Sparta Rotterdam

Sparta Rotterdam is a Dutch professional football club based in Rotterdam. Established on 1 April 1888, Sparta Rotterdam is the oldest professional football team in the Netherlands. Sparta compete in the Eredivisie, the top flight of Dutch professional football, having won promotion from the Eerste Divisie in 2018–19; the club is one of three professional football clubs from Rotterdam, the others being Excelsior and Feyenoord. On 1 April 1888, several students from Rotterdam founded a cricket club called Rotterdamsche Cricket & Football Club Sparta. In July 1888, a football branch of the club was established. In 1890, Sparta played its first real football match, in 1892 Sparta disbanded the cricket branch. Sparta was promoted to the highest league of Dutch football on 23 April 1893. In 1897, Sparta withdrew from the competition after continuous dubious arbitration of Sparta matches; the club continued to exist, in 1899 the board of Sparta visited a match of Sunderland. Impressed with the red-and-white jersey of the English club, the board decided that Sunderland's colours would henceforth be the colours of Sparta.

In 1905, Sparta initiated and organised the first home match of the Netherlands national team, against Belgium. The match, won 4–0 by the Netherlands, was a rematch of a game two weeks prior, when the Netherlands beat Belgium 4–1 in Antwerp, Belgium; the first match at Sparta's new stadium, Het Kasteel, in the Spangen area of west Rotterdam, was played on 14 October 1916. The stadium is still Sparta's stadium; until the 2002–03 season, Sparta had always played at the highest level, but after they appointed the former international player Frank Rijkaard as a manager they were relegated from the top-level Eredivisie in 2002. That made Rijkaard resign from his position. Sparta returned to the Eredivisie for the 2005–06 season, they were relegated again in 2010. On 20 August 2010, they equalled Ajax's and Heracles Almelo's Dutch league record win when they defeated Almere City 12–1 with Johan Voskamp scoring an Eerste Divisie record 8 goals on his debut. After six years in the Eerste Divisie, Sparta again won promotion to the Eredivisie in April 2016 after a 3–1 win over Jong Ajax won them an unassailable lead over second placed VVV-Venlo.

However, they were relegated for the third time in their history in May 2018 after they were beaten 1-3 on aggregate by FC Emmen in the promotion/relegation play-offs. The result proved to be a historical one since Emmen won their first promotion to the Eredivisie. Sparta has won three national cups; the best footballers of Rotterdam and Antwerp contested a yearly match between 1909 and 1959 for the Meuse- and Scheldt Cup. It was agreed to play the game at stadium Het Kasteel in Rotterdam and at the Bosuilstadion in Antwerp; the cup was provided in 1909 by Kees van Hasselt from P. Havenith from Antwerp; the Sparta Jeugdopleiding is a four-star certified youth academy and amongst the strongest in the nation, having won the national academy of the year award on several occasions. Several International footballers have progressed through the ranks of the academy, including Danny Blind, Danny Koevermans, David Mendes da Silva, Ed de Goey, Winston Bogarde, Memphis Depay, Henk Fräser, Jan van Beveren, Georginio Wijnaldum, Anwar El Ghazi, Jetro Willems, John de Wolf, Kevin Strootman, Rick van Drongelen and Nick Viergever, Marten de Roon amongst others.

Netherlands Football League Championship / Eredivisie: 61908–09, 1910–11, 1911–12, 1912–13, 1914–15, 1958–59Eerste Divisie: 12015–16KNVB Cup: 31957–58, 1961–62, 1965–66Eerste Klasse: 101909, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1915, 1916, 1925, 1929, 1953, 1956 Rotterdam Easter TournamentRunners-up: 1934, 1948 Below is a table with Sparta Rotterdam's domestic results since the introduction of the Eredivisie in 1956. Q = Qualifying Round 1R = First round 2R = Second round 3R = Third round 1/4 = Quarter-final As of 26 January 2020Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Sparta Rotterdam season 2001–02 Sparta Rotterdam season 2002–03 Sparta Rotterdam season 2003–04 Official website Sparta Rotterdam at Statistics itwm despartasupporter Unofficial website in English

Mountain man

A mountain man is an explorer who lives in the wilderness. Mountain men were most common in the North American Rocky Mountains from about 1810 through to the 1880s, they were instrumental in opening up the various Emigrant Trails allowing Americans in the east to settle the new territories of the far west by organized wagon trains traveling over roads explored and in many cases, physically improved by the mountain men and the big fur companies to serve the mule train based inland fur trade. They arose in a natural geographic and economic expansion driven by the lucrative earnings available in the North American fur trade, in the wake of the various 1806–07 published accounts of the Lewis and Clark expeditions' findings about the Rockies and the Oregon Country where they flourished economically for over three decades. By the time two new international treaties in early 1846 and early 1848 settled new western coastal territories in the United States and spurred a large upsurge in migration, the days of mountain men making a good living by fur trapping had ended.

