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Spectrum analyzer

A spectrum analyzer measures the magnitude of an input signal versus frequency within the full frequency range of the instrument. The primary use is to measure the power of the spectrum of known and unknown signals; the input signal. Spectrum analyzers for other types of signals exist, such as optical spectrum analyzers which use direct optical techniques such as a monochromator to make measurements. By analyzing the spectra of electrical signals, dominant frequency, distortion, harmonics and other spectral components of a signal can be observed that are not detectable in time domain waveforms; these parameters are useful in the characterization of electronic devices, such as wireless transmitters. The display of a spectrum analyzer has frequency on the horizontal axis and the amplitude displayed on the vertical axis. To the casual observer, a spectrum analyzer looks like an oscilloscope and, in fact, some lab instruments can function either as an oscilloscope or a spectrum analyzer; the first spectrum analyzers, in the 1960s, were swept-tuned instruments.

Following the discovery of the fast Fourier transform in 1965, the first FFT-based analyzers were introduced in 1967. Today, there are three basic types of analyzer: the swept-tuned spectrum analyzer, the vector signal analyzer, the real-time spectrum analyzer. Spectrum analyzer types are distinguished by the methods used to obtain the spectrum of a signal. There are swept-tuned and fast Fourier transform based spectrum analyzers: A swept-tuned analyzer uses a superheterodyne receiver to down-convert a portion of the input signal spectrum to the center frequency of a narrow band-pass filter, whose instantaneous output power is recorded or displayed as a function of time. By sweeping the receiver's center-frequency through a range of frequencies, the output is a function of frequency, but while the sweep centers on any particular frequency, it may be missing short-duration events at other frequencies. An FFT analyzer computes a time-sequence of periodograms. FFT refers to a particular mathematical algorithm used in the process.

This is used in conjunction with a receiver and analog-to-digital converter. As above, the receiver reduces the center-frequency of a portion of the input signal spectrum, but the portion is not swept; the purpose of the receiver is to reduce the sampling rate. With a sufficiently low sample-rate, FFT analyzers can process all the samples, are therefore able to avoid missing short-duration events. Spectrum analyzers tend to fall into four form factors: benchtop, portable and networked; this form factor is useful for applications where the spectrum analyzer can be plugged into AC power, which means in a lab environment or production/manufacturing area. Bench top spectrum analyzers have offered better performance and specifications than the portable or handheld form factor. Bench top spectrum analyzers have multiple fans to dissipate heat produced by the processor. Due to their architecture, bench top spectrum analyzers weigh more than 30 pounds; some bench top spectrum analyzers offer optional battery packs, allowing them to be used away from AC power.

This type of analyzer is referred to as a "portable" spectrum analyzer. This form factor is useful for any applications where the spectrum analyzer needs to be taken outside to make measurements or carried while in use. Attributes that contribute to a useful portable spectrum analyzer include: Optional battery-powered operation to allow the user to move outside. Viewable display to allow the screen to be read in bright sunlight, darkness or dusty conditions.. Light weight; this form factor is useful for any application where the spectrum analyzer needs to be light and small. Handheld analyzers offer a limited capability relative to larger systems. Attributes that contribute to a useful handheld spectrum analyzer include: Very low power consumption. Battery-powered operation while in the field to allow the user to move outside. Small size Light weight; this form factor does not include a display and these devices are designed to enable a new class of geographically-distributed spectrum monitoring and analysis applications.

The key attribute is the ability to connect the analyzer to a network and monitor such devices across a network. While many spectrum analyzers have an Ethernet port for control, they lack efficient data transfer mechanisms and are too bulky or expensive to be deployed in such a distributed manner. Key applications for such devices include RF intrusion detection systems for secure facilities where wireless signaling is prohibited; as well cellular operators are using such analyzers to remotely monitor interference in licensed spectral bands. The distributed nature of such devices enable geo-location of transmitters, spectrum monitoring for dynamic spectrum access and many other such applications. Key attributes of such devices include: Network-efficient data transfer Low power consumption The ability to synchronize data captures across a network of analyzers Low cost to enable mass deployment; as discussed above in types, a swept-tuned spectrum analyzer down-converts a portion of the input signal spectrum to the center frequency of a band-pass filter by sweeping the voltage-controlled oscillator through a range of frequencies, enabling the

Paulo de Carvalho

Paulo de Carvalho is a Portuguese singer. Carvalho co-founded the band The Sheiks in 1965, he played the drums. He played an instrumental role, either as a founder or a guest, of many other important Portuguese bands of the 1960s, among them bands such as Fluido, Banda 4 and Thilo's Combo; the Sheiks was Portugals answer to the Beatles. During the 1960s Portugal was ruled by an authoritarian dictatorship; this band captured the national mood. The people wanted the brightness of the Beatles sound and the Sheiks provided; the band sang songs such as Summertime, Tell Me Bird. Though the band broke up and Carvalho moved into contemporary Fado, the Sheiks have regrouped and performed in recent years; as a solo performer, Carvalho participated in the Festival RTP da Canção and Eurovision Song Contest in 1974 and 1977. It was his song, the Portuguese entry for the Eurovision Song Contest, "E Depois do Adeus", used as the passcode at the beginning of the coup which toppled Portugal's dictatorship, giving Carvalho a permanent place in his country's history.

