Special Olympics is the world's largest sports organization for children and adults with intellectual disabilities and physical disabilities, providing year-round training and activities to 5 million participants and Unified Sports partners in 172 countries. Special Olympics competitions are held every day, all around the world—including local and regional competitions, adding up to more than 100,000 events a year. Like the International Paralympic Committee, the Special Olympics organization is recognized by the International Olympic Committee; the Special Olympics World Games is a major event put on by the Special Olympics. The World Games alternate between summer and winter games, in two-year cycles, recurring every fourth year; the first games were held on July 20, 1968 in Chicago, with about 1000 athletes from the U. S. and Canada. At those first games, honorary event chair Eunice Kennedy Shriver announced the formation of the Special Olympics organization. International participation expanded in subsequent games.
In 2003, the first summer games held outside the United States were in Dublin, Ireland with 7000 athletes from 150 countries. The most recent World Summer Games were held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates from March 14 to 21 2019; this was the first Special Olympics. The next World Summer Games will be held in Berlin, Germany between June 16 to 25 2023; this will be the first time that Germany has hosted the Special Olympics World Games. The first World Winter Games were held in 1977 in Colorado. Austria hosted the first Winter Games outside the United States in 1993; the most recent Special Olympics World Winter Games were held in Graz and Ramsau, Austria from March 14, 2017 to March 25, 2017. During the World Winter Games of 2013 in Pyeongchang, South Korea the first Special Olympics Global Development Summit was held on "Ending the Cycle of Poverty and Exclusion for People with Intellectual Disabilities," gathering government officials and business leaders from around the world; the next World Winter Games will be held in Åre and Östersund, Sweden between February 2 to 13 2021.
This will be the first time. The next Special Olympics Summer games will be take place in Berlin, German between June 16 and 25 2023. In June 1963, Eunice Kennedy Shriver started a day camp called Camp Shriver for children with intellectual and physical disabilities at her home in Potomac, Maryland; the camp sought to address the concern that children with disabilities had little opportunity to participate in organised athletic events. With Camp Shriver as an example, Kennedy Shriver, head of the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation and a member of President John F. Kennedy's Panel on Mental Retardation, promoted the concept of involvement in physical activity and other opportunities for people with intellectual disabilities. Camp Shriver became an annual event, the Kennedy Foundation gave grants to universities, recreation departments, community centers to hold similar camps. In the early 1960s, Kennedy Shriver wrote an article in the Saturday Evening Post, revealing that her sister Rosemary President John F. Kennedy's sister, was born with intellectual disabilities.
This frank article about the President's family was seen as a "watershed" in changing public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities. Rosemary's disability provided Kennedy Shriver with an overall vision that people with intellectual disabilities could compete and at the same time unify in public, it has been said that Rosemary's disability was Eunice's inspiration to form Special Olympics, but she told The New York Times in 1995 that, not the case. "The games should not focus on one individual," she said. In 1958, Dr. James N. Oliver of England had conducted pioneering research, including a ground-breaking study showing that physical exercise and activities for children with intellectual disabilities had positive effects that carried over into the classroom. Dr. Oliver in 1964 served as a consultant to Camp Shriver; the 1964 research of Dr. Frank Hayden, a Canadian physical education professor from London, demonstrated that persons with intellectual disabilities can and should participate in physical exercise.
He believed. With the help of a local school that offered space in its gym, Hayden started one of the first public organised sports programs, floor hockey for individuals with intellectual disabilities, in the fall of 1968. In the mid-1960s, Hayden developed an idea for national games, his work brought him to the attention of the Kennedy Foundation, he shared his ideas for national games, while taking a teaching sabbatical and working for the foundation. The first Special Olympics games were held in July 1968 at Soldier Field in Chicago. About 1,000 athletes from the U. S. and Canada took part in the one-day event, a joint venture by the Kennedy Foundation and the Chicago Park District. Anne McGlone Burke a physical education teacher with the Chicago Park District, began with the idea for a one-time, city-wide, Olympic-style athletic competition for people with special needs. Burke approached the Kennedy Foundation in 1967 to fund the event. Kennedy Shriver, in turn, encouraged h
New Cooch Behar is a junction station on the Barauni-Guwahati Line of Northeast Frontier Railway. It serves Cooch Behar city in Cooch Behar district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Cooch Behar had its first railway when Cooch Behar State Railway constructed the narrow gauge Geetaldaha-Jainti line in 1901, it was subsequently on the metre gauge Alipurduar-Bamanhat-Golokganj line. When Assam Link Project constructed the link through North Bengal, it used the longer New Jalpaiguri-Alipurduar-Samuktala Road Line. New Cooch Behar station came up when the broad gauge New Jalpaiguri-New Bongaigaon section of Barauni-Guwahati Line was laid in 1966. Before partition there was a railway link from Cooch Behar to Dhubri via Golokganj; some part of this route passed between Bamanhat and Golokganj. There were two stations Pateswari and Sonahat which were in Bangladesh, these functioned after partition. However, the collapse of the rail-cum-road bridge over the Gadadhar in the seventies ended that link. Now the bridge has been rebuilt and a new broad gauge track has been laid, under New Maynaguri-Jogighopa Rail Project, via Tufangunj and Boxirhat through Indian territory.
