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Species complex

In biology, a species complex is a group of related organisms that are similar in appearance to the point that the boundaries between them are unclear. Terms sometimes used synonymously but with more precise meanings are: cryptic species for two or more species hidden under one species name, sibling species for two cryptic species that are each other's closest relative, species flock for a group of related species living in the same habitat; as informal taxonomic ranks, species group, species aggregate, superspecies are in use. Two or more taxa once considered conspecific may be subdivided into infraspecific taxa, but this is not a species complex. A species complex is in most cases a monophyletic group with a common ancestor, although there are exceptions, it may represent an early stage after speciation, but may have been separated for a long time period without evolving morphological differences. Hybrid speciation can be a component in the evolution of a species complex. Species complexes exist in all groups of organisms.

They are identified by the rigorous study of differences between individual species, making use of minute morphological details, tests of reproductive isolation, or DNA-based methods such as molecular phylogenetics or DNA barcoding. The existence of similar species may cause local and global species diversity to be underestimated. Recognizing similar but distinct species is important for disease and pest control, in conservation biology, although drawing dividing lines between species can be inherently difficult. A species complex is considered as a group of close, but distinct species; the concept is tied to the definition of a species. Modern biology understands a species as "separately evolving metapopulation lineage" but acknowledges that the criteria to delimit species may depend on the group studied. Thus, many species defined traditionally, based only on morphological similarity, have been found to comprise several distinct species when other criteria, such as genetic differentiation or reproductive isolation were applied.

A more restricted use applies the term to close species between which hybridisation occurred or is occurring, leading to intermediate forms and blurred species boundaries. The informal classification, can be exemplified by the grizzled skipper butterfly, a superspecies, further divided into three subspecies; some authors apply the term to a species with intraspecific variability, which might be a sign of ongoing or incipient speciation. Examples are ring species or species with subspecies, where it is unclear if these should be considered separate species. Several terms are used synonymously for a species complex, but some of them may have different or narrower meanings. In the nomenclature codes of zoology and bacteriology, no taxonomic ranks are defined at the level between subgenera and species, while the botanical code defines four ranks below genera. Different informal taxonomic solutions have been used to indicate a species complex. Cryptic species Also called physiologic race; this describes "distinct species that are erroneously classified under one species name".

More the term is applied when species if known to be distinct, cannot be reliably distinguished based on their morphology. The usage physiologic race is not to be confused with physiological race. Sibling species Also called aphanic species; this term, introduced by Ernst Mayr in 1942, was used with the same meaning as cryptic species, but authors emphasized the common phylogenetic origin. A recent article defines sibling species as "cryptic sister species", meaning "two species that are the closest relative of each other and have not been distinguished from one another taxonomically". Species flock Also called species swarm; this refers to "a monophyletic group of related species all living in the same ecosystem". Conversely, the term has been applied broadly to a group of related species than can be variable and widespread. Superspecies Sometimes used as an informal rank for a species complex around one "representative" species. Popularized by Bernhard Rensch and Ernst Mayr, with the initial requirement that species forming a superspecies must have allopatric distributions.

For the component species of a superspecies, allospecies was proposed. Species aggregate Used for a species complex in plant taxa where polypoidy and apomixis are common. Historical synonyms are species collectiva, introduced by Adolf Engler and grex. Components of a species aggregate have been called microspecies. Used as abbreviation agg. after the binomial species name. Sensu lato A Latin phrase meaning "in the broad sense", it is used after a binomial species name abbreviated as s.l. to indicate a species complex represented by that species. Distinguishing close species within a complex requires the study of very small differences. Morphological differences may be only visible using adapted methods, such as microscopy. However, distinct species may sometimes have no morphological differences. In these cases, other characters, e.g. in the species' life history, physiology, or karyology can be explored. As an example, territorial songs are indicative of species in the treecreepers, a bird genus with little morphological differences.

Mating tests are common in some groups such as fungi to confirm the reproductive isolation of two species. Analysis of DNA sequences is becoming standard for species recognition and may in many cases be the only usefu

NightMoves Award

The NightMoves Awards are given annually in the pornographic film industry by NightMoves, an Oldsmar, Florida-based magazine, first published in 1987 and titled Sports South. The awards began in 1993 and were titled the Central Florida Adult Entertainment Awards, it is the third oldest continuously running adult awards show in the United States, after the AVN Awards and the XRCO Awards. It marks the start of the porn industry's awards season. In addition to the show's national awards, local awards are given to sexually oriented businesses and dancers in the Tampa Bay Area. Two awards are given for each national category: one, chosen by fans and the other one, chosen by the editors of NightMoves magazine. An online voting ballot is available for three months every year for the fan's choice awards. Recipients of the editor's choice awards are chosen based on film reviews; the awards have been held at several different venues throughout the Tampa Bay Area, including The Krush in Tampa in 1995, 1996, Club XS in Downtown Tampa in 1997, 1998, 1999, Stormin's Palace in Clearwater in 2000, 2001, 2004, the Pinellas Expo Center in Pinellas Park in 2002, club Twilight in Tampa in 2003, Bricktown 54 in Clearwater in 2005, 2006, 2007, the Dallas Bull in Tampa in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, the Tampa Gold Club in 2013, 2014, 2015.

