the transfer of a number of rich abbeys. Granvelle became the focus of the opposition against the new governmental structures, after the recall of Granvelle, Orange persuaded Margaret and the Council to ask for a moderation of the placards against heresy. Philip delayed his response, and in this interval the opposition to his religious policies gained more widespread support, Philip finally rejected the request for moderation in his Letters from the Segovia Woods of October 1565. This Compromise of Nobles was supported by about 400 nobles, both Catholic and Protestant, and was presented to Margaret on 5 April 1566, impressed by the massive support for the compromise, she suspended the placards, awaiting Philips final ruling.
The first half of the Eighty Years War between the Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic was fought between 1566 and 1609, when the Twelve Years Truce was signed in 1609, ending this first phase of war, the northern Netherlands had achieved de facto independence
History of Taiwan since 1945
Taiwan after World War II refers to the history of the island of Taiwan under the rule of the government of the Republic of China from 25 October 1945 to the present. The Second World Wars hostilities came to a close on 2 September 1945, with the defeat of the Empire of Japan, after the establishment of the provincial executive office, Chen Yi was appointed Chief Executive. Chen proclaimed 25 October to be Retrocession Day, because Japan had not formally relinquished the sovereignty of Taiwan at that time, Allies of World War II did not recognize the unilateral annexation of Taiwan by the Republic of China. Chen Yis administration was marred by corruption, as well as a lack of discipline in the police assigned to occupation duties. With the rampant corruption in his administration, Chen Yi began to monopolize power, in addition to this, the islands post-war economy was failing and headed into a recession, causing people on the island to endure economic hardship. The building tensions erupted in 1947, when the arrest of a cigarette vendor by government agents led to the death of a bystander.
Several weeks later, government troops were sent to Taiwan from the mainland to handle the crisis, after the February 28 Incident, the Kuomintang-led ROC government reorganized the local government, abolishing the Chief Executives Office, while establishing a new provincial government. Wey was succeeded as governor by Chen Cheng in 1949, in 1949, the Republic of China Armed Forces and the Kuomintang suffered a major defeat in the Chinese Civil War, forcing the Government of the Republic of China to relocate to Taiwan. This allowed the Communist Party of China to declare the establishment of a new Chinese state, all of this changed rapidly when the PRC intervened in the Korean War, which ruined any chance of normalizing relations with Washington for years. With mainland China now an enemy of the US, the latter extended a cautious olive branch to Taipei under the adage of the enemy of my enemy is my friend. The victorious Battle of Guningtou by the ROC forces against the communist forces helped to boost morale in the ROC Army, the United States Seventh Fleet started to patrol the Taiwan Straits.
By the 1950s, Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty was signed and US provided Military Assistance, the US Army maintained a garrison force in Taiwan until its withdrawal in 1979. The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty was replaced by Taiwan Relations Act after 1979, up and until 1958, small-scale military campaigns between the ROC forces and PLA were carried out across the strait, which lasted until the Second Strait Crisis. From that point on, both sides of the strait have ceased all hostilities against each other. The government under the Kuomintang, through its enforcement of law, kept a powerful hold on the state. Because the Republic of China was under authoritarian rule, any perceived opposition to the government was considered illegal, Chiang for his part never fully trusted US intentions and was wary of excessively pro-American politicians. Despite his advancing age and questionable mental state, Chiang continued to hold onto power into the 1970s, the Republic of China entered into the development phase of Constitutional Democracy with the promulgation of the Constitution of the Republic of China in 1947.
Subsequently, the National Revolutionary Army was renamed as Republic of China Armed Forces and was nationalized, due to the Chinese Civil War, the Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion was passed as amendment to the Constitution of the Republic of China
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
Geography of Taiwan
Taiwan is an island in East Asia, located some 180 kilometres off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait. It has an area of 35,883 km2 and spans the Tropic of Cancer, the East China Sea lies to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest. There are several peaks over 3,500 m, the highest being Yu Shan at 3,952 metres, the tectonic boundary that formed these ranges is still active, and the island experiences many earthquakes, a few of them highly destructive. There are many active volcanoes in the Taiwan Straits. The climate ranges from tropical in the south to subtropical in the north, the island is struck by an average of four typhoons in each year. The eastern mountains are forested and home to a diverse range of wildlife. The total area of the island is 36,193 km2 and it has a coastline of 1,139 km. The ROC claims an economic zone of 200 nmi and a territorial sea of 12 nmi. The main island of the archipelago is the island of Taiwan, the central point of the island is the Geographic Center of Taiwan in Puli Township, Nantou County.
