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A speechwriter is a person, hired to prepare and write speeches that will be delivered by another person. Speechwriters are employed by many senior-level elected officials and executives in the government and private sectors, they can be employed to write for weddings and other social occasions. A speechwriter works directly with senior executives or leaders to determine what points, positions, or messages the executive would like to cover. Speechwriters need to be able to accept criticism and comments on the different drafts of the speech, be able to incorporate the proposed changes into the draft. Speechwriters have to be able to work on several different speeches at once, manage their time so that they can meet strict deadlines for finishing the speech on time. Speechwriters must be able to accept anonymity, because with few exceptions, speechwriters are not credited or acknowledged; this aspect creates a dilemma for compilers of speech anthology. Should credit be given to the President, to speechwriter Ted Sorensen, or to both?

Professional speechwriter Lawrence Bernstein writes: Some clients have called with six months to spare, others with four hours to go. While there is a guild called "The UK Speechwriters' Guild" for professional speechwriters, they do not have specific training in the area or field for which they are writing speeches. Instead, speechwriters have a broad understanding of basic economics, political roles, policy issues, which make them generalists who are able to "translate" complex economic and policy issues into a clear message for the general public; as with many other writing occupations, most speechwriters do not have specific training in their writing craft. Instead, speechwriters develop their speech writing skills by combining a general liberal arts education with a variety of work experience in politics, public administration, journalism, or a related field; the delivery of the speech is part of the challenge speechwriters face. Executive speechwriter Anthony Trendl writes: Speechwriters specialize in a kind of writing that merges marketing, public relations, sales and politics all in one presentation.

A perennial challenge for speechwriters is writing authoritatively about topics for which they may know little. As executive speechwriter Ben Roberts notes: To be a successful speechwriter you must be able to digest large volumes of information and become an'expert for a day', as I like to say - acquiring information, condensing it into a coherent narrative, promptly forgetting it so you have room for the next lot of information... The key challenge in this is identifying what you don't need to know. Writing a speech involves several steps. A speechwriter has to meet with the executive and the executive's senior staff to determine the broad framework of points or messages that the executive wants to cover in the speech; the speechwriter does his or her own research on the topic to flesh out this framework with anecdotes and examples. The speechwriter will consider the audience for the speech, which can range from a town-hall meeting of community leaders to an international leaders' forum; the speechwriter blends the points, themes and messages with his or her own research to create an "informative and authentic speech" for the executive.

The speechwriter presents a draft version of the speech to the executive and makes notes on any revisions or changes that are requested. If the speechwriter is familiar with the topic and the positions and style of the executive, only small changes may be needed. In other cases, the executive may feel that the speech does not have the right tone or flow, the entire speech may have to be re-drafted; some notable political speechwriters include: Don Watson wrote for Prime Minister Paul Keating Eva Christiansen wrote for Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel Henri Guaino wrote for French President Nicolas Sarkozy Sir Ronald Millar wrote for British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Thilo Sarrazin wrote for German Minister of Finance and Defence Hans Apel Reuben Abati, wrote for President Goodluck Jonathan Olusegun Adeniyi, wrote for President Yar'Adua Farooq Kperogi, wrote for President Olusegun Obasanjo Historians believe Alexander Hamilton may have written speeches for President George Washington.

David Humphreys wrote for George Washington. Henry Lee wrote for President Andrew Jackson. William Dodd wrote for President Woodrow Wilson. Judson T. Welliver, considered the first official presidential speechwriter in the modern sense of the occupation, wrote for President Warren G. Harding in 1921 and for President Calvin Coolidge. Samuel Rosenman wrote for President Harry S. Truman. Robert E. Sherwood wrote for Franklin D. Roosevelt. Orson Welles wrote for Franklin D. Roosevelt. Samuel Beer wrote for Franklin D. Roosevelt. Hugh S. Johnson wrote for Franklin D. Roosevelt. Raymond Moley wrote for Franklin D. Roosevelt. George Elsey wrote for President Harry Truman. Ken Hechler wrote for Harry Truman. Josef Berger wrote for Lyndon B. Johnson. Emmet John Hughes wrote for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Malcolm Moos wrote for Dwight Eisenhower. William B. Ewald Jr. wrote for Dwight Eisenhower. Arthur Larson wrote for Dwight Eisenhower. Richard N. Goodwin wrote for president

Cressona, Pennsylvania

Cressona is a borough in Schuylkill County, United States. Formed in 1857 from part of North Manheim Township, it was founded by and named for John Chapman Cresson, a Philadelphia civil engineer and manager of the Schuylkill Navigation Company, President of the Mine Hill and Schuylkill Haven Railroad and chief engineer of Fairmount Park, Philadelphia; until the Mine Hill Road was built in Cressona, the borough remained wilderness, with some minor agricultural areas. In 1831, the Mine Hill and Schuylkill Railroad was completed, the tracks went through Cressona; the borough was called West Haven, but the name was changed to Cressona. The borough was incorporated on February 2, 1857. Cressona is located at 40°37′49″N 76°11′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.0 square mile, all of it land. Cressona is 4 miles south of Pottsville and is served by Pennsylvania Route 183, Pennsylvania Route 61, Pennsylvania Route 901; the West Branch Schuylkill River goes through Cressona.

