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Special wards of Tokyo

Special wards are a special form of municipalities in Japan under the 1947 Local Autonomy Law. They are city-level wards: primary subdivisions of a prefecture with municipal autonomy comparable to other forms of municipalities. Although the autonomy law today allows for special wards to be established in other prefectures, to date, they only exist in the Tokyo Metropolis which consists of 23 special wards and 39 other, ordinary municipalities; the Special wards of Tokyo occupy the land, Tokyo City in its 1936 borders before it was abolished under the Tōjō Cabinet in 1943 to become directly ruled by the prefectural government renamed to "Metropolitan". During the Occupation of Japan, municipal autonomy was restored to former Tokyo City by the establishment of special wards, each with directly elected mayor and assembly, as in any other city, town or village in Tokyo and the rest of the country. Minority leftist calls for a restoration of Tokyo City were not answered; the question of whether special wards are municipalities with full local autonomy rights at all remained a political and legal issue for decades.

In Japanese, they are collectively known as "Wards area of Tokyo Metropolis", "former Tokyo City", or less formally the 23 wards or just Tokyo if the context makes obvious that this doesn't refer to the whole prefecture. Today, all wards refer to themselves as a city in English, but the Japanese designation of special ward remains unchanged, they are a group of 23 municipalities. Analogues exist in historic and contemporary Chinese and Korean administration: "Special wards" are city-independent wards, analogously, "special cities/special cities" are province-/prefecture-independent cities and were intended to be introduced under SCAP in Japan, too. In everyday English, Tokyo as a whole is referred to as a city though it contains 62 cities, towns and special wards; the closest English equivalents for the special wards would be the London boroughs or New York City boroughs if Greater London and New York City had been abolished in the same way as Tokyo City and they were immediate part of England or New York state, this can help to understand their structures and functions.

Although special wards are autonomous from the Tokyo metropolitan government, they function as a single urban entity in respect to certain public services, including water supply, sewage disposal, fire services. These services are handled by the Tokyo metropolitan government, whereas cities would provide these services themselves; this situation is identical between the Federal District and its 31 administrative regions in Brazil. To finance the joint public services it provides to the 23 wards, the metropolitan government levies some of the taxes that would be levied by city governments, makes transfer payments to wards that cannot finance their own local administration. Waste disposal is handled by each ward under direction of the metropolitan government. For example, plastics were handled as non-burnable waste until the metropolitan government announced a plan to halt burying of plastic waste by 2010. Unlike other municipalities, special wards were not considered to be local public entities for purposes of the Constitution of Japan.

This means that they had no constitutional right to pass their own legislation, or to hold direct elections for mayors and councilors. While these authorities were granted by statute during the US-led occupation and again from 1975, they could be unilaterally revoked by the National Diet; the denial of elected mayors to the special wards was reaffirmed by the Supreme Court in the 1963 decision Japan v. Kobayashi et al.. In 1998, the National Diet passed a revision of the Local Autonomy Law that implemented the conclusions of the Final Report on the Tokyo Ward System Reform increasing their fiscal autonomy and established the wards as basic local public entities; the word "special" distinguishes them from the wards of other major Japanese cities. Before 1943, the wards of Tokyo City were no different from the wards of Kyoto; these original wards numbered 15 in 1889. Large areas from five surrounding districts were merged into the city in 1932 and organized in 20 new wards, bringing the total to 35.

By this merger, together with smaller ones in 1920 and 1936, Tokyo City came to expand to the current city area. On March 15, 1943, as part of wartime authoritarian tightening of controls Tokyo's local autonomy under the Imperial municipal code was eliminated by the Tōjō cabinet and the Tokyo city government and prefectural government merged into a single prefectural government; the 35 wards of the former city were


FIFA 13 is a 2012 association football sports video game published by Electronic Arts. It was developed by EA Canada; this is the first game in the series to use the PlayStation Move on the PlayStation 3 and the Kinect sensor on the Xbox 360. A demo of the game was released on 11 September 2012. C. Milan and was downloaded a record 1.99 million times within three days. The game was released in late September 2012 in most regions with the Japanese release being in October.. FIFA 13 included new features to the FIFA franchise such as the First Touch Control and new celebrations were added. A new additional feature in FIFA 13 is to support Kinect for Xbox 360 and PlayStation Move for PlayStation 3; the Wii U version includes some exclusive touch-based features including the ability to shoot by tapping an image of the goal and managing the match in real-time. The leagues in FIFA 13 have been confirmed by EA Sports through their website, with EA calling it "the most authentic football game on the planet with 30 of the world's best leagues" All leagues from FIFA 12 are included, with the addition of the Saudi Professional League for the first time in the series history.

