The Spanish Golden Age is a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the rise of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty and the Spanish Empire. Politically, El Siglo de Oro lasted from the accession to the throne of Philip II of Spain in 1556 to the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659; when no precise dating is used, the period begins no earlier than 1492 and ends no than 1681 with the death of the Pedro Calderón de la Barca, the last great writer of the age. The Habsburgs, both in Spain and the Habsburg Monarchy, were great patrons of art in their countries. El Escorial, the great royal monastery built by King Philip II, invited the attention of some of Europe's greatest architects and painters. Diego Velázquez, regarded as one of the most influential painters of European history and a respected artist in his own time, cultivated a relationship with King Philip IV and his chief minister, the Count-Duke of Olivares, leaving behind several portraits that demonstrate his style and skill.
El Greco, another respected artist from the period, infused Spanish art with the styles of the Italian Renaissance and helped create a uniquely Spanish style of painting. Some of Spain's greatest music is regarded as having been written in the period; such composers as Tomás Luis de Victoria, Cristóbal de Morales, Francisco Guerrero, Luis de Milán and Alonso Lobo helped to shape Renaissance music and the styles of counterpoint and polychoral music, their influence lasted far into the Baroque period which resulted in a revolution of music. Spanish literature blossomed as well, most famously demonstrated in the work of Miguel de Cervantes, the author of Don Quixote de la Mancha. Spain's most prolific playwright, Lope de Vega, wrote as many as one thousand plays during his lifetime, of which over four hundred survive to the present day. Spain, in the time of the Italian Renaissance, had seen few great artists come to its shores; the Italian holdings and relationships made by Queen Isabella's husband and Spain's sole monarch, Ferdinand of Aragon, launched a steady traffic of intellectuals across the Mediterranean between Valencia and Florence.
Luis de Morales, one of the leading exponents of Spanish Mannerist painting, retained a distinctly Spanish style in his work, reminiscent of medieval art. Spanish art that of Morales, contained a strong mark of mysticism and religion, encouraged by the counter-reformation and the patronage of Spain's Catholic monarchs and aristocracy. Spanish rule of Naples was important for making connections between Italian and Spanish art, with many Spanish administrators bringing Italian works back to Spain. Known for his unique expressionistic style that met with both puzzlement and admiration, El Greco was not Spanish, having been born Domenikos Theotokopoulos in Crete, he studied the great Italian masters of his time – Titian and Michelangelo – when he lived in Italy from 1568 to 1577. According to legend, he asserted that he would paint a mural that would be as good as one of Michelangelo's, if one of the Italian artist's murals was demolished first. El Greco fell out of favor in Italy, but soon found a new home in the city of Toledo, in central Spain.
He was influential in creating a style based on impressions and emotion, featuring elongated fingers and vibrant color and brushwork. Uniquely, his works featured faces that captured expressions of sombre attitudes and withdrawal while still having his subjects bear witness to the terrestrial world, his paintings of the city of Toledo became models for a new European tradition in landscapes, influenced the work of Dutch masters. Spain at this time was an ideal environment for the Venetian-trained painter. Art was flourishing in the empire and Toledo was a great place to get commissions. Diego Velázquez was born on 6 June 1599 in Seville. Both parents were from the minor nobility, he was the oldest of six children. Velázquez is regarded as one of Spain's most important and influential artists, he was a court painter for King Philip IV and found high demand for his portraits from statesmen and clergymen across Europe. His portraits of the King, his chief minister, the Count-duke of Olivares, the Pope himself demonstrated a belief in artistic realism and a style comparable to many of the Dutch masters.
