The scup is a fish which occurs in the Atlantic from Massachusetts to South Carolina. Along with many other fish of the family Sparidae, it is commonly known as porgy. Scup grow as large as 18 in and weigh 3 to 4 lb. In the Middle Atlantic Bight, scup spawn along the inner continental shelf, their larvae end up along the coast and in estuarine areas. At two to three years of age, they mature. Scup winter along the mid and outer continental shelf; when the temperature warms in the spring, they migrate inshore. They are fished for by both recreational fishermen; the scup fishery is one of the oldest in the United States, with records dating back to 1800. Scup was the most abundant fish in Colonial Times, landing the name "porgy,", the American Indian for "fertilizer." Fishermen began using trawls in 1929. The species was termed overfished in 1996, today there is evidence of a rebound. Today, scup are still caught using an otter trawl. Many consumers like their light flavor and they are sometimes called panfish.
Popular methods of cooking include but are not limited to frying and baking. Scup are fished commercially and recreationally. Management measures for the species include size limits, bag limits, fishing seasons, equipment requirements. Scup are managed through quotas that are separately regulated during the different seasons. Porgie fishing
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz, as he is known in Europe, was a nineteenth-century polymath born near Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire and self-educated in France. He traveled as a young man in the United States settling in Ohio in 1815, where he made notable contributions to botany and the study of prehistoric earthworks in North America, he contributed to the study of ancient Mesoamerican linguistics, in addition to work he had completed in Europe. Rafinesque was eccentric, is portrayed as an erratic genius, he was an autodidact who excelled in various fields of knowledge, as a zoologist, botanist and polyglot. He wrote prolifically on such diverse topics as anthropology, biology and linguistics, but was honored in none of these fields during his lifetime. Among his theories were that ancestors of Native Americans had migrated by the Bering Sea from Asia to North America, that the Americas were populated by numerous black indigenous peoples at the time of European contact. Rafinesque was born on October 1783 in Galata, a suburb of Constantinople.
His father F. G. Rafinesque was a French merchant from Marseilles, his father died in Philadelphia about 1793. Rafinesque spent his youth in Marseilles, was self-educated. By the age of twelve, he had begun collecting plants for a herbarium. By fourteen, he taught himself perfect Greek and Latin because he needed to follow footnotes in the books he was reading in his paternal grandmother's libraries. In 1802, at the age of nineteen, Rafinesque sailed to Philadelphia in the United States with his younger brother, they traveled through Pennsylvania and Delaware, where he made the acquaintance of most of the young nation's few botanists. In 1805 Rafinesque returned to Europe with his collection of botanical specimens, settled in Palermo, where he learned Italian, he became so successful in trade that he retired by age twenty-five and devoted his time to natural history. For a time Rafinesque worked as secretary to the American consul. During his stay in Sicily, he studied fishes, naming many new discovered species of each.
He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1808. Rafinesque had a common-law wife. After their son died in 1815, he returned to the United States; when his ship Union foundered near the coast of Connecticut, he lost all his books and all his specimens. Settling in New York, Rafinesque became a founding member of the newly established "Lyceum of Natural History." In 1817 his book Florula Ludoviciana or A Flora of the State of Louisiana was criticized by fellow botanists, which caused his writings to be ignored. By 1818, he had named more than 250 new species of plants and animals, he was rebuilding his collection of objects from nature. In the summer of 1818, in Henderson, Rafinesque made the acquaintance of fellow naturalist John James Audubon, in fact stayed in Audubon's home for some three weeks. Audubon, although enjoying Rafinesque's company, took advantage of him in practical jokes involving fantastic, made-up species. In 1819 Rafinesque became professor of botany at Transylvania University in Lexington, where he gave private lessons in French and Spanish.
He was loosely associated with John D. Clifford, a merchant, interested in the ancient earthworks which remained throughout the Ohio Valley. Clifford conducted archival research, seeking the origins of these mounds, Rafinesque measured and mapped them; some had been lost to American development. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1820. Rafinesque started recording all the new species of plants and animals he encountered in travels throughout the state, he was considered an erratic student of higher plants. In the spring of 1826, he left the university after quarreling with its president, he traveled and lectured in various places, endeavored to establish a magazine and a botanic garden, but without success. He moved to a center of publishing and research, without employment, he published The Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge, a Cyclopædic Journal and Review, of which only eight issues were printed. He gave public lectures and continued publishing at his own expense.
