Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Kemal Atatürk referred to as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, was a Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories became known as Kemalism. Atatürk came to prominence for his role in securing the Ottoman Turkish victory at the Battle of Gallipoli during World War I. Following the Empire's defeat and subsequent dissolution, he led the Turkish National Movement, which resisted the mainland Turkey's partition among the victorious Allied powers. Establishing a provisional government in the present-day Turkish capital Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies, thus emerging victorious from what was referred to as the Turkish War of Independence, he subsequently proceeded to abolish the decrepit Ottoman Empire and proclaimed the foundation of the Turkish Republic in its place. As the president of the newly formed Turkish Republic, Atatürk initiated a rigorous program of political and cultural reforms with the ultimate aim of building a modern and secular nation-state.
He made primary education free and compulsory, opening thousands of new schools all over the country. He introduced the Latin-based Turkish alphabet, replacing the old Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Turkish women received equal civil and political rights during Atatürk's presidency ahead of many Western countries. In particular, women were given voting rights in local elections by Act no. 1580 on 3 April 1930 and a few years in 1934, full universal suffrage, earlier than most other countries in the world. His government carried out a policy of Turkicisation trying to create a homogeneous and unified nation. Under Atatürk, non-Turkish minorities were pressured to speak Turkish in public, non-Turkish toponyms and last names of minorities had to be changed to Turkish renditions; the Turkish Parliament granted him the surname Atatürk in 1934, which means "Father of the Turks", in recognition of the role he played in building the modern Turkish Republic. He died on 10 November 1938 at the age of 57 in Dolmabahçe Palace.
In 1953, his iconic mausoleum was built and opened, surrounded by a park called the Peace Park in honor of his famous expression "Peace at Home, Peace in the World". In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk's birth, his memory was honoured by the UN and UNESCO, which declared it The Atatürk Year in the World and adopted the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial, describing him as "the leader of the first struggle given against colonialism and imperialism" and a "remarkable promoter of the sense of understanding between peoples and durable peace between the nations of the world and that he worked all his life for the development of harmony and cooperation between peoples without distinction". Atatürk is commemorated by many memorials throughout Turkey and numerous countries all over the world, where place names are named in honor of him. Eleftherios Venizelos, former Prime Minister of Greece, forwarded Atatürk's name for the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was born in the early months of 1881, either in the Ahmet Subaşı neighbourhood or at a house in Islahhane Street in the Koca Kasım Pasha neighbourhood in Salonica, Ottoman Empire, to Ali Rıza Efendi, a militia officer, title deed clerk and lumber trader, Zübeyde Hanım.
Only one of Mustafa's siblings, a sister named. According to Andrew Mango, his family was Turkish-speaking and precariously middle-class, his father Ali Rıza is thought to have been of Albanian origin by some authors. His mother Zübeyde is thought to have been of Turkish origin, according to Şevket Süreyya Aydemir, she was of Yörük ancestry, he was born Mustafa, his second name Kemal was given to him by his mathematics teacher, Captain Üsküplü Mustafa Efendi, "in admiration of his capability and maturity" according to Afet İnan, according to Ali Fuat Cebesoy, because his teacher wanted to distinguish his student who had the same name as him, although biographer Andrew Mango suggests that he may have chosen the name himself as a tribute to the nationalist poet Namık Kemal. In his early years, his mother encouraged Atatürk to attend a religious school, something he did reluctantly and only briefly, he attended the Şemsi Efendi School at the direction of his father. His parents wanted him to learn a trade, but without consulting them, Atatürk took the entrance exam for the Salonica Military School in 1893.
In 1896, he enrolled in the Monastir Military High School. On 14 March 1899, he enrolled at the Ottoman Military Academy in the neighbourhood of Pangaltı within the Şişli district of the Ottoman capital city Constantinople and graduated in 1902, he graduated from the Ottoman Military College in Constantinople on 11 January 1905. Shortly after graduation, he was arrested by the police for his anti-monarchist activities. Following confinement for several months he was released only
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Electoral system of Turkey
The Electoral system of Turkey varies for general and local elections that take place in Turkey every four years, five years and five years respectively. Turkey has been a multi-party democracy since 1950, with the first democratic election held on 14 May 1950 leading to the end of the single-party rule established in 1923; the current electoral system for electing Members of Parliament to the Grand National Assembly has a 10% election threshold, the highest of any country. A brief summary of the electoral systems used for each type of election is as follows: General elections: The D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system, to elect 600 Members of Parliament to the Grand National Assembly from 87 electoral districts that elect different numbers of MPs depending on their populations. Local elections: Metropolitan and District Mayors and Provincial Councillors, neighbourhood presidents and their village councils elected through a First-past-the-post system, with the winning candidate in each municipality elected by a simple majority.
