For slower shutter speeds, the first curtain opens from right to left, and after the required time with the shutter open, the second curtain closes the aperture in the same direction. When the shutter is cocked again the shutter curtains are moved back to their starting positions, focal-plane shutter at low speed Figure 1, The black rectangle represents the frame aperture through which the exposure is made. It is currently covered by the first shutter curtain, shown in red, the second shutter curtain shown in green is on the right side. Figure 2, The first shutter curtain moves fully to the left allowing the exposure to be made, at this point the flash is made to fire if one is attached and ready to do so. Figure 3, After the required amount of exposure the second shutter curtain moves to the left to cover the frame aperture, when the shutter is recocked the shutter curtains are wound back to the right hand side ready for the next exposure. This is a graphical representation only, the mechanisms are much more complex.
For example, the shutter curtains actually roll on and off spools at either side of the aperture so as to use as little space as possible. Faster shutter speeds are achieved by the second curtain closing before the first one has fully opened, faster shutter speeds simply require a narrower slit, as the speed of travel of the shutter curtains is not normally varied. Using this technique, modern SLR cameras are capable of speeds of up to 1/2000, 1/4000 or even 1/8000 of a second. Focal-plane shutter at high speed Figure 1, The black rectangle represents the frame aperture through which the exposure is made and it is currently covered by the first shutter curtain, shown in red. The second shutter curtain shown in green is on the right side, Figure 2, The first shutter curtain begins to move to the left allowing the exposure to be made. Because the exposure requires a very fast shutter speed, the second curtain begins to move across at a set distance from the first one, Figure 3, The first shutter curtain continues to travel across the frame aperture followed by the second curtain.
Figure 4, The first shutter curtain finishes moving, followed closely by the curtain which is now covering the frame aperture completely. When the shutter is recocked both shutter curtains are wound back to the hand side ready for the next exposure. Most modern 35 mm and digital SLR cameras now use vertical travel metal blade shutters. These work in precisely the way as the horizontal shutters, but because of the shorter distance the shutter blades must travel. This can result in faster flash synchronization speeds than are possible with the horizontal-curtain focal-plane shutter, another advantage of the focal-plane shutter is that their fastest speeds are quite high, 1/4000 second or even 1/8000 second, much higher than the 1/500 second of the typical leaf shutter. The main disadvantage of the shutter is that a durable and reliable one is a complex device
The Washington Star
The Washington Star, previously known as the Washington Star-News and the Washington Evening Star, was a daily afternoon newspaper published in Washington, D. C. between 1852 and 1981. For most of time, it was the citys newspaper of record. On August 7,1981, after 128 years, the Washington Star ceased publication, in the bankruptcy sale, The Washington Post purchased the land and buildings owned by the Star, including its printing presses. The Washington Star was founded on December 16,1852 by Captain Joseph Borrows Tate, in 1853, Texas surveyor and newspaper entrepreneur William Douglas Wallach purchased the paper. As the sole owner of the paper for the next 14 years, Wallach built up the paper by capitalizing on reporting of the American Civil War, among other things. In 1867, the group of investors Crosby Stuart Noyes, Samuel H. Kauffmann, the paper would remain family-owned and operated for the next four generations. In 1907, subsequent Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist Clifford K. Berryman joined the Star, Berryman was most famous for his 1902 cartoon of President Theodore Teddy Roosevelt, Drawing the Line in Mississippi, which spurred the creation of the teddy bear.
During his career, Berryman drew thousands of cartoons commenting on American Presidents, presidential figures included former Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Harry S. Truman. Berrymans career continued at the Star until he collapsed on the floor one morning in 1949. The next major change to the newspaper came in 1938 when the three owning families diversified their interests, on May 1, the Star purchased the M. A. Leese Radio Corporation and acquired Washingtons oldest radio station, WMAL, in the process. Renamed the Evening Star Broadcasting Company, the 1938 acquisition would figure in the 1981 demise of the newspaper and television were accelerating the decline of evening newspapers in favor of morning dailies. The Post, meanwhile and merged with its morning rival, by the 1960s, the Post was Washingtons leading newspaper. In 1972, the Star purchased and absorbed one of DCs few remaining competing newspapers, for a short period of time after the merger, both The Evening Star and The Washington Daily News mastheads appeared on the front page.
