Speciesism or specism is a form of discrimination based on species membership. It involves treating members of one species as morally more important than members of other species when their interests are equivalent. More speciesism is the failure to consider interests of equal strength to an equal extent because of the species of which the individuals have been classified as belonging to; the term is used by ethical vegans and animal rights advocates, who state that speciesism is a prejudice similar to racism or sexism, in that the treatment of individuals is predicated on group membership and morally irrelevant physical differences. It is thought that speciesism plays a role in inspiring or justifying cruelty in the forms of factory farming, the use of animals for entertainment such as in bullfighting and rodeos, the taking of animals' fur and skin, experimentation on animals, the refusal to aid wild animals that suffer due to natural processes. An example of a speciesist belief would be the following: Suppose that both a dog and a cow need their tails removed for medical reasons.

Suppose someone believes that the dog and the cow have equivalent interests, but insists that the dog receive pain relief for the operation, yet is fine with the cow's tail being docked without pain relief, remarking, "it's just a cow." This belief is speciesist because it disregards her interest in not suffering intense pain due to her species membership. It is possible to give more consideration to members of one species than to members of another species without being speciesist. For example, consider the belief that a typical human has an interest in voting but that a typical gorilla does not; this belief can involve starting with a premise that a certain feature of a being—such as being able to understand and participate in a political system in which one has a political representative—is relevant no matter the being's species. For someone holding this belief, a test for whether the belief is speciesist would be whether they would believe a gorilla who could understand and participate in a political system in which she had a political representative would have an interest in voting.

There are a few common speciesist paradigms. Considering humans superior to other animals; this is called human supremacism—the exclusion of all nonhuman animals from the rights and protections afforded to humans. Considering certain nonhuman animals to be superior to others because of an arbitrary similarity, familiarity, or usefulness to humans. For example, what could be called "human-chimpanzee speciesism" would involve human beings favoring rights for chimpanzees over rights for dolphins, because of happenstance similarities chimpanzees have to humans that dolphins do not; the common practice of humans treating dogs much better than cattle may have to do with the fact that many humans live in closer proximity to dogs and/or find the cattle easier to use for their own gain. Considering individuals of certain species as superior to others. For example, treating pigs as though their well-being is unimportant, but treating horses as though their well-being is important with the awareness that their mental capacities are similar.

Deliberately harming or refusing aid to nonhuman animals in the wild classified as belonging to a certain species, in the name of preserving species, biodiversity or ecosystems. The term speciesism, the argument that it is a prejudice, first appeared in 1970 in a printed pamphlet written by British psychologist Richard D. Ryder. Ryder was a member of a group of academics in Oxford, the nascent animal rights community, now known as the Oxford Group. One of the group's activities was distributing pamphlets about areas of concern. Ryder stated in the pamphlet that "ince Darwin, scientists have agreed that there is no'magical' essential difference between humans and other animals, biologically-speaking. Why do we make an total distinction morally? If all organisms are on one physical continuum we should be on the same moral continuum." He wrote that, at that time in the UK, 5,000,000 animals were being used each year in experiments, that attempting to gain benefits for our own species through the mistreatment of others was "just'speciesism' and as such it is a selfish emotional argument rather than a reasoned one".

Ryder used the term again in an essay, "Experiments on Animals", in Animals and Morals, a collection of essays on animal rights edited by philosophy graduate students Stanley and Roslind Godlovitch and John Harris, who were members of the Oxford Group. Ryder wrote: In as much as both "race" and "species" are vague terms used in the classification of living creatures according to physical appearance, an analogy can be made between them. Discrimination on grounds of race, although most universally condoned two centuries ago, is now condemned, it may come to pass that enlightened minds may one day abhor "speciesism" as much as they now detest "racism." The illogicality in both forms of prejudice is of an identical sort. If it is accepted as morally wrong to deliberately inflict suffering upon innocent human creatures it is only logical to regard it as wrong to inflict suffering on innocent individuals of other species.... The time has come to act upon this logic; those who claim that speciesism is unfair to individuals of nonhuman species have invoked mammals and chickens in the context of research or farming.

There is not yet a clear definition or line agreed upon by a significant segment of the movement as to which species are to be treated with humans or in some ways additionally p

Armenia, Sonsonate

Armenia is a municipality in the Sonsonate department of El Salvador. The municipality has a population of around 14,997; the name of this town was "Guaymoco" in ancient Pipil dialect of Nahuat and means "the oratory of the frogs". The current mayor is Carlos Rivera Molina. Molina was first elected in 2002, taking the place of Moises Alvarado of the FMLN, was re-elected to a second term in March 2006; the local professional football clubs are named C. D. Salvadoreño and Rácing Junior and they both play in the Salvadoran Third Division. Finding the Armenians of Central America

FringeWare Review

FringeWare Review was a magazine about subculture published in Austin, Texas. Many of the publication's writers and editors were associated with other publications such as Boing Boing, Mondo 2000, Whole Earth Review, Wired; the last issue of the magazine was #14, published in 1998. The magazine had an international circulation, distributed by Fine Print, an Austin-based company that focused on'zine distribution. FringeWare Review was established in 1994; the publication was co-founded by Jon Lebkowsky and Paco Nathan, with art director Monte McCarter and assistant editor Tiffany Lee Brown. The magazine's parent company, FringeWare, Inc. was the first company built on Internet community, the first to use web technology when it appeared. FringeWare had presences on The WELL and on Illuminati Online's Metaverse, conceived as a commercial multiuser object-oriented environment. Fringe Ware built an international reputation through the Internet and the magazine; as online communities and the Internet spread in popularity during the 1990s, Fringe Ware became known as an early forebear to online commerce sites such as Amazon_company and to magazines such as Wired, which named Fringe Ware Review in its Top 10 List.

The company owned an independent bookstore in Austin, an underground culture-hub for the city of Austin. Many performances and events were held at the bookstore, for example the first US performance of Austrian art pranksters monochrom in 1998. FringeWare was one of many independent businesses to disappear from Austin during the late 1990s. Lebkowsky and Nathan, who met as Austin-based associate editors of the print version of bOING bOING conceived the company as a way to bring micro producers of cool software and gadgets to market via ecommerce, they began with an email list, which had high adoption among an international set of technoculture mavens and Internet early adopters, became known as the FringeWare News Network. Nathan built a web site in 1992, creating an early custom content management system and online catalog of products; this would have become the first instance of ecommerce on the Internet, however credit card companies pre-SSL prohibited online sales, so the alternative was mail-order, this required a print catalog.

While hashing out plans for a FringeWare catalog, the two decided to create a magazine, inspired by Boing Boing and Whole Earth Review/Coevolution Quarterly, with a catalog in the back pages. Mark Frauenfelder of Boing Boing referred to the publication as a "magalog." FringeWare has been, if not the home the battered half-way house for half of the memage in your head. Schwa, SubGenius, the FringeWare review, BoingBoing, them Bots which win the Turing Contest, the Dead Media Project. I'm sure they'd consider it an honour if you were in the area and find out - as was always FringeWare's creed - WHAT THE HELL IS GOING ON. Tiffany Lee Brown Clayton Counts Erik Davis Robby Garner Jon Lebkowsky Paco Nathan John Shirley Don Webb Wiley Wiggins Brown, Janelle. "Life on the Fringe isn't Easy". Salon. Salon Media Group. Retrieved 2015-03-23. King, Brown. "Postcards from the Fringe". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 2015-03-23. archive at Internet Archive Fringeware timeline at