The southernmost point of the island is the Taiwan Southernmost Point in Hengchun Township, the island of Taiwan is separated from the southeast coast of China by the Taiwan Strait, which ranges from 220 km at its widest point to 130 km at its narrowest. Part of the shelf, the Strait is no more than 100 m deep. To the south, the island of Taiwan is separated from the Philippine island of Luzon by the 250 km -wide Luzon Strait, the South China Sea lies to the southwest, the East China Sea to the north, and the Philippine Sea to the east. The island of Taiwan was formed approximately 4 to 5 million years ago at a convergent boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. In a boundary running the length of the island and continuing southwards in the Luzon Volcanic Arc, most of the island comprises a huge fault block tilted to the west. The western part of the island, and much of the central range, in the northeast of the island, and continuing eastwards in the Ryukyu Volcanic Arc, the Philippine Sea Plate slides under the Eurasian Plate.
The tectonic boundary remains active, and Taiwan experiences 15,000 to 18,000 earthquakes each year, of which 800 to 1,000 are noticed by people. The most catastrophic recent earthquake was the magnitude-7.3 Chi-Chi earthquake, on 4 March 2010 at about 01,20 UTC, a magnitude 6.4 earthquake hit southwestern Taiwan in the mountainous area of Kaohsiung County. Another major earthquake occurred on 6 February 2016, with a magnitude of 6.4, Tainan was damaged the most, with 117 deaths, most of them caused by the collapse of a 17-story apartment building
Economic history of Taiwan
The recordkeeping and development of the economic history of Taiwan started in the Age of Discovery. In the 17th century, the Europeans realized that Taiwan is located on the cusp between the Far East and Southeast Asia. Two main European empires that competed to colonize it were the Dutch, Taiwan became an intermediate destination for trade between Western European empires and East Asia states. The history of Taiwan as a colony of the Dutch Empire, Kingdom of Tungning, Qing China, in the 1950s, the Republic of China government, retreated to Taiwan after losing the Chinese Civil War, carried out land reform policies such as the 375 Rent Reduction. In the 1960s, the economy was replaced with light industry as small. From 1966 to 1980, Taiwans economy was stabilized as the Ten Major Construction Projects laid a foundation in further economic developments. After the 1980s, the role of government in the economy gradually lessened as many government-owned corporations were privatized, according to archaeological evidences, Taiwan has been inhabited by human since the late Upper Paleolithic.
One of the first civilizations developed was the Changpin culture in southern Taiwan, many archaeological sites of Neolithic civilizations were found in the Taipei basin in northern Taiwan. The economic activities during this period, which cannot be described with detail as there was no language, were fishing, gathering. About 2,000 years ago, northern Taiwan entered the Bronze Age, iron metallurgy and advanced agricultural techniques strengthened economic activities. The Shihsanhang culture rose during this period and had weaving technology and it did not end until the arrival of Han Chinese about 1,000 years ago. Most scholars believe that the Shihsanhang culture represented the activities of the Taiwanese Plain Aborigines, although there is no evidence to support this, it is generally recognized that the Taiwanese aboriginal tribes economically relied on fishing and pursued slash-and-burn agriculture. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company originally only traded along the Pescadores, the Ming Dynasty claimed the archipelago to be part of its territory and drove out the Dutch.