Pornographic actor Ron Jeremy has hosted every show so far. The NightMoves Awards added a new a category titled the Triple-Play Award in 2006. Known as the Anna Award, it was created in honor of the late pornographic actress Anna Malle. Recipients of the award are recognized for their excellence in at least three different fields of the adult entertainment industry, such as performing and feature dancing; the first recipient of the award was Stormy Daniels. In 2007, NightMoves added a Hall of Fame to its awards show. Two additional award categories were added that year: Best All Girl Release and Best Comedy or Parody Release. In 2012, the show added award categories for Best Social Media Star, Best Website, Best Multi-site Network, Best Parody – Comedy, Best Parody – Drama, Best Parody – Super Hero, Best Boobs, Best Ass, Best Overall Body, Best Latina Performer, Best Transsexual Performer, Best Transsexual Release. Official website

Lebhar IMP Pairs

The Lebhar IMP Pairs national bridge championship is held at the spring American Contract Bridge League North American Bridge Championship. The Lebhar IMP Pairs is a four-session IMP pairs event with two final sessions; the event starts on the second Thursday of the NABC. The event is open; the Lebhar IMP Pairs is a four-session event --- two qualifying sessions followed by two final sessions. The winners have their names inscribed on the Lebhar Trophy. Scoring is by International Match Points; the trophy was donated by Bertram Lebhar Jr. in 1948 in memory of Evelyn. The trophy was given to winners of the Mixed Teams but re-designated for the IMP Pairs by the ACBL Board of Directors. Lebhar, under the name of Bert Lee, earned a national reputation as a sportscaster and as a bridge player and administrator. In private life, he owned television stations in Florida. Lebhar was one of the founders of the Greater New York Bridge Association and was elected its first president in 1948. Lebhar was a player: he won the Spingold in 1940 and the Master Mixed Teams in 1946.

His team was his wife Evelyn along with Alicia Kemper. "ACBL - NABC Winners". ACBL. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2011. List of previous winners, Page 12 Daily Bulletin, 52–7, March 19, 20092009 winners, Page 1 Daily Bulletin, 52–9, March 21, 2009, archived from the original on November 17, 2010 ACBL official website

Dara Moazzami

Dara Moazzami is an Iranian engineering scientist. Dara Moazzami was born from a well-educated family, he was born on December 1949 in Tehran, Iran. He attended the prestigious Alborz High School located in the heart of Tehran, Iran, his parents were from Golpayegan, Isfahan province. His father, the late Amir Gholi Moazzami had always been a big proponent of education and sciences, he attended the French School and High School “Saint Louis”, established by the French Government in Tehran. After graduating High School, he received a BA degree in Law from University of Tehran and practiced as a Judge. Meanwhile, he continued his education in “Danesh Sara Ali” in two different disciplines and received a BSc in Mathematics, a BA in Persian literature, as well as a BA in French Literature, he enjoyed journalism and established the “Nakhoda newspaper” maintained it for several years thereafter. He was a poet and the author of a textbook on “Ashg Ashegh” meaning “The Lover’s Tears”. Dara's uncle, Dr. Abdollah Moazzami was a famous professor of law at the University of Tehran who received his Ph.

D. in law under the supervision of Professor Gilbert Gidel. He was a member of Iranian Parliament for four consecutive terms from 1944 to 1953. In 1953 he was elected as the Chairman of the Parliament. Dara's other uncle, the late Seyfollah Moazzami was an electrical engineer and a minister of post and telegraph in the second cabinet of the Prime Minister Dr. Mohammad Mosaddegh. Growing up in such a family influenced Dara Moazzami and he moved to Canada to study mathematics, he received a B. Sc in Pure Mathematics in 1976, an M. Sc in Applied Mathematics in 1978, from the University of Quebec-Montreal in Canada. After graduating from the University of Quebec-Montreal, he returned to Iran and started working at Bu-Ali Sina University in the city of Hamedan. In 1986, while he was in Hamedan, Dr. Moazzami translated a book on Differential and Integral Calculus by Piskunov into Farsi, he got married there and moved to the United States with his family to obtain a doctorate in applied mathematics. In 1992, he received his Ph.