Presidential elections: A Two-round system, with the top two candidates contesting a run-off election two weeks after the initial election should no candidate win at least 50%+1 of the popular vote. Turkey elects 600 Members of Parliament to the Grand National Assembly using the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system. In order to return MPs to parliament, a party needs to gain more than 10% of the vote nationwide, meaning that parties may win the most votes in certain areas but not win any MPs due to a low result overall; the parliamentary threshold of 10% has been subject to intense scrutiny by opposition members, since all votes cast for parties polling under 10% are spoilt and allow the parties overcoming the national threshold to win more seats than correspond to their share of votes. E.g. in the 2002 general election the AKP won 34.28% of the vote but won nearly two-thirds of the seats. The parliamentary threshold does not apply to independents, meaning that Kurdish nationalist politicians who poll in the south-east but are not able to win 10% of the overall vote stand as independents rather than as a party candidate.
This was the case in the 2007 and 2011 general election, where the Kurdish Democratic Society Party and the Peace and Democracy Party fielded independent candidates respectively. The main criticism of the current system is the high 10% threshold necessary to gain seats. In January 2015, the CHP renewed their parliamentary proposals to lower the threshold to 3% and proposed no changes to the proportional representation system, though the AKP are against lowering the threshold without wider electoral reform. In July 2013, the AKP prepared new proposals, named the'narrow district system', to change the proportional representation system into either a first-past-the-post system or create smaller constituencies which elect a fewer number of MPs. Under these proposals, the threshold would fall from 10% to either 7 or 8% while Turkey would be split into 129 electoral districts rather than the existing 85. İstanbul itself would have been split into 17 or 20 districts. The system will benefit the largest party as well as parties that are the strongest in certain regions, meaning that the AKP and Kurdish nationalist Peace and Democracy Party would make the biggest gains.
The two main opposition parties CHP and MHP do not have a substantial number of electoral strongholds, meaning that they would be negatively impacted by a narrow-district system. Proposals by the AKP to create a full first-past-the-post system with 550 single-member constituencies were unveiled in December 2014, though any change in electoral law would have to be passed by parliament at least a year before the election; the AKP's proposals for reform have raised concerns about gerrymandering. Turkey is split into 87 electoral districts, which elect a certain number of Members to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey; the Grand National Assembly has a total of 600 seats, which each electoral district allocated a certain number of MPs in proportion to their population. The Supreme Electoral Council of Turkey conducts population reviews of each district before the election and can increase or decrease a district's number of seats according to their electorate. In all but four cases, electoral districts share the same name and borders of the 81 Provinces of Turkey.
The exceptions are İzmir, İstanbul and Ankara. Provinces electing between 19 and 36 MPs are split into two electoral districts, while any province electing above 36 MPs are divided into three; as the country's four largest provinces, İzmir and Bursa are divided into two subdistricts while Ankara and İstanbul is divided into three. The distribution of elected MPs per electoral district is shown below. In 2018, total MPs are increased from 550 to 600. Due to this increase, several districts had more MPs. Ankara and Bursa divided into one more electoral district due to this increase. However, Bayburt is represented with one less MP in 2018, making it the only district with a single MP. A total of eight electoral districts had their number of MPs adjusted since the 2011 general election by the electoral council, as listed below; the two electoral districts of Ankara had their boundaries changed. The number of voters in each province was announced on 17 May 2015. In total, there are 53,741,838 voters in the provinces, which corresponds to 97,712 voters for each MP.
