Sparta was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity, the city-state was known as Lacedaemon, while the name Sparta referred to its main settlement on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece. Given its military pre-eminence, Sparta was recognized as the leading force of the unified Greek military during the Greco-Persian Wars, in rivalry with the rising naval power of Athens. Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, from which it emerged victorious; the defeat by Thebes in the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended Sparta's prominent role, though it maintained its political independence until the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC. It underwent a long period of decline in the Middle Ages, when many Spartans moved to Mystras. Modern Sparta is the capital of the Greek region of Laconia and a center for processing citrus and olives. Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution introduced by the mythical figure of Lycurgus.
He configured the entire society in order to maximize military proficiency at all costs, focusing all social institutions on military training and physical development. Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates, mothakes and helots. Spartiates underwent the rigorous agoge training and education regimen, Spartan phalanx brigades were considered to be among the best in battle. Spartan women enjoyed more rights and equality with men than elsewhere in classical antiquity. Sparta was the subject of fascination in its own day, as well as in Western culture following the revival of classical learning; the admiration of Sparta is known as Laconophilia. Bertrand Russell wrote:Sparta had a double effect on Greek thought: through the reality, through the myth.... The reality enabled the Spartans to defeat Athens in war. Ideals that it favors had a great part in framing the doctrines of Rousseau and National Socialism; the earliest attested term referring to Lacedaemon is the Mycenaean Greek, ra-ke-da-mi-ni-jo, "Lacedaimonian", written in Linear B syllabic script, being the equivalent of the written in the Greek alphabet, latter Greek, Λακεδαιμόνιος, Lakedaimonios.
The ancient Greeks used one of three words to refer to the home location of the Spartans. First, "Sparta" refers to the main cluster of settlements in the valley of the Eurotas River; the second word "Lacedaemon" was used sometimes as an adjective and is the name used in the works of Homer and the historians Herodotus and Thucydides. The third term "Laconice" referred to the immediate area around the town of Sparta, the plateau east of the Taygetos mountains, sometimes to all the regions under direct Spartan control, including Messenia. Herodotus seems to use "Lacedaemon" for the Mycenaean Greek citadel at Therapne, in contrast to the lower town of Sparta; this term could be used synonymously with Sparta, but it denoted the terrain in which the city was located. In Homer it is combined with epithets of the countryside: wide, lovely and most hollow and broken, suggesting the Eurotas Valley. "Sparta" on the other hand is the country of a epithet for people. The population were called Lacedaemonians.
This epithet utilized the plural of the adjective Lacedaemonius. The ancients sometimes used a back-formation, referring to the land of Lacedaemon as Lacedaemonian country; as most words for "country" were feminine, the adjective was in the feminine: Lacedaemonia. The adjective came to be used alone. "Lacedaemonia" was not in general use during the classical period and before. It does occur in Greek as an equivalent of Laconia and Messenia during the Roman and early Byzantine periods in ethnographers and lexica glossing place names. For example, Hesychius of Alexandria's Lexicon defines Agiadae as a "place in Lacedaemonia" named after Agis; the actual transition may be captured by Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae, an etymological dictionary. He relied on Orosius' Historiarum Adversum Paganos and Eusebius of Caesarea's Chronicon as did Orosius; the latter defines Sparta to be Lacedaemonia Civitas but Isidore defines Lacedaemonia as founded by Lacedaemon, son of Semele, relying on Eusebius. There is a rare use the earliest of Lacedaemonia, in Diodorus Siculus, but with Χὠρα suppressed.
Lakedaimona was until 2006 the name of a province in the modern Greek prefecture of Laconia. Sparta is located in the south-eastern Peloponnese. Ancient Sparta was built on the banks of the Eurotas River, the main river of Laconia, which provided it with a source of fresh water; the valley of the Eurotas is a natural fortress, bounded to the west by Mt. Taygetus and to the east by Mt. Parnon. To the north, Laconia is separated from Arcadia by hilly uplands reaching 1000 m in altitude; these natural defenses worked to Sparta's advantage and contributed to Sparta never having been sacked. Though landlocked, Sparta had Gytheio, on the Laconian Gulf. Lacedaemon (
The Campbell House is a historic house at 305 North Forrest Street in Forrest City, Arkansas. It is a two-story brick building, exhibiting classic Prairie School features including a low-pitch hip roof and wide eaves, it was built in 1917 by William Wilson Campbell, a leading banker and businessman in Forrest City, remains in the hands of his descendants. It was designed by Estes Mann, it was damaged by fire in 1927, had a large addition added in 1959. Campbell played host to a number of notable luminaries, including Will Rogers and Governor Winthrop Rockefeller; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2006. National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Francis County, Arkansas
The Rawson House is a historic building along Clifton Avenue in Cincinnati, United States. Erected circa 1870, it has been ranked as a fine example of the Italian Villa style of architecture. Built with brick walls and elements of wood and stone, it was the home of Jacob Lloyd Wayne; the house was sold to Joseph Rawson, the president of a local meat packing firm and the vice-president of the city's First National Bank. In 1973, the Rawson House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Non-archaeological historic sites in the United States qualify to be listed on the National Register by passing any of three different criteria: significant historical role, relation to a significant person, or significant architecture, it is possible for properties to meet more than one criterion. Five years a group of properties along Clifton Avenue were designated a historic district, the Clifton Avenue Historic District.