Rafinesque died of stomach and liver cancer in Philadelphia on September 18, 1840. It has been speculated that the cancer may have been induced by Rafinesque's self-medication years before with a mixture containing maidenhair fern, he was buried in a plot in. In March 1924 what were thought to be his remains were transported to Transylvania University and reinterred in a tomb under a stone inscribed, "Honor to whom honor is overdue." Rafinesque published 6,700 binomial names of plants, many of which have priority over more familiar names. The quantity of new taxa he produced, both plants and animals, has made Rafinesque memorable or notorious among biologists. Rafinesque applied to join the Lewis and Clark Expedition, but was twice turned down by Thomas Jefferson. After studying the specimens collected by the expedition, he assigned scientific names to the black-tailed prairie dog, the white-footed mouse and the mule deer. Rafinesque was one of the first to use the term "evolution" in the context of biological speciation.
Rafinesque proposed a theory of evolution before Charles Darwin. In a letter in 1832, Rafinesque wrote: The truth is that Species and Genera are forming i
Dentex is a genus of fish in the family Sparidae. There are 14 recognized species in this genus: Dentex abei Iwatsuki, Akazaki & Taniguchi, 2007 Dentex angolensis Poll & Maul, 1953 Dentex barnardi Cadenat, 1970 Dentex canariensis Steindachner, 1881 Dentex carpenteri Iwatsuki, S. J. Newman & B. C. Russell, 2015 Dentex congoensis Poll, 1954 Dentex dentex Dentex fourmanoiri Akazaki & Séret, 1999 Dentex gibbosus Dentex hypselosomus Bleeker, 1854 Dentex macrophthalmus Dentex maroccanus Valenciennes, 1830 Dentex spariformis J. D. Ogilby, 1910 Dentex tumifrons
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.333 million years ago. The Miocene was named by Charles Lyell; the Miocene is followed by the Pliocene. As the earth went from the Oligocene through the Miocene and into the Pliocene, the climate cooled towards a series of ice ages; the Miocene boundaries are not marked by a single distinct global event but consist rather of regionally defined boundaries between the warmer Oligocene and the cooler Pliocene Epoch. The Apes first evolved and diversified during the early Miocene, becoming widespread in the Old World. By the end of this epoch and the start of the following one, the ancestors of humans had split away from the ancestors of the chimpanzees to follow their own evolutionary path during the final Messinian stage of the Miocene; as in the Oligocene before it, grasslands continued to forests to dwindle in extent. In the seas of the Miocene, kelp forests made their first appearance and soon became one of Earth's most productive ecosystems.
The plants and animals of the Miocene were recognizably modern. Mammals and birds were well-established. Whales and kelp spread; the Miocene is of particular interest to geologists and palaeoclimatologists as major phases of the geology of the Himalaya occurred during the Miocene, affecting monsoonal patterns in Asia, which were interlinked with glacial periods in the northern hemisphere. The Miocene faunal stages from youngest to oldest are named according to the International Commission on Stratigraphy: Regionally, other systems are used, based on characteristic land mammals. Of the modern geologic features, only the land bridge between South America and North America was absent, although South America was approaching the western subduction zone in the Pacific Ocean, causing both the rise of the Andes and a southward extension of the Meso-American peninsula. Mountain building took place in western North America and East Asia. Both continental and marine Miocene deposits are common worldwide with marine outcrops common near modern shorelines.
Well studied continental exposures occur in Argentina. India continued creating dramatic new mountain ranges; the Tethys Seaway continued to shrink and disappeared as Africa collided with Eurasia in the Turkish–Arabian region between 19 and 12 Ma. The subsequent uplift of mountains in the western Mediterranean region and a global fall in sea levels combined to cause a temporary drying up of the Mediterranean Sea near the end of the Miocene; the global trend was towards increasing aridity caused by global cooling reducing the ability of the atmosphere to absorb moisture. Uplift of East Africa in the late Miocene was responsible for the shrinking of tropical rain forests in that region, Australia got drier as it entered a zone of low rainfall in the Late Miocene. During the Oligocene and Early Miocene the coast of northern Brazil, south-central Peru, central Chile and large swathes of inland Patagonia were subject to a marine transgression; the transgressions in the west coast of South America is thought to be caused by a regional phenomenon while the rising central segment of the Andes represents an exception.