Dhubri-New Jalpaiguri Inter-city Express via Cooch Behar was introduced in February 2012. A new railway link from New Cooch Behar to New Jalpaiguri via Mathabhanga opened shortly. Cooch Behar travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Pesce'ndrina is a clan of the'Ndrangheta, a criminal and mafia-type organisation in Calabria, Italy. The'ndrina is based in Rosarno on the Tyrrhenian coast; the Pesce clan is one of the most powerful clans in the'Ndrangheta. Activities range from drug trafficking and the control of nearly all commercial businesses in the Gioia Tauro plain. Jointly with the Bellocco clan and in collaboration with the Piromalli-Molè'ndrina they controlled the public contracts for the construction of the container terminal in the port of Gioia Tauro. After the construction of the port, the Piromalli-Mole and Pesce-Bellocco clans controlled activities tied to the port, the hiring of workers, relations with port unions and local institutions, according to a report of the Italian Antimafia Commission, they would guarantee peace and order on the docks in return for a ‘security tax’ of US$1.50 per for each transshipped container. The clan is alleged to have secured lucrative public building contracts related to the Salerno-Reggio Calabria highway.
The Pesce clan was an important power behind the decision to appoint Domenico Oppedisano as capo crimine – the ceremonial head of the'Ndrangheta – in August 2009. The election of Oppedisano had not been easy. Giuseppe Pelle aspired to replace his ailing father Antonio Gambazza Pelle as capo crimine and keep the title in San Luca at the risk of triggering a conflict between clans. However, Vincenzo Pesce felt that the nomination of Pelle would distort the equilibrium in the'Ndrangheta and threatened to form a separate organization taking some 30 locali – local'Ndrangheta organisations – with him; as a result, Oppedisano became the capo crimine instead of Pelle. At the time Pesce boasted to command some 500 affiliates; the historical boss of the'ndrina was Giuseppe Pesce, who transformed the clan from a rural criminal organisation in the service of large landholders into an entrepreneurial organisation. He elevated the clan among the most influential'Ndrangheta clans due to his capacity to avoid conflicts through mediation.
After the demise of Giuseppe Pesce in 1992, the clan is headed by his cousin Antonino Pesce and his brother Salvatore Pesce, both in jail. Antonino Pesce was arrested in February 1993. Salvatore Pesce was arrested on charges of international drug trafficking on November 30, 2005. After their arrest, Antonino's son Francesco Pesce took over the command. While in jail, Salvatore Pesce used Radio Olimpia, a local radio station that operated an unlicensed transmitter from premises in Pesce’s fiefdom Rosarno, to send coded messages. Police listening in on a conversation between Pesce and his wife heard him talking about record requests. Pesce told his wife, after scribbling down the name of a tune: "If it's positive you send me song on the radio tonight. If it's negative you send me another." In January 2006, 54 members of the Bellocco-Pesce clan were arrested in an operation against international drug trafficking. They were supplying the drug markets in Milan, Sondrio, Bergamo, Alessandria and Reggio Calabria.
The cocaine was imported from Colombia, Brazil and the Netherlands, heroin from the Balkans and ecstasy from the Netherlands. On April 28, 2010, the clan was hit in a police operation, known as Operation All Inside, that led to the arrest of 30 people accused of Mafia association. Another 10 for whom arrest warrants were issued were still on the run. One of the most important bosses to escape was Francesco Pesce, known as "Cicciu testuni" and the son of Antonino, arrested on August 9, 2011, in the area around the port of Gioia Tauro. On April 21, 2011, Italian police seized around 190 million euros worth of assets of the clan. Among the impounded properties were 40 businesses in the transport and trade sectors, 44 apartments, four villas, 60 parcels of land, 164 cars and two football teams and Sapri; the police was able to carry out the investigation into the secretive'Ndrangheta organisation thanks to the collaboration of turncoat, Giuseppina Pesce, the daughter of clan boss Salvatore Pesce.