The Dutch were forced to retreat to the island of Taiwan. They established a trading post in Tayoan, the main purpose of the occupation of Taiwan was to trade with mainland China, Japan and Southeast Asia, attempting to monopolizing trade in East Asia. The main Taiwanese resources that they exported were sugar, sika deerskin, deer meat, rattan, by 1658, the company exported sugar to Persia and Jakarta and had about 35 trading posts in Asia. Tayoan gained 25. 6% profit, ranked second out of all of the Dutch trading posts, after Nagasaki, the profit was distributed to shareholders of the company, and not the local Taiwanese. At the time, the Japanese were interested in activities in Taiwan
Anping District is a district of Tainan on Taiwan. In March 2012, it was named one of the Top 10 Small Tourist Towns by the Tourism Bureau of Taiwan. The older place name of Tayouan derives from the ethnonym of a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe, in his translations of Dutch records, missionary William Campbell used the variant Tayouan and wrote that Taoan and Taiwan occur. As Dutch spelling varied greatly at the time, other variants may be seen, the name was transliterated into Chinese characters variously as 臺窩灣, 大灣, 臺員, 大員, 大圓 and 梯窝灣. After the Dutch were ousted c. 1661 by Koxinga, Han immigrants renamed the area Anping after the Anping Bridge in Quanzhou, soon after Qing rule was established in 1683, the name Taiwan was officially used to refer to the whole island with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. The history of Anping dates back to the 17th century, when the Dutch East India Company occupied a high sandy down called Tayouan, the Dutch moved their headquarters to Tayouan after leaving the Pescadores in 1624.
Due to silting, the islet has joined with mainland Taiwan, koxingas army brought an end to the Dutch colonial period via the Siege of Fort Zeelandia. In the Japanese period, the history of trade between China and Japan unfolded at Anping, according to the 1904 census, the citys population was 5,972. Tainan City Government Tainan City Council Fort Zeelandia, built in 1624 and was Taiwans first castle/fortress, eternal Golden Castle, built in 1874 and was used to fend off Japanese attacks
Prehistory of Taiwan
The prehistory of Taiwan, ending with the arrival of the Dutch East India Company in 1624, is known from archaeological finds throughout the island. The earliest evidence of habitation dates back 20,000 to 30,000 years. Around 5,000 years ago farmers from the southeast Chinese coast settled on the island and these people are believed to have been speakers of Austronesian languages, which dispersed from Taiwan across the islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The current Taiwanese aborigines are believed to be their descendants, the island of Taiwan was formed approximately 4 to 5 million years ago on a complex convergent boundary between the continental Eurasian Plate and the oceanic Philippine Sea Plate. The boundary continues southwards in the Luzon Volcanic Arc, a chain of islands between Taiwan and the Philippine island of Luzon including Green Island and Orchid Island, from the northern part of the island the eastward continuation of the boundary is marked by the Ryukyu chain of volcanic islands.
The island is separated from the coast of Fujian to the west by the Taiwan Strait, the most significant islands in the Strait are the Penghu islands 45 km from the southwest coast of Taiwan and 140 km from the mainland. Part of the shelf, the Strait is no more than 100 m deep. Taiwan is a fault block, with rugged longitudinal mountain ranges making up most of the eastern two-thirds of the island. They include more than two hundred peaks with elevations of over 3,000 m, the western side of the island slopes down to fertile coastal plains. The island straddles the Tropic of Cancer, and has a subtropical climate. The original vegetation ranged from tropical rainforest in the lowlands through temperate forests, boreal forest, during the Late Pleistocene glaciation, sea levels in the area were about 140 m lower than in the present day. As a result, the floor of the Taiwan Strait was exposed as a land bridge that was crossed by mainland fauna until the beginning of the Holocene 10,000 years ago. In 1972, fragmentary fossils of modern humans were found at Chouqu and Gangzilin, in Zuozhen District, Tainan.
Though some of the fragments are believed to be more recent, the find has been dubbed Zuozhen Man. No associated artifacts have been found at the site, the oldest known artifacts are chipped-pebble tools of the Changbin culture, found at cave sites on the southeast coast of the island. The sites are dated 15,000 to 5,000 years ago, the primary site of Baxiandong, in Changbin, Taitung was first excavated in 1968. The same culture has been found at sites at Eluanbi on the tip of Taiwan. The earliest layers feature large stone tools, and suggest a hunting and gathering lifestyle, layers have small stone tools of quartz, as well as tools made from bone and shell, and suggest a shift to intensive fishing and shellfish collection