Cressona is in the Coal Region of Pennsylvania. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,635 people, 663 households, 468 families residing in the borough; the population density was 1,600.3 people per square mile. There were 711 housing units at an average density of 695.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 98.53% White, 0.06% African American, 0.92% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.18% of the population. There were 663 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.9% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.3% were non-families. 24.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.95. In the borough the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 101.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.6 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $39,783, the median income for a family was $42,292. Males had a median income of $33,807 versus $21,563 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $18,285. About 1.3% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.8% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over. William Joseph Hammer, electrical engineer and associate of Thomas Edison, was born in Cressona

1973–74 Football League First Division

Statistics of Football League First Division in the 1973-74 season. Leeds United won the First Division title for the second time in their history; the title was confirmed on 24 April. Norwich City were relegated on 20 April, despite beating Burnley 1-0 at Carrow Road, Southampton's 1-1 draw with Manchester United sent the Canaries down. Manchester United went down on 27 April, after losing 1-0 at home to their fierce rivals Manchester City and Birmingham City's result going against them with a 2-1 win against relegated Norwich City at St Andrew's. Southampton were relegated because of Birmingham City's result despite winning 3-0 at Everton. RSSSF

Swack Church

The Mt. Bethel Evangelical Lutheran Church and Cemetery, popularly known as the Swack Church or Old Swack Church, was a Lutheran church located in Lebanon Township, New Jersey. Abandoned by its congregation in 1896, it has since become a historical curiosity and the subject of a yet-unsolved ownership issue; the Swack Church was founded by Reverend Lambert Swackhamer, a Lutheran minister from Middle Valley, New Jersey and the son of Stephen Swackhamer and Jane Swackhamer. Lambert Swackhamer, early in his life, moved to Hartwick, New York, where he attended Hartwick Seminary, graduating in 1831, he was assigned as the pastor of the Lutheran church in Manheim, New York, but withdrew from the synod there due to a doctrinal dispute. He accepted a position in the synod of his hometown, but resigned there as well due to their support of slavery, he co-founded his own synod, the Franckean Synod, in 1837. The Franckean Synod was declared "un-Lutheran" and disbanded, Swackhamer returned to the Hartwick congregation.

In 1844, Swackhamer moved his family back in Long Valley, New Jersey. Swackhamer may have been hoping to receive the pastorship of the local Zion Lutheran Church, but was turned down, prompting him to found his own church in nearby Lebanon. Swackhamer was donated land for his church at Mount Bethel in Lebanon by Moore Castner; the new church was named for Jacob Swackhammer. The "Swacke Church", as it was spelled, was constructed in 1844 at Mount Bethel, it was a stone building covered in stucco, evidence suggests the roof may have been elevated to accommodate a balcony. As was typical of churches at this time, there was no chimney. Instead, area of the dirt floor near the center of the building would have been prepared for a pile of hot coals, with a smoke stack in the roof directly above it. Swackhamer and his family occupied a log cabin near the church, a small burial ground occupied the grounds. In 1850, Lambert Swackhamer accepted the pastorship of the Lutheran Church in Berne, New York, where he lived until his death on November 2, 1857.

Moore Castner took possession of the land the church and associated structures occupied, sold it to a local Methodist congregation led by a minister by the name of Albright. The Albright congregation could not afford the property and the church was re-organized for use by local Lutherans once again; the Evangelical Lutheran Church of New Jersey purchased the property from Castner in 1868. The Spruce Run Evangelical Lutheran Zion Church in Glen Gardner, New Jersey used the Swack Church as an outpost until 1896, when the property was abandoned, it became overgrown and the church covered in vines, until an attempt was made to save the structure was undertaken by the local legion in the 1930s. After that, the Swack Church was forgotten for over half a century, to the point that by 2010, the pastor of the Spruce Run Church did not know its location; the question of the Swack Church's ownership was first raised in the early 1980s, when local historians proposed building a fence around the property in an effort to protect it.