However, because of the electoral system, this was not distributed to the provinces. In İzmir, where voters per MP was the highest, 118,669 votes corresponded to an MP, whereas in Bayburt, 27,089 voters were represented by an MP. Two factors caused this more than fourfold disparity. Namely, the electoral l
June 2015 Turkish general election
The Turkish general election of June 2015 took place on 7 June 2015 in all 85 electoral districts of Turkey to elect 550 members to the Grand National Assembly. This was the 24th general election in the history of the Turkish Republic, electing the country's 25th Parliament; the result was the first hung parliament since the 1999 general election. Unsuccessful attempts to form a coalition government resulted in a snap general election being called for November 2015; the Justice and Development Party, which had governed Turkey since 2002, lost its parliamentary majority and won 258 seats with 40.9% of the vote. The main opposition Republican People's Party fared worse than their 2011 result, won 132 seats with 25.0% of the vote. The Nationalist Movement Party had been projected to win over many disaffected voters from the AKP, its share of the vote increased, the party won 80 seats with 16.3% of the vote. The new Peoples' Democratic Party decided to contest the election as a party rather than fielding candidates as independents, despite concerns that it could have fallen below the 10% election threshold and lose all representation in Parliament.
The party fared better than expectations: it won 13.1% of the vote and took 80 seats, the same as the MHP. The potential for a hung parliament had been considered and predicted before the election so the country and politicians were better prepared for the constitutional process that would follow such a result. Campaigning before the election focused on a faltering economy, the political conflict between the government and the Gülen Movement, Turkey's involvement in the Syrian Civil War. Growing allegations of government corruption and authoritarianism originating from the 2013 corruption scandal and the 2013 Gezi Park protests were part of the issues and developments raised during the opposition campaigns; the vote was seen by some as a referendum on President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's call for an executive presidency. Electoral fraud claims and political violence caused controversy in the run-up to the election. Several candidates and party offices were subject to politically motivated attacks, culminating in the death of four HDP supporters after two bombs exploded during a rally in Diyarbakır on 5 June.
The interference of President Erdoğan, accused of covertly campaigning for the AKP under the guise of'public opening' rallies, was controversial since the President is constitutionally required to exercise political neutrality. Despite fraud claims dating back to the hugely controversial 2014 local elections and numerous claims of misconduct on polling day, the election was praised by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe for being well-organised and was declared free and fair by the European Parliament; the governing Justice and Development Party sought a fourth consecutive term in government. Its leader, Ahmet Davutoğlu, who had taken over from Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in August 2014, sought a full term as Prime Minister of Turkey in his own right; the AKP's goal was to win more than 330 seats in order to have the right to put constitutional changes to a referendum, or more ideally 367 seats to bypass a referendum and change the constitution directly within parliament. The Republican People's Party aimed to surpass the 30% boundary and to form a government with the help of smaller parties or in its own right.
The CHP's leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu had publicly stated that his party would target 35% of the vote, a rise of 9% from its 2011 result, in order to be able to form the next government. Popular support for the Nationalist Movement Party had surged during the 2014 local elections, it aimed to participate in a coalition government. However, several politicians from the CHP and MHP resigned in protest against their unrealistic electoral prospects, formed their own parties; the most prominent break-away party was the Anatolia Party formed by former CHP MP Emine Ülker Tarhan in November 2014. Other significant factors that opposition parties would need to overcome were issues such as media bias and electoral fraud, both of which increased in the preceding local and presidential elections; this election is the last election - presidential and general - scheduled in Turkey until 2019. Arguments as to whether this is by chance, or whether it was planned by the Justice and Development Party government when they proposed to reduce the parliamentary terms from five years to four in the 2007 constitutional referendum, are still ongoing.
Speculation as to what the AKP government will do during four years of electorally unchecked power should they win generated both favourable predictions and concerns. While four years without elections may allow the government to undertake widespread necessary economic reforms, critics of the AKP argue that it is an opportunity to further erode the diminishing checks and balances and separation of powers in the Turkish political and legal systems; the AKP support a presidential system, which would give greater powers to President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. The AKP government had proposed to hold an early general election in November 2014 if their candidate Recep Tayyip Erdoğan won the 2014 presidential election due to opinion polls predicting a comfortable victory for Erdoğan in the first round; this would allow the AKP's new leader to seek an electoral mandate in their own right rather than serving the remainder of Erdoğan's term before seeking re-election. Although Erdoğan did win outright with 51.79% of the vote, his popular vote share was below what opinion polls predicted.