The paper soon was retitled Washington Star News and finally, The Washington Star by the late 1970s, in 1973, the Star was targeted for clandestine purchase by interests close to the South African Apartheid government in its propaganda war, in what became known as the Muldergate Scandal. The Star, whose policy had always been conservative, was seen as favorable to South Africa at the time. In early 1975, the owning families sold their interests in the paper to Joe L. Allbritton, who owned Riggs Bank, the most prestigious bank in the capital, planned to use profits from WMAL-AM-FM-TV to shore up the newspapers finances. The Federal Communications Commission stymied him with rules on media cross-ownership, however, WMAL-AM-FM was sold off in 1977, on October 1,1975, press operators at the Post went on strike, severely damaging all printing presses before leaving the building. Allbritton had disagreements with editor Jim Bellows over editorial policy
Inejiro Asanuma was a Japanese politician, and leader of the Japan Socialist Party. Asanuma was assassinated by a nationalist while speaking in a political debate in Tokyo. His violent death was seen in detail on national television, causing widespread public shock. Asanuma was born in the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo on December 27,1898 and his mother died during his birth, leaving him to be raised by his father, who died of cancer at the age of 42. In the 1930s Asanuma was a member of several pro-military, far-right uyoku dantai and he served in the Diet from 1936. He grew dissatisfied with the direction World War II was taking and withdrew his candidacy from the 1942 election, when he returned to politics, it was as a socialist and left-wing activist. Asanuma was widely criticized for a 1959 incident in which he visited Communist-controlled Mainland China and called the United States the shared enemy of China, when he returned from this trip he wore a Mao suit while disembarking from a plane in Japan, sparking criticism even from Socialist leaders.
At that time and many countries recognized the Republic of China as the rightful government of Mainland China. On October 12,1960, Asanuma was assassinated by 17-year-old Otoya Yamaguchi, while Asanuma spoke from the lectern at Tokyos Hibiya Hall, Yamaguchi rushed onstage and ran his yoroidōshi through Asanumas ribs on the left side, killing him. Japanese television company NHK was video recording the debate for transmission, the photograph of Asanumas assassination won its photographer Yasushi Nagao both the Pulitzer Prize and World Press Photo of the Year. The Japanese public was shocked by Asanumas assassination. In its wake, a spate of mass demonstrations for peace, the killer Yamaguchi was captured at the scene of the crime, and a few weeks afterwards committed suicide while in police custody. Right-wing groups celebrated Asanumas assassin as a martyr, they gifted a burial coat and they celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the assassination in Hibiya Park in October 2010. Inejiro Asanuma at Find a Grave Factory that Che Guevara named after ex-Japan Socialist Party leader is still in operation in Cuba by The Mainichi Daily News, video of Inejiro Asanuma assassination on YouTube
Weegee was the pseudonym of Arthur Fellig, a photographer and photojournalist, known for his stark black and white street photography. Much of his work depicted unflinchingly realistic scenes of life, injury. Weegee published photographic books and worked in cinema, initially making his own films and collaborating with film directors such as Jack Donohue. Weegee was born Usher Fellig in Złoczów, near Lemberg in Austrian Galicia and his given name was changed to Arthur when he emigrated with his family to New York in 1909. There he took odd jobs, including working as an street photographer of children on his pony. In 1924 he was hired as a technician by Acme Newspictures. He left, however, in 1935 to become a freelance photographer, describing his beginnings, Weegee stated, In my particular case I didnt wait til somebody gave me a job or something, I went and created a job for myself—freelance photographer. And what I did, anybody else can do, what I did simply was this, I went down to Manhattan Police Headquarters and for two years I worked without a police card or any kind of credentials.
When a story came over a police teletype, I would go to it, the idea was I sold the pictures to the newspapers. And naturally, I picked a story that meant something and he worked at night and competed with the police to be first at the scene of a crime, selling his photographs to tabloids and photographic agencies. His photographs, centered around Manhattan police headquarters, were published by the Herald Tribune, World-Telegram, Daily News, New York Post, New York Journal American, Sun. In 1957, after developing diabetes, he moved in with Wilma Wilcox, a Quaker social worker whom he had known since the 1940s, and who cared for him and cared for his work. He traveled extensively in Europe until 1968, working for the Daily Mirror and on a variety of photography, lecture, on December 26,1968, Weegee died in New York at the age of 69. He is variously said to have named himself Weegee or to have been named by either the staff at Acme Newspictures or by a police officer, another version claims that the nickname originates from his work as a darkroom assistant, known as a squeegee boy.