This was because the fur industry was failing due to reduced demand and over trapping. With the rise of the silk trade and quick collapse of the North American beaver-based fur trade in the 1830s–1840s, many of the mountain men settled into jobs as Army Scouts or wagon train guides or settled throughout the lands which they had helped open up. Others, like William Sublette, opened up fort-trading posts along the Oregon Trail to service the remnant fur trade and the settlers heading west. Mountain men were most common in the North American Rocky Mountains from about 1810 through to the 1880s. 3,000 mountain men ranged the mountains between 1820 and 1840, the peak beaver-harvesting period. While there were many free trappers, most mountain men were employed by major fur companies; the life of a company man was militarized. The men had mess groups and trapped in brigades and always reported to the head of the trapping party; this man was called a bastardization of the French term bourgeois. He was the leader of the head trader.

Donald Mackenzie, representing the North West Company, held a rendezvous in the Boise River Valley in 1819. The rendezvous system was implemented by William Henry Ashley of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, whose company representatives would haul supplies to specific mountain locations in the spring, engage in trading with trappers, bring pelts back to communities on the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, like St. Louis, in the fall. Ashley sold his business to the outfit of Jedediah Smith and Sublette, he continued to earn revenue by selling that firm their supplies. This system of rendezvous with trappers continued when other firms the American Fur Company owned by John Jacob Astor, entered the field; the annual rendezvous was held at Horse Creek on the Green River, now called the Upper Green River Rendezvous Site, near present-day Pinedale, Wyoming. Another popular site in the same general area was Pierre's Hole. By the mid-1830s, it attracted 450-500 men annually all the American trappers and traders working in the Rockies, as well as numerous Native Americans.

In the late 1830s, the Canadian-based Hudson's Bay Company instituted a policy to destroy the American fur trade. The HBC's annual Snake River Expedition was transformed to a trading enterprise. Beginning in 1834, it visited the American Rendezvous to buy furs at low prices; the HBC was able to offer manufactured trade goods at prices far below that with which American fur companies could compete. Combined with a decline in demand for and supply of beaver, by 1840 the HBC had destroyed the American system; the last rendezvous was held in 1840. During the same years, fashion in Europe shifted away from the popular beaver hats. After achieving an American monopoly by 1830, Astor got out of the fur business before its decline. By 1841 the American Fur Company and the Rocky Mountain Fur Company were in ruins. By 1846 only some 50 American trappers still worked in the Snake River country, compared to 500-600 in 1826. Soon after the strategic victory by the HBC, the Snake River route was used for emigrants as the Oregon Trail, which brought a new form of competition.

Former trappers earned money as hunters for the emigrant parties. A second fur trading and supply center grew up in Taos in; this trade attracted numerous French Americans from Louisiana and some French Canadian trappers, in addition to Anglo-Americans. Some New Mexican residents pursued the beaver trade, as Mexican citizens had some legal advantages. Trappers and traders in the Southwest covered territory, inaccessible to the large fur companies, it included parts of New Mexico, Nevada and central and southern Utah. After the decline in beaver and the fur trade, with some emigrants to the West using the Mormon Trail, former trappers found work as guides and hunters for the traveling parties. After the short-lived American Pacific Fur Company was sold, the British controlled the fur trade in the Pacific Northwest, under first the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company. To prevent American fur traders from competing, the British companies adopted a policy of destroying fur resources west of the Rocky Mountains in the upper Snake River country.

After the Hudson's Bay Company took over operations in the Pacific Northwest in 1821, the Snake River country was trapped out. Thi


Mootsinyane is a community council located in the Mohale's Hoek District of Lesotho. Its population in 2006 was 9,995; the community of Mootsinyane includes the villages of Anone, Bompolasi, Boritsa, Fika-la-Tšoene, Ha'Mamaqabe, Ha Beka, Ha Khoai, Ha Lebele, Ha Leketa, Ha Lekhafola, Ha Lengau, Ha Make, Ha Makhalanyane, Ha Makoae, Ha Malephane, Ha Matoli, Ha Mocheko, Ha Moena, Ha Moena, Ha Moena, Ha Mohapi, Ha Mohlomi, Ha Mokhoele, Ha Mokoto, Ha Molibeli, Ha Mothiba, Ha Nkieane, Ha Ntee, Ha Pholo, Ha Pita, Ha Raisa, Ha Ralikhomo, Ha Ramokhongoana, Ha Ramonethi, Ha Ramothobi, Ha Ramothobi, Ha Ramothobi, Ha Raqoatha, Ha Sebothama, Ha Seliane, Ha Sentšo, Ha Sethunya, Ha Setulo, Ha Shalane, Ha Thabo, Ha Tsela, Ha Tsela, Ha Tsietsi, Khokhotsaneng, Letlapeng, Lithipeng, Litšoeneng, Marakong, Matolong, Matsatsaneng, Mohloareng, Motse-Mocha, Motse-Mocha, Phuthing, Sebataolong, Sekoaing, Taung, Thaba-Bosiu, Tlaling, Tsekong and Tšieng. Google map of community villages