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Spanish language in the United States

The United States has 41 million people aged five or older who speak Spanish at home, making Spanish the second most spoken language of the United States by far. Spanish is the most studied foreign language with about six million students. With over 50 million native speakers, heritage language speakers and second language speakers, the United States now has the second largest Spanish-speaking population in the world after Mexico, although it is not an official language of the country. About half of all American Spanish speakers assessed themselves as speaking English "very well" in the 2000 U. S. Census; this percentage increased to 57% in the 2013–2017 American Community Survey. The United States is among the Spanish-speaking countries that has its own Academy of the Spanish Language. There are more Spanish-speakers in the United States than speakers of French, Italian, Hawaiian, varieties of Chinese and Native American languages combined. According to the 2012 American Community Survey conducted by the U.

S. Census Bureau, Spanish is spoken at home by 38.3 million people aged five or older, more than twice that of 1990. The Spanish language has been present in what is now the United States since the 15th century, with the arrival of Spanish colonization in North America. Colonizers settled in areas that would become the states of Florida, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and California, as well as the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; the Spanish explorers explored areas of 42 future U. S. states leaving behind a varying range of Hispanic legacy in the North American continent. Western regions of the Louisiana Territory were under Spanish rule between 1763 and 1800, after the French and Indian War, further extending the Spanish influence throughout the modern-day United States of America. After the incorporation of these areas into the United States in the first half of the 19th century, the Spanish language was reinforced in the country by the acquisition of Puerto Rico in 1898. Waves of emigration from Mexico, Venezuela, El Salvador and elsewhere in Hispanic America to the United States beginning in the second half of the 19th century to the present-day have strengthened the role of the Spanish language in the country.

Today, Hispanics are one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States, thus increasing the use and importance of American Spanish in the United States. The Spanish arrived in what would become the United States in 1493, with the Spanish arrival to Puerto Rico. Ponce de León explored Florida in 1513. In 1565, the Spaniards founded Florida; the Spanish left but others moved in and it is the oldest continuously occupied European settlement in the continental United States. Juan Ponce de León founded San Juan, Puerto Rico, in 1508; the Spanish-speaking population increased because of territorial annexation of lands claimed earlier by the Spanish Empire and by wars with Mexico and by land purchases, while modern factors continue increasing the size of this population. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, land claimed by Spain encompassed a large part of the contemporary U. S. territory, including the French colony of Louisiana from 1769 to 1800. In order to further establish and defend Louisiana, Spanish Governor Bernardo de Gálvez recruited Canary Islanders to emigrate to North America.

Between November 1778 and July 1779, around 1600 Isleños arrived in New Orleans, another group of about 300 came in 1783. By 1780, the four Isleño communities were founded; when Louisiana was sold to the United States, its Spanish and Cajun inhabitants became U. S. citizens, continued to speak Spanish or French. In 1813, George Ticknor started a program of Spanish Studies at Harvard University. In 1821, after Mexico's War of Independence from Spain, Texas was part of the United Mexican States as the state of Coahuila y Tejas. A large influx of Americans soon followed with the approval of Mexico's president. In 1836, the now "American" Texans fought a war of independence from the central government of Mexico and established the Republic of Texas. In 1846, the Republic dissolved. Per the 1850 U. S. census, fewer than 16,000 Texans were of Mexican descent, nearly all were Spanish-speaking people who were outnumbered by English-speaking settlers. After the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, Nevada, Utah, western Colorado and southwestern Wyoming became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California.

Most of New Mexico, western Texas, southern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, the Oklahoma panhandle were part of the territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México. The geographical isolation and unique political history of this territory led to New Mexican Spanish differing notably from both Spanish spoken in other parts of the United States of America and Spanish spoken in the present-day United Mexican States. Mexico lost half of the northern territory gained from Spain in 1821 to the United States in the Mexican–American War; this included parts of contemporary Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, California and Utah. Although the lost territory was sparsely populated, the thousands of Spanish-speaking Mexicans subsequently became U. S. citizens. The war-ending Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo does not explicitly address language. However, the English-speaking American settlers who entered the Southwest established their language and law as dominant, to the extent it displaced Spanish in the public sphere. In

Leonīds Beresņevs

Leonīds Beresņevs is a Latvian/Soviet former ice hockey player and coach. Born in Kirov Oblast he is a coach of the Latvian U-20 junior team, his first term of coaching the Latvian national team was from 1996 till 1999. In the 1996 world championships, when Latvia was playing in division B, they won and for the first time were promoted to division A where they finished at 7th place in 1997. From that time they have remained in division A. Beresņevs' second term started in 2004 and ended in 2006. In 2005 Latvia qualified for Torino Olympics. Beresņevs has been a coach for all the best Latvian ice hockey clubs since 1995. In 1996/1997 his coached Juniors Riga took gold at EEHL. In 2003/2004 Beresņevs was head coach in Russian Hockey Super League team Amur Khabarovsk. In 2007-08 he trained Estonian ice hockey club Tartu Big Diamonds and in 2008-09 he became the coach of Latvian club ASK/Ogre. Biographical information and career statistics from Eliteprospects.com, or The Internet Hockey Database

Eupithecia simpliciata

Eupithecia simpliciata, the plain pug, is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is found from western Europe to north-western China; the wingspan is 21–23 mm. Eupithecia simpliciata has a broad rounded forewing; the forewing ground colour is pale ochre. The forewing has curved fuscous striae; the postmedian fascia has curved the outer one zig-zagged towards the tornus. The forewing fringes are chequered; the hindwings are darkened in the postmedian field. The discal spot is small; the butterflies vary in colour and pattern. T The moth flies from May to September depending on the location; the larvae feed on Atriplex, Artemisia maritima and Artemisia vulgaris. Plain pug on UKmoths Lepiforum.de Vlindernet.nl