Sparkling wine

Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy. While the phrase refers to champagne, EU countries reserve that term for products produced in the Champagne region of France. Sparkling wine is either white or rosé, but there are examples of red sparkling wines such as the Italian Brachetto and Lambrusco, Spanish wine Cava, Australian sparkling Shiraz, Azerbaijani "Pearl of Azerbaijan" made from Madrasa grapes; the sweetness of sparkling wine can range from dry brut styles to sweeter doux varieties. The sparkling quality of these wines comes from its carbon dioxide content and may be the result of natural fermentation, either in a bottle, as with the traditional method, in a large tank designed to withstand the pressures involved, or as a result of simple carbon dioxide injection in some cheaper sparkling wines. In EU countries, the word "champagne" is reserved by law only for sparkling wine from the Champagne region of France; the French terms Mousseux and Crémant refer to sparkling wine not made in the Champagne region, such as Blanquette de Limoux produced in Southern France.

Sparkling wines are produced around the world, are referred to by their local name or region, such as Espumante from Portugal, Cava from Catalonia, Franciacorta, Trento DOC, Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico and Asti from Italy, Cap Classique from South Africa. Sparkling wines have been produced in Eastern Europe since the early 19th-century. "Champagne" was further popularised in the region, late in the century, when József Törley started production in Hungary using French methods, learned as an apprentice in Reims. Törley has since become one of the largest European producers of sparkling wine; the United States is a significant producer of sparkling wine today, with producers in numerous states. Production of sparkling wine has re-started in the United Kingdom after a long hiatus. Effervescence has been observed in wine throughout history and has been noted by Ancient Greek and Roman writers, but the cause of this mysterious appearance of bubbles was not understood. Over time it has been attributed to phases of the moon as well as both evil spirits.

The tendency of still wine from the Champagne region to sparkle was noted in the Middle Ages but this was considered a wine fault and was disdained in early Champagne winemaking although it made the pride of other historic sparkling wine production areas like Limoux. Dom Pérignon was charged by his superiors at the Abbey of Hautvillers to get rid of the bubbles since the pressure in the bottles caused many of them to burst in the cellar; when deliberate sparkling wine production increased in the early 18th century, cellar workers would still have to wear a heavy iron mask that resembled a baseball catcher's mask to prevent injury from spontaneously bursting bottles. The disturbance caused by one bottle's disintegration could cause a chain reaction, with it being routine for cellars to lose 20–90% of their bottles to instability; the mysterious circumstance surrounding the unknown process of fermentation and carbonic gas caused some critics to call the sparkling creations "The Devil's Wine".

The British were the first to see the tendency of wines from Champagne to sparkle as a desirable trait and tried to understand why it produced bubbles. Wine was transported to England in wooden wine barrels where merchant houses would bottle the wine for sale. During the 17th century, English glass production used coal-fueled ovens and produced stronger, more durable glass bottles than the wood-fired French glass; the English rediscovered the use of cork stoppers, once used by the Romans but forgotten for centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. During the cold winters of the Champagne region, temperatures would drop so low that the fermentation process was prematurely halted—leaving some residual sugar and dormant yeast; when the wine was shipped to and bottled in England, the fermentation process would restart when the weather warmed and the cork-stoppered wine would begin to build pressure from carbon dioxide gas. When the wine was opened, it would be bubbly. In 1662, the English scientist Christopher Merret presented a paper detailing how the presence of sugar in a wine led to it sparkling and that by adding sugar to a wine before bottling it, nearly any wine could be made to sparkle.

This is one of the first known accounts of understanding the process of sparkling wine and suggests that British merchants were producing "sparkling Champagne" before the French Champenois were deliberately making it. Sparkling wines, such as Champagne, are sold with 5 to 6 atmospheres of pressure in the bottle; this is nearly twice the pressure found in an automobile tire. European Union regulations define a sparkling wine as any wine with an excess of 3 atmospheres in pressure; these include Spanish Espumoso, Italian Spumante and French Crémant or Mousseux wines. Semi-sparkling wines are defined as those with between 1 and 2.5 atmospheres of pressures and include German spritzig, Italian frizzante and French pétillant wines. The amount of pressure in the wine is determined by the amount of sugar added during the tirage stage at the beginning of the secondary fermentation with more sugar producing increased amount of carbon dioxide gas and thus pressure in the wine. While the majority of sparkling wines are white or rosé, Australia and Moldova each have a sizable production of red sparkling wines.

Of these, Italy has the longest tradition in red sparkling wine-making, with notable wines including Brachetto

Rainer Gerhards

Rainer Gerhards is a German software engineer, network engineer, protocol designer best known for his Computer data logging work including Rsyslog and Reliable Event Logging Protocol. He began developing Rsyslog in 2004, to forward log messages in an Internet Protocol Network from UNIX and Unix-like computer systems. In 1988, Gerhards founded the company RG Informationssysteme, rebranded as Adiscon GmbH in 1997. Gerhards was born in Germany. In 1983 he started professional computing on Univac 1100 mainframes, he was appointed as the head of data center of Dörries GmbH where he introduced a company-wide PC network and was among the first in Germany to utilize Windows in larger-scale environments. In 1996, he started work on Computer data logging, developing network and protocol software based on it. Gerhards authored four RFCs on syslog, he wrote the base RFC 5424, which stack. As a board member of Mitre's CEE effort, he worked on standardizing event expression formats and providing interoperability between different logging systems.

He used his software projects as testbeds for IETF standardization including rsyslog for the development of RFC 5424, RFC 5425, RFC 5426. He implemented the syslog over RFC 3080 protocol. Gerhards designed the Reliable Event Logging Protocol, its predecessor Simple Event Transport Protocol. In 2004, he started working on rsyslog project and on other open source logging projects, including Project Lumberjack, Adiscon LogAnalyzer and librelp on Linux system logging infrastructure. From 1988, he had started working on the open source projects during his early career, he wrote a library for portable graphics as well as a portable data exchange tool and released it as public domain software. This code was distributed on Diskette by the C User's Group. In 1996, Gerhards wrote the first syslog server for Windows, launched by his company, Adiscon. In 1997 he wrote the first Windows Event Log to syslog forwarding tool and invented this class of software; the tool EventReporter never made a prominent share in the market, but was a base for Gerhards and other developers to create similar tools.

While developing this tool further, Gerhards designed a forwarding tool for Microsoft Internet Information Server log files, based on a paper by him and Dr. Tina Bird. Personal Blog

Meritorious Honor Award

The Meritorious Honor Award is an award of the United States Department of State. Similar versions of the same award exist for the former U. S. Information Agency, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, USAID, it is presented to groups or individuals in recognition of a special act or service or sustained outstanding performance. The award consists of a certificate signed by an assistant secretary, an official of equivalent rank or the Chief of Mission. While the FAM still stipulates award of a medal set, per a 2007 ALDAC, medals are no longer issued; the following criteria are applicable to granting a Meritorious Honor Award: Outstanding service in support of a one-time event. Nominations for State and USAID employees are submitted on Form JF-66, Nomination for Award, through supervisory channels to the Joint Country Awards Committee for review and recommendation to the Chief of Mission for final action. Nominations initiated in Washington are submitted to the appropriate area awards committee for final action.

For USAID, nominations initiated in Washington are reviewed by the USAID bureau/office with final approval by the appropriate assistant administrator or office head. Upon authorization, members of the U. S. military, with the exception of the Marine Corps, may wear the medal and ribbon in the appropriate order of precedence as a U. S. non-military personal decoration. USAID Meritorious Honor Award Awards of the United States Department of State Awards and decorations of the United States government United States Department of State U. S. Foreign Service