The Special Operations Executive was a British World War II organisation. It was formed on 22 July 1940 under Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton, from the amalgamation of three existing secret organisations, its purpose was to conduct espionage and reconnaissance in occupied Europe against the Axis powers, to aid local resistance movements. Few people were aware of SOE's existence; those who were part of it or liaised with it were sometimes referred to as the "Baker Street Irregulars", after the location of its London headquarters. It was known as "Churchill's Secret Army" or the "Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare", its various branches, sometimes the organisation as a whole, were concealed for security purposes behind names such as the "Joint Technical Board" or the "Inter-Service Research Bureau", or fictitious branches of the Air Ministry, Admiralty or War Office. SOE operated in all territories occupied or attacked by the Axis forces, except where demarcation lines were agreed with Britain's principal Allies.
It made use of neutral territory on occasion, or made plans and preparations in case neutral countries were attacked by the Axis. The organisation directly employed or controlled more than 13,000 people, about 3,200 of whom were women. After the war, the organisation was dissolved on 15 January 1946. On the wall of the west cloister of Westminster Abbey is the official memorial to all those who served in the SOE during the Second World War, it was unveiled on 13th February 1996 by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. A further memorial to SOE's agents was unveiled in October 2009 on the Albert Embankment by Lambeth Palace in London; the Valençay SOE Memorial honours 104 SOE agents. The organisation was formed from the merger of three existing secret departments, formed shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War. After Germany annexed Austria in March 1938, the Foreign Office created a propaganda organisation known as Department EH, run by Canadian newspaper magnate Sir Campbell Stuart; that month, the Secret Intelligence Service formed a section known as Section D, under Major Lawrence Grand RE, to investigate the use of sabotage and other irregular means to weaken an enemy.
In the autumn of the same year, the War Office expanded an existing research department known as GS and appointed Major J. C. Holland RE as its head to conduct research into guerrilla warfare. GS was renamed MI in early 1939; these three departments worked with few resources until the outbreak of war. There was much overlap between their activities. Section D and EH duplicated much of each other's work. On the other hand, the heads of Section D and MI knew shared information, they agreed to a rough division of their activities. During the early months of the war, Section D was based first at St Ermin's Hotel in Westminster and the Metropole Hotel near Trafalgar Square; the Section attempted unsuccessfully to sabotage deliveries of vital strategic materials to Germany from neutral countries by mining the Iron Gate on the River Danube. MI meanwhile produced technical handbooks for guerrilla leaders. MI was involved in the formation of the Independent Companies, autonomous units intended to carry out sabotage and guerrilla operations behind enemy lines in the Norwegian Campaign, the Auxiliary Units, stay-behind commando units based on the Home Guard which would act in the event of an Axis invasion of Britain, as seemed possible in the early years of the war.
On 13 June 1940, at the instigation of newly appointed Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Lord Hankey persuaded Section D and MI that their operations should be coordinated. On 1 July, a Cabinet level meeting arranged the formation of a single sabotage organisation. On 16 July, Hugh Dalton, the Minister of Economic Warfare, was appointed to take political responsibility for the new organisation, formally created on 22 July 1940. Dalton recorded in his diary that on that day the War Cabinet agreed to his new duties and that Churchill had told him, "And now go and set Europe ablaze." Dalton used the Irish Republican Army during the Irish War of Independence as a model for the organisation. Sir Frank Nelson was nominated by SIS to be director of the new organisation, a senior civil servant, Gladwyn Jebb, transferred from the Foreign Office to it, with the title of Chief Executive Officer. Campbell Stuart left the organisation, the flamboyant Major Grand was returned to the regular army. At his own request, Major Holland left to take up a regular appointment in the Royal Engineers.
However, Holland's former deputy at MI, Brigadier Colin Gubbins, returned from command of the Auxiliary Units to be Director of Operations of SOE. One department of MI, MI R, involved in the development of weapons for irregular warfare, was not formally integrated into SOE but became an independent body codenamed MD1. Directed by Major Millis Jefferis, it was located at The Firs in Whitchurch and nicknamed "Churchill's Toyshop" from the Prime Minister's close interest in it and his enthusiastic support; the director of SOE was referred to by the initials "CD". Nelson, the first director to be appointed, was a former head of a trading firm in
Northern Valley is the name for a region of New Jersey, United States, contained within Bergen County. The region consists of fifteen municipalities: Alpine, Closter, Demarest, Englewood, Englewood Cliffs, Harrington Park, Northvale, Old Tappan and Tenafly. Several area entities are named after the valley: Northern Valley Regional High School District serving students from Closter, Harrington Park, Northvale and Old Tappan, it operates two schools:Northern Valley Regional High School at Demarest, serving Closter and Haworth Northern Valley Regional High School at Old Tappan, serving Harrington Park, Northvale and Old Tappan with students from Rockleigh attending as part of a sending/receiving relationshipNorthern Valley Suburbanite, a local newspaper Numerous businesses in the region have Northern Valley in their name Northern Valley is physically situated between the Palisades to the east and the Hackensack River to the west. The New Jersey-New York border and Rockland County border it to the north, while the municipalities of Fort Lee and Teaneck border it to the south.
Every municipality in Northern Valley except one has its own public school district up to 8th grade. The exception is Rockleigh, which sends its students to attend Northvale Public Schools as part of a sending/receiving relationship. There are several municipalities that only have K-8 districts and send their students either to a regional high school district or to another district as part of a sending/receiving relationship for grades 9-12; the school districts are as follows: K-8 Alpine Public School Closter Public Schools Demarest Public Schools Englewood Cliffs Public Schools Harrington Park School District Haworth Public Schools Northvale Public Schools Norwood Public School District Old Tappan Public Schools9-12 Northern Valley Regional High School District. The most notable ones are as follows: Academy of Demarest.
50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God is a 2008 book by journalist Guy P. Harrison which examines fifty common reasons that believers across the world give for believing in a god or gods; this is the first book by Guy P. Harrison, it examines fifty common reasons that believers across the world give for believing in a god, drawing on his conversations with people while traveling both for business and pleasure in twenty years as a journalist. Harrison notes that few people are interested in the complex arguments that go on between theologians and atheists; the people he has talked with say they believe because, what their parents taught them, their parents wouldn't lie to them, or because, what it says in their book of wisdom. Of the fifty reasons, Harrison concludes that the most common reasons people believe are because it is just obvious to them, because everyone is religious so it must be true, or because it brings them happiness. Harrison describes Richard Dawkins' use of the term "faith heads" to describe believers as "a lot like an insult" and writes that it is "counterproductive."
According to a review in Patheos, Harrison discusses the reasons believers give for believing in God, doing so "succinctly and painlessly", without insults. The review says; the God Delusion Atheism: The Case Against God Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon The Future of an Illusion Prometheus books page