While there are numerous registers of Oligo-Miocene transgressions around the world it is doubtful that these correlate. It is thought that the Oligo-Miocene transgression in Patagonia could have temporarily linked the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, as inferred from the findings of marine invertebrate fossils of both Atlantic and Pacific affinity in La Cascada Formation. Connection would have occurred through narrow epicontinental seaways that formed channels in a dissected topography; the Antarctic Plate started to subduct beneath South America 14 million years ago in the Miocene, forming the Chile Triple Junction. At first the Antarctic Plate subducted only in the southernmost tip of Patagonia, meaning that the Chile Triple Junction lay near the Strait of Magellan; as the southern part of Nazca Plate and the Chile Rise became consumed by subduction the more northerly regions of the Antarctic Plate begun to subduct beneath Patagonia so that the Chile Triple Junction advanced to the north over time.
The asthenospheric window associated to the triple junction disturbed previous patterns of mantle convection beneath Patagonia inducing an uplift of ca. 1 km that reversed the Oligocene–Miocene transgression. Climates remained moderately warm, although the slow global cooling that led to the Pleistocene glaciations continued. Although a long-term cooling trend was well underway, there is evidence of a warm period during the Miocene when the global climate rivalled that of the Oligocene; the Miocene warming b
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present. As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are uncertain; the name Oligocene was coined in 1854 by the German paleontologist Heinrich Ernst Beyrich. The Oligocene is followed by the Miocene Epoch; the Oligocene is the final epoch of the Paleogene Period. The Oligocene is considered an important time of transition, a link between the archaic world of the tropical Eocene and the more modern ecosystems of the Miocene. Major changes during the Oligocene included a global expansion of grasslands, a regression of tropical broad leaf forests to the equatorial belt; the start of the Oligocene is marked by a notable extinction event called the Grande Coupure. By contrast, the Oligocene–Miocene boundary is not set at an identified worldwide event but rather at regional boundaries between the warmer late Oligocene and the cooler Miocene.
Oligocene faunal stages from youngest to oldest are: The Paleogene Period general temperature decline is interrupted by an Oligocene 7-million-year stepwise climate change. A deeper 8.2 °C, 400,000-year temperature depression leads the 2 °C, seven-million-year stepwise climate change 33.5 Ma. The stepwise climate change began 32.5 Ma and lasted through to 25.5 Ma, as depicted in the PaleoTemps chart. The Oligocene climate change was a global increase in ice volume and a 55 m decrease in sea level with a related temperature depression; the 7-million-year depression abruptly terminated within 1–2 million years of the La Garita Caldera eruption at 28–26 Ma. A deep 400,000-year glaciated Oligocene Miocene boundary event is recorded at McMurdo Sound and King George Island. During this epoch, the continents continued to drift toward their present positions. Antarctica became more isolated and developed an ice cap. Mountain building in western North America continued, the Alps started to rise in Europe as the African plate continued to push north into the Eurasian plate, isolating the remnants of the Tethys Sea.
A brief marine incursion marks the early Oligocene in Europe. Marine fossils from the Oligocene are rare in North America. There appears to have been a land bridge in the early Oligocene between North America and Europe, since the faunas of the two regions are similar. Sometime during the Oligocene, South America was detached from Antarctica and drifted north towards North America, it allowed the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to flow cooling the Antarctic continent. Angiosperms continued their expansion throughout the world as tropical and sub-tropical forests were replaced by temperate deciduous forests. Open plains and deserts became more common and grasses expanded from their water-bank habitat in the Eocene moving out into open tracts; however at the end of the period, grass was not quite common enough for modern savannas. In North America, subtropical species dominated with cashews and lychee trees present, temperate trees such as roses and pines were common; the legumes spread, while sedges and ferns continued their ascent.
More open landscapes allowed animals to grow to larger sizes than they had earlier in the Paleocene epoch 30 million years earlier. Marine faunas became modern, as did terrestrial vertebrate fauna on the northern continents; this was more as a result of older forms dying out than as a result of more modern forms evolving. Many groups, such as equids, rhinos and camelids, became more able to run during this time, adapting to the plains that were spreading as the Eocene rainforests receded; the first felid, originated in Asia during the late Oligocene and spread to Europe. South America was isolated from the other continents and evolved a quite distinct fauna during the Oligocene; the South American continent became home to strange animals such as pyrotheres and astrapotheres, as well as litopterns and notoungulates. Sebecosuchians, terror birds, carnivorous metatheres, like the borhyaenids remained the dominant predators. Brontotheres died out in the Earliest Oligocene, creodonts died out outside Africa and the Middle East at the end of the period.