The presidential election results, according to several political commentators and journalists reduced the possibility of
Minister of European Union Affairs (Turkey)
The Minister of European Union Affairs of Turkey is the government minister responsible for Turkey's membership negotiations with the European Union and is a member of the Cabinet of Turkey, leading the Ministry of European Union Affairs. The position was formed on 29 June 2011 after Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan won a third term in the 2011 general election. So far, there have been three ministers of European Union Affairs; the Minister concurrently serves as the chief negotiator during accession talks with the EU. The ministry was established after the governing Justice and Development Party won a third term in the general election of 2011, in time for the 61st government of Turkey. European Union negotiations were handled by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Since 29 June 2011, five Ministers have been responsible for this department. Minister of Foreign Affairs Biography of the Minister
Visa policy of Turkey
The visa policy of Turkey deals with the requirements which a foreign national wishing to enter Turkey must meet to be permitted to travel to, enter and remain in the country. Visitors to Turkey must obtain a visa from one of the Turkish diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the 78 visa-exempt countries and territories or one of the 42 countries and territories whose citizens are eligible to apply for an e-Visa online. Turkish visas are documents issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and its subsequent diplomatic missions abroad with the stated goal of regulating and facilitating migratory flows. Visitors of most nationalities must hold a passport valid for no less than 150 days from the date of arrival; the passport validity requirement does not apply to citizens of Belgium, Luxembourg, Portugal and Switzerland who can enter with a passport expired for no more than five years, citizens of Germany who can enter with a passport or an ID card expired for less than one year, citizens of Bulgaria who are only required to have a passport valid for their period of stay.
An identity card is accepted in lieu of a passport for citizens of Belgium, Georgia, Greece, Liechtenstein, Malta, Netherlands, Northern Cyprus, Spain and Ukraine. The validity period requirement does not apply to nationals of countries whose identity cards are accepted. Though Turkey is a candidate country for the membership in the European Union, it has a more complex visa policy than the visa policy of the Schengen Area. Turkey requires visas from citizens of certain EU member states and Schengen Annex II countries and territories – Antigua and Barbuda, Austria, Bahamas, Canada, Cyprus, East Timor, Ireland, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mexico, Norway, Palau, Portugal, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Vanuatu. On the other hand, Turkey grants visa-free access to citizens of other countries and territories – Azerbaijan, Belize, Ecuador, Kosovo, Jordan, Mongolia, Qatar, Tajikistan, Tunisia and Uzbekistan.
Citizens of the following countries or territories do not require a visa to enter, reside and work indefinitely in Turkey without any immigration restrictions: Citizens of the following 78 countries and territories do not require a visa to visit Turkey for the durations described below for tourism or business purposes. For visits of up to 90 days within a 180-day period, an identity card is accepted in lieu of a passport for citizens of some countries. Visa is not required for holders of a "Laissez-Passer" issued by the United Nations; the visa-free regime applies to the citizens of the following countries under certain conditions: Cyprus - provided residing in Northern Cyprus and directly arriving from Ercan International Airport or seaports of Famagusta, Kyrenia, or Karavostassi for a maximum stay of 90 days within 180 days Libya - provided being not older than 12 or younger than 65 for a maximum stay of 90 days within 180 days Palestine - provided holding a VIP passport Citizens of Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Bulgaria, China, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Egypt, Guyana, Iraq, Kenya, Libya, Malta, Mauritius, Namibia, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Spain, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Tanzania, United Arab Emirates and Yemen and for holders of diplomatic passports of Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Republic of the Congo, Fiji, Gambia, India, Mali, Niger, Palestine, Senegal, South Sudan, Sudan and United Kingdom – provided holding diplomatic and special passports for a maximum stay of 90 days within 180 days Visa waiver agreements for diplomatic passports were signed with Sierra Leone in May 2017 and with Laos in November 2018 and they are yet to come into force.
Holders of passports of the following 40 countries and territories can obtain e-Visas online for a fee prior to arrival. The duration of stay for most of these nationalities is 90 days within 180 days. ID - May enter with an ID card for a stay of up to 90 days per 180-day period1 - May only apply for a single entry e-visa on which they can stay for up to 30 days.2 - Allowed to enter with an expired passport 3 - e-Visas are issued free of charge. Fees apply to Mexican citizens who obtain e-Visas on arrival.4 - For British citizens and British Nationals only.5 - Not eligible for e-visas on arrival.6 - May apply for a multiple entry e-visa on which they can stay for up to 30 days. Citizens of these countries and territories are eligible to apply for a single entry e-Visa OR e-visa on arrival at Istanbul Ataturk on which they can stay for up to 30 days only if meeting the conditions listed below: 1 - e-Visas are issued free of charge. Conditions: All nationalities, except for citizens of Gabon and Zambia, must hold a valid visa or residence permit from one of the following countries: Schengen area countries, the United Kingdom or the United States.