At that time, township officials were unable to determine, responsible for the property. In 2007, a township committee voted to condemn the church ruins and take ownership of the property, but did not follow through on this plan; the committee determined that if efforts were made to stabilize the crumbing church, the town must first determine who owned it. Then-Mayor Ed Post suggested that the deed for the land had in fact been granted to a group of local historians in 1992, but no documentation could be found to prove this and the historians in question were either deceased or had moved away. By condemning the church, Post hoped. In 2013, a group composed of the Friends of Old Swack Church, Metro Trails, GraveMatters, as well as members of the Union Forge Heritage Association and the Association for Gravestone Studies undertook a cleanup of the Swackhammer Cemetery, the burial ground on the site which houses burial plots dating as far back as 1801; the cemetery's last burial was listed as 1915, most of the stones have since been displaced from their burial plots - only a few remain legible.

The cemetery includes the grave of a female freed slave, buried there after the Civil War, marked only by two field stones. This form of burial indicates that despite Swackhamer's anti-slavery stance, former slaves were still seen as second-class citizens by his congregation; the cleanup efforts have created further controversy in the township, with town attorneys noting the legal liability issues that could arise if volunteers permitted by the town to work on the property were to be injured. In 2011, the New Jersey Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America contacted the township to propose a property transfer which would allow the town to authorize cleanups of the cemetery and stabilization of the church ruins. In November 2013, the Synod stated that it would sell the property to a non-profit organization of the historian groups and the township for $1; the deed to the property was transferred to the nonprofit Mount Amwell Project

Night Fishing Is Good

"Night Fishing Is Good" is a song by Japanese band Sakanaction. It was released as a digital single on December 26, 2007, as the third of three pre-release songs from the band's second album Night Fishing, released a month later; the song was written by the band's vocalist and songwriter Ichiro Yamaguchi to mimic the emotions of fishing, inspired by musicals and classical music. Musically, the band were inspired by the English rock band Queen, adding guitar riffs and choral vocals similar to the style of Queen; the song was the first instance of Sakanaction using choral vocals in their music. Yamaguchi wanted the song to act as the leading promotional song from Night Fishing, however the band's record label insisted on the song "Sample" instead. Yamaguchi pushed for the song to have a music video, he enlisted the director Yoshihiro Mori to create a video with little notice, together they created a fishing-themed documentary-style video shot in Gifu, released on February 4. The song was praised by music critics, who likened the classical phrases and choral vocals to Queen's "Bohemian Rhapsody".

Sakanaction was first formed in 2005 in Hokkaido. The band gained exposure in Hokkaido after winning the audition to perform as a newcomer artist at the Rising Sun Rock Festival in Otaru in August 2006, after demos of their songs "Mikazuki Sunset" and "Shiranami Top Water" performed well on College Radio Japan Sapporo; the band were signed to major label Victor Entertainment, released their debut album Go to the Future on May 7, 2007, through Victor's BabeStar Label. The album was promoted with the song "Mikazuki Sunset", played on radio stations in Hokkaido in May. On Go to the Future and Night Fishing, Sakanaction based themselves in Sapporo, recorded their albums there. Due to the response to the band's debut album Go to the Future, Sakanaction's A&R team pushed them to follow this up with a second album; the majority of the songs present on the album were written as an album, as opposed to the compilation-like nature of Go to the Future. The material for the album was created based on the response and criticism for their debut album, the members realization that they should not be frightened to make bold changes.

On December 5, 2007, the songs "Word" and "Sample" were released as a two-track single to iTunes. For the song "Night Fishing Is Good", Yamaguchi wanted to create a song that mimicked the emotions of fishing: deep in meditative thought, broken when a fish gets hooked, experiencing joy at catching the fish. Guitarist Motoharu Iwadera was the member who spent the most time contributing to the production of the song, the band tried to have as much fun as possible with the arrangement. Yamaguchi wrote the song after reading a review in Musica of Clammbon's album Musical, he had wanted to make a song inspired by musicals and classical music, however felt that Clammbon might have beaten him to the punch. "Night Fishing Is Good" was one of several Sakanaction songs where he created the music and lyrics simultaneously. The other members of Sakanaction were hesitant about the song first, after hearing how complex it was when Yamaguchi performed it solo on guitar during studio demo sessions, suggested that they split it into two songs.

Part way through the song's recording, Yamaguchi was inspired to make the song similar to music of English rock band Queen, which pianist Okazaki responded well to. Iwadera added Queen-style guitar riffs to the song, the group decided to add chorus work in the style of Queen; the band attempted to incorporate all of Sakanaction's musical aspects into the song, by including folk and pop elements. "Night Fishing Is Good" is the first song released by the band where they used a vocal chorus, though in retrospect Yamaguchi considered the chorus work rough compared to their songs. The vocal chorus was sung by three of the band members: Ami Kusakari, Emi Okazaki and Motoharu Iwadera, with drummer Keiichi Ejima adding additional lower vocals to certain sections. "Sample" was chosen by the band's management to be the leading promotional track from Night Fishing, despite Yamaguchi's protests as he had wanted "Night Fishing Is Good" to be in its place. Yamaguchi had begun to realize the power of music videos after the rise in popularity of video-sharing websites such as YouTube, so decided to make his own low-budget video for the song.