Multituberculates, an ancient lineage of primitive mammals that originated back in the Jurassic became extinct in the Oligocene, aside from the gondwanatheres. The Oligocene was home to a wide variety of strange mammals. A good example of this would be the White River Fauna of central North America, which were a semiarid prairie home to many different types of endemic mammals, including entelodonts like Archaeotherium, running rhinoceratoids, three-toed equids, nimravids and early canids like Hesperocyon. Merycoidodonts, an endemic American group, were diverse during this time. In Asia during the Oligocene, a group of running rhinoceratoids gave rise to the indricotheres, like Paraceratherium, which were the largest land mammals to walk the Earth; the marine animals of Oligocene oceans resembled today's fauna, such as the bivalves. Calcareous cirratulids appeared in the Oligocene; the fossil record of marine mammals is a little spotty during this time, not as well known as the Eocene o
Perciformes called the Percomorpha or Acanthopteri, is an order or superorder of ray-finned fish. If considered a single order, they are the most numerous order of vertebrates, containing about 41% of all bony fish. Perciformes means "perch-like"; this group comprises over 10,000 species found in all aquatic ecosystems. The order contains about 160 families, the most of any order within the vertebrates, it is the most variably sized order of vertebrates, ranging from the 7-mm Schindleria brevipinguis to the 5-m marlin in the genus Makaira. They first diversified in the Late Cretaceous. Among the well-known members of this group are perch and darters, sea bass and groupers; the dorsal and anal fins are divided into anterior spiny and posterior soft-rayed portions, which may be or separated. The pelvic fins have one spine and up to five soft rays, positioned unusually far forward under the chin or under the belly. Scales are ctenoid, although sometimes they are cycloid or otherwise modified. Classification is controversial.
As traditionally defined before the introduction of cladistics, the Perciformes are certainly paraphyletic. Other orders that should be included as suborders are the Scorpaeniformes, Tetraodontiformes, Pleuronectiformes. Of the presently recognized suborders, several may be paraphyletic, as well; these are grouped by suborder/superfamily following the text Fishes of the World. Photos of Perciformes on Sealife Collection
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods; because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification; the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Most fish are ectothermic, allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature. Fish can communicate in their underwater environments through the use of acoustic communication. Acoustic communication in fish involves the transmission of acoustic signals from one individual of a species to another; the production of sounds as a means of communication among fish is most used in the context of feeding, aggression or courtship behaviour. The sounds emitted by fish can vary depending on the stimulus involved, they can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder.
Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and hadal depths of the deepest oceans, although no species has yet been documented in the deepest 25% of the ocean. With 33,600 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide as food. Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean, they are caught by recreational fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers, exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, as the subjects of art and movies. Fish do not represent a monophyletic group, therefore the "evolution of fish" is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the fossil record are represented by a group of small, armored fish known as ostracoderms. Jawless fish lineages are extinct.
An extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils; the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, or a combination of factors. Fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways; the first ancestors of fish may have kept the larval form into adulthood, although the reverse is the case. Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods, which are not fish. For this reason, groups such as the "Class Pisces" seen in older reference works are no longer used in formal classifications. Traditional classification divides fish into three extant classes, with extinct forms sometimes classified within the tree, sometimes as their own classes: Class Agnatha Subclass Cyclostomata Subclass Ostracodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Subclass Elasmobranchii Subclass Holocephali Class Placodermi † Class Acanthodii † Class Osteichthyes Subclass Actinopterygii Subclass Sarcopterygii The above scheme is the one most encountered in non-specialist and general works.
Many of the above groups are paraphyletic, in that they have given rise to successive groups: Agnathans are ancestral to Chondrichthyes, who again have given rise to Acanthodiians, the ancestors of Osteichthyes. With the arrival of phylogenetic nomenclature, the fishes has been split up into a more detailed scheme, with the following major groups: Class Myxini Class Pteraspidomorphi † Class Thelodonti † Class Anaspida † Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Petromyzontidae Class Conodonta † Class Cephalaspidomorphi † Galeaspida † Pituriaspida † Osteostraci † Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class Placodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Class Acanthodii † Superclass Osteichthy