There are 46 international teams on FIFA 13 as confirmed on the EA website. The Czech Republic and Paraguay are returning. India and Venezuela return to the main series after an 11-year hiatus since FIFA Football 2002. Croatia was removed from the international teams. Career mode this year has been updated, with players being able to manage an international team as well as a club. Players managing their particular clubs can manage to quit their jobs as a national coach. Players can choose their international squad to be played for international matches in career mode. In each match, players can decide if the football players are able to play on the next international squad. Options in transfers include counter-offers and offering a player as well as money. On the iOS platform, players can only offer money to get players. Seasons mode allows players to progress through an online league system by being pitted against players of a similar skill level. After the user chooses a real-world team to play as, an online player with similar skills and a similar star level team is found as an opponent.

The football player plays ten matches per season with a specific number of points required for promotion to the league above. FIFA Ultimate team abbreviated to'FUT', is an additional feature of FIFA 13; this game mode allows the player to build their own team from real world players, which they can use to compete in tournaments and divisions over the internet. For each game completed, players earn coins to spend on improving their team. Players and other items in this mode take the form of cards, which are obtained through buying packs or from buying directly from other players through the auction house. There are three different tiers of cards; these cards can be obtained in two ways. Player cards have an overall rating, an estimate of their overall in game quality; the FIFA Ultimate team web app was released on September 18, 2012, allowing players to access their ultimate team from their computer and a variety of other devices, such as an iPhone app and on Android. There are 26 stadiums a in FIFA 13, including two new real ones: Tottenham Hotspur's White Hart Lane and the Saudi Arabia's King Fahd International Stadium.

FC Barcelona's Camp Nou, present in previous editions of the game, does not appear in FIFA 13, as EA could not reach a licensing agreement with the club. Because of this, a generic stadium called. FIFA 13 again features Sky Sports main commentators Martin Tyler & Alan Smith commentating on League Matches with ITV main commentators Clive Tyldesley & Andy Townsend on the Cup Matches. 3 new voices have been added to FIFA 13: Sky Sports Reporter Geoff Shreeves is touchline reporter explaining the severity of an injury, Alan McInally has goals as they go in from the other matches in a role he performs on Soccer Saturday on Sky Sports and Mike West reads out the classified results from the league or cup your team is in, he performs this role on BBC football results show Final Score. The North American cover for the game features Lionel Messi, whilst St James' Park, has been included as the background. Other location-based covers will be used, as in previous years, feature Messi and other players from the respective region, except North America, which only features Messi.

This is the first time since FIFA Soccer 2003 that the North American version had a single cover athlete. EA Sports offered a downloadable cover for FIFA 13 for Major League Soccer, featuring Chris Wondolowski of the San Jose Earthquakes, Fredy Montero of Seattle Sounders FC, Tim Cahill of the New York Red Bulls, Darren Mattocks of Vancouver Whitecaps FC. Wondolowski and Cahill were elected by vote on EA Sports' website, while Mattocks was included for being named Best Player Under 24 in MLS by MLS. EA Sports offered downloadable covers for each MLS team with a player from that club being featured; the teams and players were: The Wii and PlayStation Vita versions of FIFA 13 are recycled previous year titles rather than brand new, ground-up developments. Media outlet Nintendo Gamer pointed out using various comparison screenshots that FIFA 13 on Wii is the Wii version of FIFA 12 with some minor updates to club