He was a photographer with no formal photographic training. Weegee developed his photographs in a darkroom in the rear of his car. This provided an instantaneous result to his work that emphasized the nature of the tabloid industry, while Fellig would shoot a variety of subjects and individuals, he had a sense of what sold best, names make news. Theres a fight between a couple on Third Avenue or Ninth Avenue in Hells Kitchen, nobody cares
A shutter can be used to allow pulses of light to pass outwards, as seen in a movie projector or a signal lamp. A shutter of variable speed is used to control exposure time of the film, the shutter is so constructed that it automatically closes after a certain required time interval. The speed of the shutter is controlled by a ring outside the camera, focal-plane shutters are mounted near the focal plane and move to uncover the film or sensor. Behind-the-lens shutters were used in cameras with limited lens interchangeability. Shutters in front of the lens, sometimes simply a lens cap that is removed and replaced for the long exposures required, were used in the days of photography. Other mechanisms than the aperture and the sliding curtains have been used. The time for which a shutter remains open is determined by a timing mechanism and these were originally pneumatic or clockwork, but since the late twentieth century are mostly electronic. The reciprocal of time in seconds is often used for engraving shutter settings.
For example, a marking of 250 denotes 1/250 and this does not cause confusion in practice. The exposure time and the aperture of the lens must together be such as to allow the right amount of light to reach the film or sensor. Additionally, the time must be suitable to handle any motion of the subject. Usually it must be fast enough to freeze rapid motion, unless a controlled degree of motion blur is desired, most shutters have a flash synchronization switch to trigger a flash, if connected. This was quite a complicated matter with mechanical shutters and flashbulbs which took a time to reach full brightness. Special flashbulbs were designed which had a burn, illuminating the scene for the whole time taken by a focal plane shutter slit to move across the film. These problems were solved for non-focal-plane shutters with the advent of electronic flash units which fire virtually instantaneously. When using a focal-plane shutter with a flash, if the shutter is set at its X-sync speed or slower the whole frame will be exposed when the flash fires, some electronic flashes can produce a longer pulse compatible with a focal-plane shutter operated at much higher shutter speeds.
The focal-plane shutter will still impart focal-plane shutter distortions to a moving subject. Cinematography uses a rotary shutter in movie cameras, a continuously spinning disc which conceals the image with a reflex mirror during the intermittent motion between frame exposure
A press camera is a medium or large format view camera that was predominantly used by press photographers in the early to mid-20th century. It was largely replaced for press photography by 35mm film cameras in the 1960s, the quintessential press camera was the Speed Graphic. Press cameras are used as portable and rugged view cameras. The focal plane shutter allows for fast shutter speeds and the use of lenses which do not have an integral shutter, the Graphlex Speed Graphic models and the Ihagee Zweiverschluss Duplex are examples of press cameras that had both focal plane and iris shutters. The most common film size for press cameras was the 4×5 inch film format. Models have produced for the 2. 25×3.25 inch format,3. 25×4.25 inch format. European press cameras, such as the Goerz and Van Neck, used the 9x12cm format, in news photography, the press camera has been largely supplanted by the smaller formats of 120 film and 135 film, and more recently by digital cameras. The advantage of the 4x5 inch format over 35 mm format is that the size of the negative is 16 times that of a 35 mm film negative image.
Press cameras were largely superseded by the 6x6cm medium format Rolleiflex in the early to mid-1960s, the smaller formats gained acceptance as film technology advanced and quality of the smaller negatives was deemed acceptable by picture editors. The smaller cameras generally offered lenses with maximum apertures and by the nature of their smaller size, were easier to transport. Compared to view cameras, press cameras do not have the range of movements of the front standard. BeselerBeseler 4×5 Burke & James Press, Burke & James Inc
A photographer is a person who makes photographs. As in other arts, the definitions of amateur and professional are not entirely categorical, a professional photographer is likely to take photographs to make money, by salary or through the display, sale or use of those photographs. An amateur photographer may take photographs for pleasure and to record an event, place, as a person without a monetary motivation. A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a planned event such as a wedding or graduation. Others, including paparazzi and fine art photographers, are freelancers, first making a picture, some workers, such as crime scene detectives, estate agents and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are often called cinematographers, videographers or camera operators, an amateur may make considerable sums entering work in contests for prize money or through occasional inclusion of their work in magazines or the archive of a photo agency.