In the wake of the Thirty Years' War, Velázquez met the Marqués de Spinola and painted his famous Surrender of Breda celebrating Spinola's earlier victory. Spinola was struck by his ability to express emotion through realism in both his portraits and landscapes. Velázquez's friendship with Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, a leading Spanish painter of the next generation, ensured the enduring influence of his artistic approach. Velázquez's most famous painting is the celebrated Las Meninas, in which the artist includes himself as one of the subjects; the religious element in Spanish art, in many circles, grew in importance with the counter-reformation. The austere and severe work of Francisco de Zurbarán exemplified this thread in Spanish art, along with the work of composer Tomás Luis de Victoria. Philip IV patronized artists who agreed with his views on the counter-reformation and religion; the mysticism of Zurbarán's work - influenced by Saint Theresa of Avila - became a hallmark of Spanish art in generations.
Influenced by Michelangelo da Carav
Katrina Lenk is an American actress, singer and songwriter. She is known for originating the role of Dina in the Broadway musical The Band's Visit, for which she won the 2018 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical, her additional stage credits include roles in the Broadway productions of Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark and Indecent, as well as roles in regional theater productions. Lenk is performing on Broadway in the lead role of Bobbie in a revival of Stephen Sondheim's musical Company. Lenk was born in Illinois to a family of Eastern European descent, she attended Barrington High School in Illinois. She graduated from the School of Music at Northwestern University, majoring in viola performance and studying voice and musical theatre. Lenk appeared in the Angry Inch at the Broadway Theatre, Chicago, in May 2001 as Yitzak, she performed as Linda Lovelace in the musical Lovelace: A Rock Musical in 2008 at the Hayworth Theater, Los Angeles. The L. A. Weekly wrote: "As Linda, Katrina Lenk is sensational — she has a dozen nuanced smiles that range from innocent and shattered to grateful, in order to express whatever passes as kindness when, say, a male co-star promises to make their scene fun."She made her Broadway debut in The Miracle Worker in March 2010 as the understudy for the characters Annie Sullivan and Kate Keller.
She appeared in the Paula Vogel play Indecent on Broadway in April 2017 to August 2017. For her performance she received the 2017 Theatre World Award Dorothy Loudon Award for Excellence. In her review for Newsday, Linda Winer noted the "...dancing, singing actors as the earthy, sensual Katrina Lenk." She had appeared in earlier productions of the play as well, including Off-Broadway at the Vineyard Theatre in 2016. She was a replacement in the Broadway musical Once starting in May 2013, she played the role of the violinist. Lenk appeared on Broadway as Dina in the 2017 musical The Band's Visit, a performance for which she won the 2018 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical. Craig Nakano of the Los Angeles Times wrote: "For Lenk, the role is another turning point. After studying music and theater at Northwestern University, Lenk devoted herself to theater in California.... It’s her poignant, heart-aching turn as Dina, poised to make her a star."She is the creator of musical persona and stage act Moxy Phinx.
Katrina Lenk is starring in the lead role of Bobbie, opposite Patti LuPone as Joanne, in a gender-swapped revival of Stephen Sondheim's Company, which started previews on Broadway at the Bernard B. Jacobs Theatre on March 2 and will open on March 22, 2020. Official website Katrina Lenk on IMDb Katrina Lenk at the Internet Broadway Database Moxy Phinx
Saint-Laurent Herald of Arms is the title of one of the officers of arms at the Canadian Heraldic Authority in Ottawa. Like the other heralds at the Authority, the name is derived from a Canadian river, in this case the Saint Lawrence River. In addition to his/her regular heraldic duties, Saint-Laurent Herald, as the Registrar of the Canadian Heraldic Authority, is responsible for maintaining the Public Register of Arms and Badges of Canada. A badge of office was assigned to Saint-Laurent by vice-regal warrant in 1994; this consists of a flaming gridiron overlaid by a blue cross. The gridiron is associated with the martyrdom of Saint Lawrence; the fleurs-de-lys on the ends of each branch of the cross come from the former royal arms of France and were used by French settlements in Canada such as New France and Quebec. 1988–2000 Auguste Vachon 2000–2007 Claire Boudreau 2008–present Bruce Patterson Heraldry Royal Heraldry Society of Canada Canadian Heraldic Authority Canadian Herladic Authority's Public Register of Arms and Badges – Badge of office