During the 1970s and early 1980s, Carvalho won many international performance awards in Bulgaria and Belgium and was a strong participant in other music festivals in Chile and Spain. In 1985, Carvalho began professionally associating himself with Fado, deferring to Portugal's traditional music as globalization came to be seen as a threat to his homeland's cultural heritage. Many of Carvalho's songs were written by José Nisa, José Calvário and Ary dos Santos as well as a poem by Alda Lara, he has worked with Fernando Tordo, Tozé Brito, Carlos Mendes and Os Amigos and performed duets with Brito and Dulce Pontes, among others. Several greatest hits albums have been released; some of his best known songs are: "E Depois do Adeus" "Flor sem Tempo" "Lisboa Menina e Moça" "Mãe Negra" "Os Meninos do Huambo" "Maria Vida Fria" "Nini" "Olá como estás?" "Pomba Branca" "Domingo na praia" Carvalho has been married three times. His first marriage to Teresa Maria Lobato de Faria Sacchetti produced one child, singer Mafalda Sachetti.

His second marriage to Helena Isabel produced one child, Bernardo a singer known as Agir. His last marriage with Fernanda Borges produced one child Paulo Nuno, he is in a partnership with artist Susana Lemos with whom he has two girls. Carvalho can be described as a new fadisto, singing a contemporary fado, as opposed to the fado of Amalia Rodrigues, whose songs were rooted in an older tradition. Carvalho's style fuses contemporary Portuguese pop with some traditional elements of fado. In many cases, his songs mix other Iberian or pan-European traditions, the song "Minh Alma" for example is more flamenco-pop than fado; this trend is visible throughout his career in fado. Carvalho takes from the wider world of ballads and adds elements of jazz, pop, or whatever else he sees fit into his songs, yet still maintains the result as fado. Carvalho was awarded with medal of Ordem da Liberdade by Cavaco Silva, President of Portugal, on 10 June 2009. 1969 Paulo de Carvalho. Passado-Presente Uma Viagem ao Universo de Paulo de Carvalho, Soraia Simões Portuguese music Eurovision Song Contest

Patrick Foster

Patrick John Foster is a Kenyan-born English former first-class cricketer. Foster was born at Nairobi in March 1987, spending the first six years of his life living in the Rift Valley town of Gilgil, his parents ran the independent Pembroke House School. His parents returned to England. From there he went up to Durham University. While at Durham he made his debut in first-class cricket for Durham UCCE against Nottinghamshire at Durham in 2007, he played first-class cricket for Durham UCCE until 2009, having made a total of nine first-class appearances. He scored 97 runs in his nine matches, with a high score of 24. With his right-arm medium-fast bowling, he took 24 wickets at an average of 32.20, with best figures of 4 for 26. He played minor counties cricket for Oxfordshire, making one appearance against Cornwall in the 2013 MCCA Knockout Trophy. Following his graduation Foster found work in the City of London, where he developed a severe gambling addiction, his addiction led to him contemplating suicide.

With help from the Professional Cricketers' Association he was able to stop his addiction. He now works to raise awareness about gambling addictions, he is an ambassador for the Mintridge Foundation, which seeks to promote an active lifestyle for children and young people. Patrick Foster at ESPNcricinfo

Red-billed firefinch

The red-billed firefinch or Senegal firefinch is a small passerine bird. This estrildid finch is a resident breeding bird in most of Sub-Saharan Africa with an estimated global extent of occurrence of 10,000,000 km2; this species was introduced to Egypt, the introduced population has become extinct. The species was introduced to southern Algeria where it's expanding northward. In 1760 the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson included a description of the red-billed firefinch in his Ornithologie based on a specimen collected in Senegal, he used the Latin Senegalus Ruber. Although Brisson coined Latin names, these do not conform to the binomial system and are not recognised by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature; when in 1766 the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus updated his Systema Naturae for the twelfth edition, he added 240 species, described by Brisson. One of these was the red-billed firefinch. Linnaeus included a brief description, coined the binomial name Fringilla senegala and cited Brisson's work.

The species is now placed in the genus Lagonosticta, introduced by the German ornithologists Jean Cabanis in 1851. There are six subspecies: L. s. senegala – Mauritania and Gambia to west and central Nigeria L. s. rhodopsis – east Nigeria and central Cameroon and south Chad to Sudan, west Eritrea and west Ethiopia L. s. brunneiceps Sharpe, 1890 – central Ethiopia and southeast Sudan L. s. somaliensis Salvadori, 1894 – southeast Ethiopia and south Somalia L. s. ruberrima Reichenow, 1903 – Democratic Republic of the Congo and west Kenya to northeast Angola, northeast Zambia and north Malawi L. s. rendalli Hartert, 1898 – south Angola to Mozambique south to South Africa The red-billed firefinch is 10 cm in length. The adult male has scarlet plumage apart from brown wings; the bill is pink, there is a yellow eye-ring. Females have uniformly brown upperparts and buff underparts. There is a small red patch in front of both eyes, the bill is pink; this widespread and abundant species is found around human habitation with other species such as the red-cheeked cordon-bleu, its soft queet-queet call is a familiar African sound.