2016 in Argentina

The following lists events that happened in Argentina in 2016. President: Mauricio Macri Vice President: Gabriela Michetti 2: A band of thieves storm into the radio of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo. 6: Mauricio Macri lifts the custom restrictions on the imports of books. 7: Protests of former employees of the Néstor Kirchner Cultural Centre. 8: The Buenos Aires Provincial Police is removed from the pursuit of the fugitives of the Triple crime. 9: Capture of the three fugitives of the Triple crime. 13: Martín Sabbatella attempts to enter to the premises of the Federal Authority for Audiovisual Communication Services, but the police prevents him from doing so. 16: Milagro Sala is arrested on charges of fraud and criminal conspiracy. 19: Mauricio Macri takes part in the World Economic Forum. 31: A fire strikes the studios of El Trece and Todo Noticias. 6: 2016 Buenos Aires ePrix 16: State Visit of Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of Italy. 24: State Visit of François Hollande, President of France. 23-24: State Visit of Barack Obama, President of the United States of America.

3: More than 300 thousand people attended the protest of #NiUnaMenos, which took place in Buenos Aires but was repeated throughout the whole country. 15-16: Mauricio Macri visited Colombia in the form of a State Visit. 17: 195th Anniversary of the Death of Martín Miguel de Güemes, a national holiday was made for the occasion. 2-6: Mauricio Macri went on a European Tour, having visited Paris and Berlin. 6: The National Congress had its formal session in the City of Tucumán for the first time in its history, as part of the celebrations for the Bicentennial of the Declaration of Independence. 9: Bicentennial of the Declaration of Independence of Argentina. The main celebrations were held in the City of Tucumán. 10: Celebrations for the Bicentennial of the Declaration of Independence were held in Buenos Aires. 29: State Visit of Enrique Peña Nieto, President of Mexico. 7-9: Official Visit of Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations. 4-5: Mauricio Macri attended to the 11th G-20 summit in Hangzhou, China.

10: Discovering of the Gancedo meteorite, the second-largest known fragment of the meteor shower that fell in Campo del Cielo, in Charata, Chaco Province, Argentina. 12-15: Argentina Business & Investment Forum 3: Visit of Michel Temer, President of Brazil. 11: Queen Máxima of the Netherlands visits her home country in her role of UN Secretary-General's Special Advocate for Inclusive Finance for Development. 15: Mauricio Macri visited Italy and the Vatican City, where he met Prime Minister Matteo Renzi and Pope Francis. The President assisted as well to the Canonization of José Gabriel del Rosario Brochero. 19: #NiUnaMenos, a massive protest against femicides and gender violence, took place in all cities of Argentina for the second time of the year. 24: State Visit of Tabaré Vázquez, President of Uruguay. 17: State Visit of Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada. 21: State Visit of Shinzo Abe, Prime Minister of Japan. 1: Argentina assumes the pro-tempore Presidency of the Mercosur after the suspension of Venezuela from the organization.

16: State Visit of Michelle Bachelet, President of Chile. 21: Isela Costantini resigns as CEO of Aerolíneas Argentinas. 26: Alfonso Prat-Gay, Minister of Treasury and Public Finances, announces his resignation. 31: Alfonso Prat-Gay makes effective his resignation. February 8: Amelia Bence March 8: Aldo Ferrer March 10: Roberto Perfumo April 13: Mariano Mores October 8: Maximiliano Giusti, 25, footballer November 22: Carlos Fayt List of Argentine films of 2016 Media related to 2016 in Argentina at Wikimedia Commons

National Institute of Technology, Puducherry

National Institute of Technology, Puducherry is an autonomous public engineering Institute located in union territory of Puducherry, Karaikal. It is one among the 31 National institutes of Technology of India and is declared as an Institute of National Importance by Government of India under NIT Act, 2007; the institute was established in 2010, starting its intake in the academic year 2010-11. NIT Puducherry is one of the ten NITs, sanctioned by the Government of India in 2009, as part of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan; the institute was mentored by National Institute of Tiruchirapalli in the initial years. Students are admitted for undergraduate programs based on the merit list prepared by giving 100℅ weightage to marks scored in Joint Entrance Examination All India Engineering Entrance Examination. In total number of seats available 50% of seats are reserved for the candidates having residence/native at Puducherry state and Andaman and Nicobar Islands; the remaining 50% seats are filled on all India quota basis.