D. in applied mathematics from the University of Northeastern-Boston MA, under the supervision of Professor Margaret Cozzens and Professor Samuel Keith Stueckle. He worked as an Assistant Professor for the 1991-1993 academic years in the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at the University of Barry-Miami, in Florida. After that, he returned to Iran and started his teaching and research career in the College of Engineering at the University of Tehran in 1993, he was the Head of Engineering Library, Associate Dean of the College of Engineering, Deputy of Undergraduate and Graduate Studies at the Department of Engineering Basic Science, the Chairman of the Department of Engineering Science. He founded the Journal of Algorithms and Computation and has remained as its Editor-in-Chief till present. Between the years of 1993 and 2003, he worked as a research scientist at the Center for Theoretical Physics and Mathematics as well as the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, he is a research staff member at Engineering Optimization Research Group and a member of the Board of "Center of Excellence of Geomatic Engineering".

He was a Visiting Professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University of California Los Angeles, USA. His main research interests include Graph Theory, Advanced Algorithms, Complexity Theory, Approximation Algorithm, in particular, Vulnerability in Networks and Tenacity parameter; the concept of graph tenacity was introduced by Dara Moazzami and his professors Cozzens and Stueckle as a measure of network vulnerability and reliability. Dara Moazzami is the translator of the used and popular textbook on "Graph Theory" by J. A. Bondy and U. S. R. Murty and "Combinatorics" by Bela Bollobas, he is the author of a textbook on "Differential Equations", used by Iranian students all over the world. He is the translator of textbook on "Abstract Algebra: Application" by Thomas W. Judson, he is the author of three textbooks on "Tenacity Parameter and Their Application in Designing Stable Networks" and "Stability and Vulnerability in Networks" and "Graph Drawing". Two more books "Advanced Algorithm: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness" and "Approximation Algorithms" are in works.

Professor Moazzami's research interests lie on the field of Graph Theory, Advanced Algorithms, Complexity Theory, Approximation Algorithm. He is interested in vulnerability in networks and tenacity parameter; the concept of graph tenacity was introduced by Cozzens and Stueckle in their landmark studies as a measure of network vulnerability and reliability. Conceptually, graph vulnerability relates to the study of graph intactness when parts of its elements are removed; the motivation for studying vulnerability measures is derived from the design and analysis of networks in a hostile environment. Graph tenacity has been an active area of research since the concept was introduced in 1992. Dr. Moazzami introduced two measures of network vulnerability termed the tenacity, T, the Mix-tenacity, Tm, of a graph; the tenacity T of a graph G is defined aswhere τ denotes the order of a largest component of G − A and ω is the number of components of G − A. The Mix-tenacity Tm of

Fear and Trembling (Fargo)

"Fear and Trembling" is the fourth episode of the second season of the FX anthology series Fargo, the fourteenth episode of the series overall. It was directed by Michael Uppendahl; the episode first aired on November 2, 2015, was seen by 1.28 million viewers. As Otto is being taken to a doctor's appointment, Simone has sex with Milligan, inadvertently mentioning the doctor visit; the Kitchens eliminate Otto's guards in the parking lot outside the medical clinic, leaving Otto unharmed. Meanwhile, Floyd and Bear meet with Bulo and propose a counter-offer to his buyout in the form of a partnership. Bulo balks at the idea. Bulo phones his superiors, they now offer two million dollars less than the first offer and demand the Gerhardts' complete surrender. In Luverne, Hanzee's investigation leads him to find Rye's belt buckle in the Blumquist fireplace. Lou talks to the Blumquists regarding his suspicions that they are involved in Rye's death, but they stubbornly refuse to cooperate, he warns them of the Gerhardts' violent history.

At the Gerhardt farm, Floyd tells the family to prepare for war. The music for the episode was provided by series composer Jeff Russo. "Fear and Trembling" received critical acclaim for its pace and acting. It holds a perfect 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes: the critical consensus is "Fargo ratchets up the tension in "Fear and Trembling" by setting up a showdown between its expanded cast of characters."In a positive review, Terri Schwartz of IGN gave the episode a 9.8 rating out of 10, concluding that "Fargo brought together some of its key storylines, but prioritized the ways they affect its characters over ways they the affect its plot for fantastic results."