The song is a rising chick-pea-pea-pea. The red-billed firefinch is a small gregarious bird which feeds on grain and other seeds, it frequents open cultivation. The nest is a large domed grass structure with a side entrance, built low in a bush, wall or thatch into which three to six white eggs are laid; the nest of this species is parasitised by the village indigobird. Birds of The Gambia by Barlow and Disley, ISBN 1-873403-32-1 Videos, photos & sounds on the Internet Bird Collection Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds

Foxwoods Casino Philadelphia

Foxwoods Casino Philadelphia was a proposed casino to be located first along the Delaware River under pressure from local residents attempted to move to The Gallery at Market East in Center City in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was one of five stand-alone casinos awarded a gaming license on December 20, 2006, by the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board; the Philadelphia Inquirer states that Stephen Wynn and Wynn Resorts have signed a non-binding deal to take over the long delayed Foxwoods Casino in Philadelphia. On October 26, 2010, it was announced that Harrah's Entertainment would buy a one-third stake and be in charge of operations in the casino. Harrah's Provided artist rendition of what the project would looking like to the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board, that featured Horseshoe as the Casino brand on November 18, 2010; these plans show a two-story, 57,463-square-foot casino located at Columbus Boulevard and Reed Street. The casino will sit back about 300 feet from Columbus Blvd. Plans include an Asian gaming room, a noodle bar, a riverfront sports bar under a steakhouse.

Parking will be in surface lots with 1,376 spaces. The casino will include 1,500 slots and 70 table games; the second phase will include a 2,250-space parking garage located at Columbus Blvd. and Tasker Ave. Harrah's Entertainment failed to meet the deadline and the license was revoked on December 16, 2010, it was planned to be located along the Delaware River in South Philadelphia. It was to be built on a 16.5-acre site between Tasker and Reed Streets, to include 3,000 Slot machines, an 1,800 seat showroom, a 4,500 space parking garage, future expansion to a casino with 5,000 slot machines and a 500-room hotel. In September 2008, residents opposed to the development forced the developers of the Foxwoods Casino to move proposal to The Gallery at Market East; this proposal was endorsed by both Mayor Michael Nutter and Governor Ed Rendell but was opposed by local residents. The original proposal for the Foxwoods Casino at The Gallery at Market East was for a 3,000 slot machine casino on two floors occupied by Burlington Coat Factory, forcing that store to relocate.

On February 26, 2009, it was announced that the developers were looking into locating their new casino onto three floors of the former Strawbridge's flagship store, vacant and owned by the Pennsylvania Real Estate Investment Trust, the owners of The Gallery. In April 2009, Comcast exec and Foxwoods investor Ed Snider was forced to return campaign contributions to then-Governor Ed Rendell, barred by campaign finance laws. In June 2009, the Center City site began to unravel in the face of opposition from the owner of the buildings top 15 floors; the difficulties Foxwoods has faced in Philadelphia highlight the challenges of building an urban casino. Casino companies, for the most part, have avoided such plays in the US, sticking to less controversial rural, suburban or riverboat locations, industry observers say. Casino developers always face complaints about traffic and the impact on nearby residential areas wherever they build, but such concerns become intense amid densely packed city neighborhoods.

In February 2010, Steve Wynn was brought in as the managing partner of the project. The location was returned to its original Waterfront site, Wynn said that there would be no hotel built on the location. Steve Wynn views Philadelphia as a major feeder market to his Las Vegas resort; the casino will be about 3 miles from the SugarHouse Casino, on the riverfront just north of downtown. On April 8, 2010, Wynn announced that his company was withdrawing from the project, three days after presenting plans for the Foxwoods site to the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board. On December 16, 2010, the Gaming Control Board voted to revoke the casino's license after the venture failed to secure funding. List of casinos in Pennsylvania List of casinos in the United States List of casino hotels Official Site

Phipps Center for the Arts

The Phipps Center for the Arts is a theatre and arts center in Hudson, offering a variety of theatrical and artistic performances, in addition to art exhibits and arts-related classes and lessons. The facility is a non-profit, community-based organization committed to offering cultural and artistic experiences to area residents. Built in 1983 and expanded in 1992, the Phipps is operated through the help of volunteers, it operates in a $7 million facility. Its Endowment Fund is over $1 million. In addition to art exhibit and classroom areas, there are multiple auditoriums. A main feature in the theatre is a Wurlitzer Theatre Organ, used for concerts, to accompany silent films; this organ was installed in the Capitol Theatre in St. Paul in 1926, it was reinstalled in the KSTP Television Studios in Saint Paul in 1957 and moved to the Phipps Center in 1983. The organ has three manuals, 16 ranks. Official Site