On September 20, 2011, 11 members of the clan were convicted at the All Inside trial. The bosses of the clan, Vincenzo Pesce and Francesco Pesce, known as "Cicciu testuni", were sentenced to 20 years in prison; the testimony of the pentita Giuseppina Pesce was important element in the trial. On February 2, 2013, Domenico Leotta, the righthand man of Francesco Pesce was arrested in Catanzaro
Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid, BWV 3, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed the chorale cantata in Leipzig for the Second Sunday after Epiphany and first performed it on 14 January 1725, it is based on the hymn published by Martin Moller in 1587. Bach composed the cantata in his second year as Thomaskantor in Leipzig as part of cantata cycle of chorale cantatas, for the second Sunday after Epiphany; the work is based on a hymn without evident connection to the prescribed readings. It is a meditation on Jesus as a comforter in distress, based on a medieval model. An unknown librettist reworked the ideas of the 18 stanzas in six movements, retaining the words of stanzas 1, 2 and 18 as movements 1, 2 and 6. Bach retained the choral melody in three movements, set as a chorale fantasia in the opening chorus with the bass singing the cantus firmus, as a four-part setting with interspersed recitatives in the second movement, in the closing chorale, he scored the cantata for two oboes d'amore and continuo, with an added trobone to support the bass in the first movement, a horn to support the soprano in the last movement.
Bach composed the cantata in his second year as Thomaskantor in Leipzig as part of his second annual cycle, planned to consist only of chorale cantatas based on Lutheran hymns. He wrote the cantata for the Second Sunday after Epiphany; the prescribed readings for the Sunday were taken from the Epistle to the Romans and from the Gospel of John. The cantata is a chorale cantata based on the hymn "Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid" in 18 stanzas attributed to Martin Moller, it is a paraphrase of the Latin "Jesu dulcis memoria", a medieval hymn attributed to Bernard of Clairvaux, a meditation on Jesus as a comforter and helper in distress. The unknown librettist retained the words of stanzas 1, 2 and 18 as movements 1, 2 and 6. In movement 2, stanza 2 is expanded by paraphrases of stanzas 3–5, while movement 3 is a paraphrase of stanza 6. In movement 2, stanza 2 is expanded by paraphrases of stanzas 3–5. Movement 3 is a paraphrase of stanza 6. Movement 4 incorporates ideas from stanzas 7–14. Movement 5 relies on stanzas 15 and 16.
The poet did not relate his text to the reading from John 1:2. Bach led the first performance of the cantata on 14 January 1725. Bach structured the cantata in six movements. An opening chorus and a closing chorale frame a sequence of alternating recitatives and arias; the first recitative is unusual: the chorus sings one line of the hymn's four lines, continued each time by a soloist in words of the poet. The last aria is a duet. Bach scored the work for four vocal soloists, a four-part choir and a Baroque instrumental ensemble of horn to double the cantus firmus in the closing chorale, trombone to reinforce the bass in the opening chorus, two oboes d'amore, two violins and basso continuo; the autograph score bears the title: "Dominica 2 post Epiphanias / Ach Gott! Wie manches Hertzeleyd. / à / 4 Voci. / 2 Hautb: d'Amour / 2 Violini / Viola. / e Continuo / di J. S. Bach", which means "Sunday 2 after Epiphany... for four voices, 2 oboes d'amore, 2 violins and continuo by J. S. Bach". In the following table of the movements, the scoring and keys follow the Neue Bach-Ausgabe.
The keys and time signatures are taken from the book on all cantatas by the Bach scholar Alfred Dürr, using the symbol for common time. The continuo, played throughout, is not shown. Bach uses a melody of "Herr Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht" which appeared first in the Lochamer-Liederbuch; the melody appears in the opening chorus, sung by the bass as a cantus firmus, in the second movement, as a four-part setting with interspersed recitatives, in the closing chorale. In the opening chorus, "Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid", the cantus firmus is in the bass, doubled by the trombone, as in Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder, BWV 135, its mood of lamentation is supported by "elegiac sounds" of the oboes d'amore, sighing motifs in the strings, the upper voices reflecting the oboe motifs. John Eliot Gardiner, who conducted the Bach Cantata Pilgrimage in 2000, notes that Bach used a repeated motif of six notes in chromatic descent, used in chaconnes of the Baroque opera to express grief; the motif is used for the instrumental opening, each entry of a voice and conclusion.