Murder in the Cathedral

Murder in the Cathedral is a verse drama by T. S. Eliot, first performed in 1935, that portrays the assassination of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral during the reign of Henry II in 1170. Eliot drew on the writing of Edward Grim, a clerk, an eyewitness to the event; the play, dealing with an individual's opposition to authority, was written at the time of rising fascism in Central Europe. Some material that the producer asked Eliot to remove or replace during the writing was transformed into the poem "Burnt Norton"; the action occurs between 2 and 29 December 1170, chronicling the days leading up to the martyrdom of Thomas Becket following his absence of seven years in France. Becket's internal struggle is the main focus of the play; the book is divided into two parts. Part one takes place in the Archbishop Thomas Becket's hall on 2 December 1170; the play begins with a Chorus singing. The Chorus is a key part of the drama, with its voice changing and developing during the play, offering comments about the action and providing a link between the audience and the characters and action, as in Greek drama.

Three priests are present, they reflect on the absence of Becket and the rise of temporal power. A herald announces Becket’s arrival. Becket is reflective about his coming martyrdom, which he embraces, and, understood to be a sign of his own selfishness—his fatal weakness; the tempters arrive. The first tempter offers the prospect of physical safety. Take a friend's advice. Leave well alone, Or your goose may be cooked and eaten to the bone; the second offers power and fame in serving the King. To set down the great, protect the poor, Beneath the throne of God can man do more? The third tempter suggests a coalition with a chance to resist the King. For us, Church favour would be an advantage, Blessing of Pope powerful protection In the fight for liberty. You, my Lord, In being with us, would fight a good strokeFinally, a fourth tempter urges him to seek the glory of martyrdom. You hold the keys of hell. Power to bind and loose: bind, bind and bishop under your heel. King, bishop, king:Becket responds to all of the tempters and addresses the immoral suggestions of the fourth tempter at the end of the first act: Now is my way clear, now is the meaning plain: Temptation shall not come in this kind again.

The last temptation is the greatest treason: To do the right deed for the wrong reason. The Interlude of the play is a sermon given by Becket on Christmas morning 1170, it is about the strange contradiction that Christmas is a day both of mourning and rejoicing, which Christians do for martyrs. He announces at the end of his sermon, "it is possible that in a short time you may have yet another martyr". We see in the sermon something of Becket's ultimate peace of mind, as he elects not to seek sainthood, but to accept his death as inevitable and part of a better whole. Part II of the play takes place in the Archbishop's Hall and in the Cathedral, 29 December 1170. Four knights arrive with "Urgent business" from the king; these knights had heard the king speak of his frustration with Becket and had interpreted this as an order to kill Becket. They accuse him of betrayal, he claims to be loyal, he tells them to accuse him in public, they make to attack him, but priests intervene. The priests insist that he leave and protect himself.

The knights leave and Becket again says he is ready to die. The chorus sings that they knew this conflict was coming, that it had long been in the fabric of their lives, both temporal and spiritual; the chorus again reflects on the coming devastation. Thomas is taken to the Cathedral, where the knights kill him; the chorus laments: “Clean the air! Clean the sky!", "The land is foul, the water is foul, our beasts and ourselves defiled with blood." At the close of the play, the knights step up, address the audience, defend their actions. The murder was all right and for the best: it was in the right spirit and justified so that the church's power would not undermine stability and state power. George Bell, the Bishop of Chichester, was instrumental in getting Eliot to work as writer with producer E. Martin Browne in producing the pageant play The Rock. Bell asked Eliot to write another play for the Canterbury Festival in 1935. Eliot agreed to do; the first performance was given on 15 June 1935 in the Chapter House of Canterbury Cathedral.

Robert Speaight played the part of Becket. The production moved to the Mercury Theatre, Notting Hill Gate in London and ran there for several months; the play, starring Robert Speaight, was broadcast live on British television by the BBC in 1936 in its first few months of broadcasting TV. The play was made into a black and white film with the same title, it was directed by the Austrian director George Hoellering with music by the Hungarian composer Laszlo Lajtha and won the Grand Prix at the Venice Film Festival in 1951. It was released in the UK in 1952. In the film the fourth tempter is not seen, his voice was that of Eliot himself. The play is the basis for the opera Assassinio nella cattedrale by the Italian composer Ildebrando Pizzetti, first performed at La Scala, Milan, in 1958. Full-cast recordings of the play include the following, with the actor playing Beckett. 1938 Reynolds Evans by Columbia Workshop 1953 Robert Donat by Angel Records 1968 Paul Scofield by Caedmon Records 1976 Richard Pasco of The Royal Shakespeare Company by Argo Records 1988 Peter Barkworth by BBC Radio 4 broadcast In 1951, in the first Theodore Spencer Memorial Lecture at Harvard University, Eliot criti