Electronic visas or e-residence permits are not accepted. Egyptian citizens who are under 20 or over 45 years
President of Turkey
The President of the Republic of Turkey is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Turkey. Following the 2018 general election, the incumbent office-holder assumed the role of an Executive President and holds both ceremonial and executive status. In this capacity, the President represents the Republic of Turkey, the unity of the Turkish nation, as well as ensuring the implementation of the Constitution of Turkey and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state; the articles from 101 to 106 of the Constitution establish all the requirements, election and responsibilities for the office of the President. The office of the President of Turkey was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923; the President of Turkey is referred to as the Cumhurbaşkanı, meaning'President of the People'. Since 1950, the presidency has been a ceremonial office. However, in a 2017 referendum, the Turkish people narrowly voted to make the presidency an executive post, effective with the 2018 general election.
The current office-holder is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who has held the office since 28 August 2014. Since 9 July 2018, Erdoğan has served as the first Executive President, with increased legislative and judicial powers. In order to become the President of Turkey, the candidate must have completed higher education, be of at least forty years of age. If they are a member of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, they must resign their seat. In the past, Turkish presidents were required to sever all relations, if any, with their political party; the election of the President must begin at least 30 days before the term of office of the incumbent president expires or 10 days after the presidency falls vacant, must be completed within 30 days of the beginning of the election. Candidates must be declared to the bureau of the parliament within the first 10 days of this period, elections must be completed within the remaining 20 days; the President was elected by the members of the Turkish Parliament. According to an amendment, drafted in 2007, the future Presidents shall be elected by the citizens through a public vote.
The candidates must have completed higher education. They can either be members of the Turkish Parliament, or members of the public who fulfill these requirements and who are eligible to become members of parliament; the President is selected for a term of office of five years, is eligible for re-election. The term of office of the incumbent president continues. On assuming office, the president takes the following oath before the parliament: I swear upon my honour and integrity, before the great Turkish Nation, to safeguard the existence and independence of the state, the indivisible integrity of the country and the nation, the absolute sovereignty of the nation; the oath is broadcast live on TBMM-TV regardless of it is a regular business day of TBMM. to deliver, if he deems it necessary, the opening address of the parliament on the first day of the legislative year, to summon the parliament to meet, when necessary, to promulgate laws, to return laws to the parliament to be reconsidered, to submit to referendum, if he deems it necessary, legislation regarding amendment of the constitution, to appeal to the Constitutional Court for the annulment of certain provisions or the entirety of laws, decrees having the force of law, the Rules of Procedure of the parliament on the grounds that they are unconstitutional in form or in content, to call new elections for the parliament and presidency to deliver budget to TBMM Budget Commission to appoint and dismiss ministers to appoint vice president to accredit representatives of the Turkish State to foreign states, to receive the representatives of foreign states appointed to the Republic of Turkey, to ratify and promulgate international treaties, to represent the Supreme Military Command of the Turkish Armed Forces on behalf of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, to decide on the mobilization of the Turkish Armed Forces, to appoint the Chief of the General Staff, to call the National Security Council to meet, to preside over the National Security Council, to proclaim state of emergency, send to TBMM to get parliamentary approval, in state of emergency every decree president issues will need parliamentary approval to sign executive decrees, to appoint the members and the chairman of the State Supervisory Council, to instruct the State Supervisory Council to carry out inquiries and inspections, to appoint the members of the Constitutional Court, one-fourth of the members of the Council of State, the Chief Public Prosecutor and the Deputy Chief Public Prosecutor of the Higher Court of Appeals, the members of the Military High Court of Appeals, the members of the Supreme Military Administrative Court and the members of the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors.
The president performs the duties of selection and appointment, other duties conferred by the constitution and laws. All presidential decrees, except those which the president is empowered to enact on his own, must be signed by the prime minister and the minister concerned, in accordance with the provisions of the constitution and other laws, thus the prime minister and the concerned ministers are accountable for these decrees. The decisions and orders s