On December 5, "Word" and "Sample" were released as a double A-side digital single to iTunes, while "Night Fishing Is Good" was released as a digital single four weeks on December 26. The band have released four live recordings of the song; the first was a part of the track list of the band's iTunes-exclusive live EPs'Night Fishing Is Good' Tour 2008 in Sapporo, the second is a segment of the single track "Fish Alive" 30min. 1 Sequence by 6 Songs Sakanaquarium 2009 @ Sapporo live EP. Performances of the song are present on two of the band's video albums: Sakanaquarium, footage of the band's concert held at Shinkiba Studio Coast on May 15, 2010 as a part of their Sakanaquarium 2010 tour, their Sakanaquarium 2013 Sakanaction: Live at Makuhari Messe 2013.5.19 video album. A year and a half after its release, "Night Fishing Is Good" was compiled onto Nano–Mugen Compilation 2009, an album featuring songs by acts performing at Asian Kung-Fu Generation's annual Nano-Mugen festival that year; the song

Emirates Cup

The Emirates Cup is a pre-season association football invitational competition hosted by English club Arsenal at their home ground, Emirates Stadium, in Holloway, London. The two-day competition is named after Arsenal's main sponsor, Emirates, it has been held every summer except 2012 due to the London Olympics, 2016 because of pitch renovation work and 2018 because of stadium building work. The competition in its first decade followed a point scoring system much like the Amsterdam Tournament, whereby each team played two matches, with three points awarded for a win, one point for a draw and none for a loss. An additional point is awarded for every goal scored. From 2009, total shots on target throughout the tournament has been used as a tiebreaker if teams are tied on points, goal difference and goals scored. Since 2019, the Emirates Cup has been shortened to a one-day tournament with the inclusion of Arsenal Women. Arsenal won the inaugural tournament in 2007, further wins followed in 2009, 2010, 2015, most 2017.

Five other sides have won the Emirates Cup: Hamburg in 2008, New York Red Bulls in 2011, Galatasaray in 2013, Valencia in 2014 and Lyon in 2019. Lyon and Paris Saint-Germain are the most regular guests, both having been invited to compete in the tournament on three occasions. Arsenal first announced their intention to stage a pre-season competition at their home ground, the Emirates Stadium, in March 2007. Managing director Keith Edelman revealed plans were at an exploratory stage, added: "It would be in pre-season, around late July, tickets would be reasonably priced. We feel it could be a exciting event." Details of the tournament were formally announced on 1 May 2007, with Italian champions Inter Milan, French side Paris Saint-Germain and German outfit Hamburg confirmed as participants. Hamburg's qualification into the Intertoto Cup meant; the inaugural Emirates Cup took place on 28 July and 29 July 2007 and was well attended with over 110,000 people filling the stadium across the two-day tournament.

Each club played two sides. Arsenal won the first tournament, having beaten their French opponents 2–1 and defeated Inter by the same scoreline, courtesy of a late Robin van Persie strike; the following year Hamburg made an appearance alongside Real Madrid and Juventus, won the tournament as they finished two points clear of second-place Real. In 2009, Arsenal welcomed Atlético Madrid and Paris Saint-Germain to the Emirates Cup; the hosts regained the trophy scoring five goals. Arsenal retained the Emirates Cup in 2010, but failed to top the table in the next three tournaments. New York Red Bulls, who were captained by former Arsenal striker Thierry Henry, won the Emirates Cup in 2011, after beating Paris Saint-Germain and drawing with the hosts; the tournament did not take place in 2012 due to the ongoing Summer Olympics in London. When the Emirates Cup resumed in 2013, Turkish side Galatasaray earned nine points to finish top of the group, a year Valencia became the first Spanish winners of the tournament as the hosts lost their decisive game against Monaco.

Arsenal claimed their fourth Emirates Cup in 2015. The hosts scored seven goals in the tournament – six against Lyon, who became the first team in the competition's history not to score a goal in either of their matches. Due to the extended schedule of UEFA Euro 2016 and essential pitch reconstruction works at the Emirates Stadium, the Emirates Cup did not take place in the pre-season period of the 2016–17 season. Two years stadium building work meant that once again the tournament did not take place; the Emirates Cup returned in 2019 with Arsenal Women featuring for the first time in the pre-season tournament, where they faced Bayern Munich Women. In the men's tournament, Lyon defeated Arsenal 2–1 to win their first title. Wembley Cup Official website