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Spanish language

Spanish, or Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has over 483 million native speakers in Spain and the Americas. It is a global language, the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese, the world's fourth-most spoken language, after Mandarin Chinese and Hindi. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century; the oldest Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century, the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo, a prominent city of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century. Beginning in 1492, the Spanish language was taken to the viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the Americas, as well as territories in Africa and the Philippines. A 1949 study by Italian-American linguist Mario Pei, analyzing the degree of difference from a language's parent by comparing phonology, syntax and intonation, indicated the following percentages: In the case of Spanish, it is one of the closest Romance languages to Latin, only behind Sardinian and Italian.

Around 75% of modern Spanish vocabulary is derived from Latin, including Latin borrowings from Ancient Greek. Spanish vocabulary has been in contact with Arabic from an early date, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language makes up the second greatest vocabulary source after Latin itself, it has been influenced by Basque, Celtiberian, by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages other Romance languages—French, Andalusi Romance, Galician, Catalan and Sardinian—as well as from Quechua and other indigenous languages of the Americas. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, it is used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and many other international organizations.

Despite its large number of speakers, the Spanish language does not feature prominently in scientific writing, though it is better represented in the humanities. 75% of scientific production in Spanish is divided into three thematic areas: social sciences, medical sciences and arts/humanities. Spanish is the third most used language on the internet after Chinese, it is estimated that there are more than 437 million people who speak Spanish as a native language, which qualifies it as second on the lists of languages by number of native speakers. Instituto Cervantes claims that there are an estimated 477 million Spanish speakers with native competence and 572 million Spanish speakers as a first or second language—including speakers with limited competence—and more than 21 million students of Spanish as a foreign language. Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some 418 million, it is an optional language in the Philippines as it was a Spanish colony from 1569 to 1899.

In the European Union, Spanish is the mother tongue of 8% of the population, with an additional 7% speaking it as a second language. The country with the largest number of native speakers is Mexico. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. In 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over, 38 million speak Spanish at home. According to a 2011 paper by U. S. Census Bureau Demographers Jennifer Ortman and Hyon B. Shin, the number of Spanish speakers is projected to rise through 2020 to anywhere between 39 million and 43 million, depending on the assumptions one makes about immigration. Most of these Spanish speakers will be Hispanic, with Ortman and Shin projecting between 37.5 million and 41 million Hispanic Spanish speakers by 2020. In Spain and in some other parts of the Spanish-speaking world, Spanish is called not only español but castellano, the language from the kingdom of Castile, contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician, Asturian, Catalan and Occitan.

The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado.... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.... The other Spanish languages shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities... The Spanish Royal Academy, on the other hand uses the term español in its publications, but from 1713 to 1923 called the language castellano; the Diccionario panhispánico de dudas states that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers to use the term español in its publications when referring to the Spanish language, both terms—español and castellano—are regarded as synonymous and valid. The term castellano, comes from the Latin word castellanus, which means "from Castilla", the medieval kingdom loc

Ithu Pathiramanal

Ithu Pathiramanal is a 2013 Malayalam action film directed by M. Padmakumar starring Unni Mukundan in the lead role with Jayasurya and Ramya Nambeeshan; the shooting locations are in Marayur and Alapuzha. The story is about a private financer Eldho, his mother had become mentally challenged after she was raped by a police constable during Eldho's childhood. His mother gave birth to a baby girl. Johnkutty, Eldho's father is avenging his wife's rape by going after the police constable and dies. After Eldho has grown up, he reaches Pathiramanal, a place in Kuttanad, in search of the constable to take revenge. There he meets Sara, he realizes. Unni Mukundan as Eldho Jayasurya as Johnkutty Remya Nambeesan as Sara Pradeep Rawat as Shouri Bhagath Manuel as Murukan Shalu Menon as Ambika Kunchan as Chellapanashari Mahesh Anil Murali as Thankan Master Siddharth Jyothi Krishna as Salomi P. Balachandran as priest The shoot of the film started at Alappuzha in May; the shooting was stopped for a while because of lead actor Jayasurya's injury during Vaadhyar film action sequence.

Jayasurya was doing both the role of son in the film. But due to his injury, the son's role was filled by Unni Mukundan; the soundtrack features three songs composed by Afzal Yusuff with lyrics by Vayalar Sarath Chandra Varma and Beeyar Prasad. Ithu Pathiramanal on IMDb

Douglas, Alabama

Douglas is a town in Marshall County, United States. Douglas, a part of the Huntsville–Decatur Combined Statistical Area, had a population of 744 in the 2010 census; the town incorporated in 1978. Douglas was first settled in the mid-19th century, its first school was built in 1898, followed by Douglas Academy in 1909. Douglas is located at 34°10′18″N 86°19′12″W; the town is concentrated around the intersection of State Route 75 and State Route 168, southwest of Albertville. Guntersville Lake lies several miles to the north. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.4 square miles, of which 3.4 square miles is land and 0.24% is water. At the 2000 census, there were 213 households and 158 families residing in the town; the population density was 171.0 per square mile. There were 231 housing units at an average density of 74.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.79% White, 0.57% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 2.08% from other races, 0.38% from two or more races.

2.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 213 households of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.8% were non-families. 24.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.95. Age distribution was 27.4% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males. The median household income was $33,594, the median family income was $36,000. Males had a median income of $32,143 versus $19,375 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,410. About 8.8% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.9% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over.

Media related to Douglas, Alabama at Wikimedia Commons