Joint Seat Allocation Authority handles UG admission process. Admission to PG programs is done based on Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering score. PG admission is made through the Centralized Counselling for M. Tech. NIT Puducherry follows the reservation policy declared by the Supreme Court of India, by which 27% of seats are reserved for Other Backward Classes, 15% for Scheduled Castes, 7.5% for Scheduled Tribes. The institute accepts foreign nationals through scholarships awarded by the Government of India, non-resident Indians through an independent scheme known as Direct Admission for Students Abroad. NIT Puducherry awards 4 years long B. Tech degree in five disciplines namely Computer Science and Engineering Electronics and Communication Engineering Electrical and Electronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering The institute offers 2 years long Master course in Computer Science stream,Communication Systems and Power Electronics The institute accepts doctoral candidates for research in various fields.

NIT Puducherry is having a campus spread around 256 acres in the village Poovam and Thiruvettakudi of Karaikal. The campus consists of boys hostel, girls hostel, science block, administrative block, guest house, director residence, staff residence and playground. National Institutes of Technology List of Institutes of National Importance Joint Entrance Examination All India Engineering Entrance Examination Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering Official website

White Sabers Drum and Bugle Corps

White Sabers Drum and Bugle Corps is an all-age competitive drum and bugle corps based in Dansville, New York. Founded in 1928, the corps has a long history as a parade corps. White Sabers is a two-time DCA Class A World Champion, a four-time DCA Open Class finalist; the corps was known as the American Legion New York Post #87 Drum and Bugle Corps. The corps was founded in 1928 by the commander of the American Legion Post #87 in Dansville, New York. In 1957, the corps gained independence from the American Legion post, continued to perform as a concert and parade corps under the name Dansville White Sabers; the corps competed at the Red Carpet Association Championship in 1977. Sometime the corps became inactive. After "fourteen years" of inactivity, an alumni reunion in 1994 revived interest in a Dansville-based corps. In 2004, the corps did not compete. In 2005, the White Sabers joined DCA as a Class A corps, placed sixth against ten other competitors; the corps was a Class A finalist in 2006 and 2012, Class A champions in 2013 and 2014.

Kevin Gamin described the corps' 2014 performance as "strong enough to have made Open Class finals." White Sabers advanced to Open Class in 2015, have remained Open class finalists since. Executive Director Peter Amico was awarded Open Class "Director of the Year" in 2015. Source:Gold indicates DCA Championship. Official website Drum Corps Associates

Oakwood Health System

The Oakwood Health System is a group of 4 hospitals and dozens of medical clinics across the Metro Detroit Area. Oakwood provides acute, specialty and preventative care services. With four acute care hospitals and more than 50 outpatient facilities, 9,000 employees and 1,300 physicians. In 2014, Oakwood Health System merged with Beaumont Health System and Botsford Hospital to form Beaumont Health; the hospitals within the Oakwood Health System include: Beaumont Hospital - Dearborn Dearborn, Michigan Beaumont Hospital - Wayne Wayne, Michigan Beaumont Hospital - Taylor Taylor, Michigan Beaumont Hospital - Trenton Trenton, Michigan Youth in the community can receive healthcare through the Oakwood Teen Health Centers. They provide a wide variety of services through school-linked programs. There are three teen health centers and two elementary school clinics: Oakwood Inkster Teen Health Center Oakwood Romulus Teen Health Center at Romulus High School Oakwood Taylor Teen Health Center Southgate, Michigan Jefferson-Barns Elementary School Clinic in Wayne-Westland Lincoln Elementary School Clinic in Wayne-Westland Jay Greene, "Hospital financial health mixed: Despite market gains, operating income drops for local systems," Crain's Detroit Business website, May 5, 2013, at

Moody's Investors Service website, at Karen Bouffard, "Beaumont Health merger plans no hospital closures or layoffs," The Detroit News online, September 3, 2014, at