The recitative, "Wie schwerlich läßt sich Fleisch und Blut", combines the hymn tune sung by the four-part choir, with interpolated text sung by the soloists in turn. The lines of the hymn are separated by a joyful ostinato motif derived from the chorale tune; the musicologist Julian Mincham writes that the "hybrid recitative provides an excellent example of Bach's experiments of investing long texts with sustained musical interest". The bass aria, is accompanied by the continuo, it expresses the contrast of Höllenangst and Freudenhimmel, with inestimable sorrows disappearing into light mist. A tenor recitative, "Es mag mir Leib und Geist verschmachten", expresses trust in Jesus to overcome despair. In the duet for soprano and alto, "Wenn Sorgen auf mich dringen", in "bright E major", as the Bach scholar Christoph Wolff writes, the voices are embedded in a "dense quartet texture", he concludes that the movement "banishes human care by means of joyful singing"
Tamer Haj Mohamad is a Syrian football player, playing for Al-Salmiya in Kuwait. He is an ethnic Circassian. Haj Mohamad plays between 2007-2008 for the Under-19 Syrian national team, he was a part of the Syrian U-17 national team in the FIFA U-17 World Cup 2007. in South Korea. He plays against Argentina and Honduras in the group-stage of the FIFA U-17 World Cup 2007, he plays for the Syrian U-19 national team in the AFC U-19 Championship 2008 in Saudi Arabia and is a member of the Syrian U-23 national team. He was a part of the Syrian U-23 national team in the Mediterranean Games 2009 in Italy. Scores and results list Syria's goal tally first. Al-Karamah Syrian Premier League: 2008, 2009 Syrian Cup: 2008, 2009, 2010 Syrian Super Cup: 2008 AFC Cup: 2009 Runner-upNaft Al-Wasat Iraqi Premier League: 2014–15 Tamer Haj Mohamad at WorldFootball.net Career stats at goalzz.com Career stats at Kooora.com Haj Mohamad`s goal against Al-Wahdat in the AFC Cup 2009
Earl Kenneth Shriner is an American criminal who in 1990 was convicted of first-degree attempted murder, first-degree rape and first-degree assault of seven-year-old Ryan Alan Hade and sentenced to 131 years' imprisonment. Shriner, described as "a retarded man with a bizarre physical appearance" and tested to have an IQ of 67 had a long history of sadistic sexual assaults but only one conviction. "Shriner was in the community without supervision because his sentence had expired and a judge had ruled that he did not meet the stringent'imminent danger' criteria necessary for commitment under the State's mental health laws."In 1966, when Shriner, at that time 16, was detained for strangling a seven-year-old girl, he led the police officers to the body of a developmentally disabled 15-year-old girl instead, whom he had strangled. He was confined to 10 years, but committed as a'defective delinquent' to a hospital, but not convicted of a crime. Between 1977 and 1987, while serving a 10-year sentence for abducting and assaulting two 16-year-old girls, Shriner had disclosed not just fantasies but detailed plans how he would kidnap and torture his victims.
The final sexual assault Shriner committed in May 1989, caused a nationwide public outrage, cited as one of the main catalysts for new laws allowing indefinite confinement of sex offenders. The formation of a victims advocacy group Tennis Shoe Brigade, named in reference to the grass-roots organizations demand that the public be free to walk the streets in safety, rallying for toughening the laws, raised the public pressure on Washington's Governor Booth Gardner. Subsequently, the Washington state legislature unanimously enacted the first "sexual predator" law, allowing to indefinitely lock up perpetrators of any sexual crime, if a "mental abnormality" causing someone to commit another sex crime can be attested. A pivotal part of the 1990 Community Protection Act this legislation was subsequently adopted by many other U. S. states. Many people became outraged that such a dangerous sexual predator had been allowed to live in anonymity prior to the killings, some people thought that the killings could have been avoided if people had been aware of Shriner's criminal history.
As a result, the Community Protection Act not only created a sex offender registry in Washington state, but required community notification of the presence of the state's most dangerous sex offenders. The Community Protection Act thus is considered to have created the world's first publicly accessible sex offender registry. Shriner was cited by PETA in their campaign against animal abuse as an example of notorious criminals that started torturing animals long before turning to children; the Animals' Voice describes him as "being known in his neighborhood as the man who put firecrackers in dogs' rectums and strung up cats". Special Commitment Center Sex offender registries in the United States Michael Petrunik: “Models of dangerousness: Across jurisdictional review of dangerousness legislation and practice”, Services gouvermentaux Canada, 1994, ISBN 0-662-99346-2. Franziska Lamott, Friedemann Pfäfflin: “Sind Straftäter Tiere?” in: Irmgard Rode et al.: Paradigmenwechsel im Strafverfahren: Neurobiologie auf dem Vormarsch, Berlin, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8258-0590-6, p. 99-126 The Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers http://www.atsa.com/ppOffenderFacts.html Crime Library