The term professional may imply preparation, for example, by academic study, Photographers are categorized based on the subjects they photograph. Some photographers explore subjects typical of such as landscape, still life. The exclusive right of photographers to copy and use their products is protected by copyright, countless industries purchase photographs for use in publications and on products. This is usually referred to as usage fee and is used to distinguish from production fees, an additional contract and royalty would apply for each additional use of the photograph. The contract may be for one year, or other duration. The photographer usually charges a royalty as well as a one-time fee, the contract may be for non-exclusive use of the photograph or for exclusive use of the photograph. The contract can stipulate that the photographer is entitled to audit the company for determination of royalty payments. A royalty is based on the size at which the photo will be used in a magazine or book.
Photos taken by a photographer working on assignment are often work for hire belonging to the company or publication unless stipulated otherwise by contract. There are major companies who have maintained catalogues of stock photography and images for decades, such as Getty Images, commercial photographers may promote their work to advertising and editorial art buyers via printed and online marketing vehicles. Many people upload their photographs to social networking websites and other websites and those interested in legal precision may explicitly release them to the public domain or under a free content license. Some sites, including Wikimedia Commons, are punctilious about licenses, the dictionary definition of photographer at Wiktionary Media related to Photographers at Wikimedia Commons
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper. It is the most widely circulated newspaper published in Washington, D. C. and was founded on December 6,1877 and its current slogan is Democracy Dies in Darkness. Located in the city of the United States, the newspaper has a particular emphasis on national politics. Daily editions are printed for the District of Columbia, the newspaper is published as a broadsheet, with photographs printed both in color and in black and white. The newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes and this includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, the second-highest number ever awarded to a single newspaper in one year, second only to The New York Times seven awards in 2002. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards, in years since, its investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In 2013, its owners, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to billionaire entrepreneur.
The newspaper is owned by Nash Holdings LLC, a holding company Bezos created for the acquisition, the Washington Post is generally regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its reporting on the workings of the White House, Congress. It is one of the two daily broadsheets published in Washington D. C. the other being its smaller rival The Washington Times, unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, the majority of its newsprint readership is in District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia. The Sunday Style section differs slightly from the weekday Style section, it is in a tabloid format, and it houses the reader-written humor contest The Style Invitational. Additional weekly sections appear on weekdays, Health & Science on Tuesday, Food on Wednesday, Local Living on Thursday, the latter two are in a tabloid format.
In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of a focus on. political stories. The newspaper has bureaus in Maryland and Virginia. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily, for many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW. This real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos Nash Holdings in 2013, Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW, in May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima is a photograph taken on February 23,1945, by Joe Rosenthal. It depicts six United States Marines raising a U. S. flag atop Mount Suribachi, the photograph was first published in Sunday newspapers on February 25,1945. It was extremely popular and was reprinted in thousands of publications, three Marines depicted in the photograph, Sergeant Michael Strank, Corporal Harlon Block, and Private First Class Franklin Sousley were killed in action over the next few days. The three surviving flag-raisers were Corporals Rene Gagnon, Ira Hayes, and Harold Schultz who first received Marine Corps recognition in June 2016, the original mold is located on the Marine Military Academy grounds, a private college preparatory academy located in Harlingen, Texas. On February 19,1945, the United States military forces invaded Iwo Jima as part of its strategy to defeat Japan. Iwo Jima originally was not a target, but the quick fall of the Philippines left the Americans with a longer-than-expected lull prior to the planned invasion of Okinawa.
The Americans, after capturing the island, weakened the Japanese early warning system, Iwo Jima is a volcanic island, shaped like a trapezoid. Marines on the island described it as a large, gray pork chop, the island was heavily fortified, and the invading United States Marines suffered high casualties. The island is dominated by Mount Suribachi, a 546-foot dormant volcanic cone situated on the tip of the island. Politically, the island is part of the prefecture of Tokyo and it would be the first Japanese homeland soil to be captured by the Americans, and it was a matter of honor for the Japanese to prevent its capture. Tactically, the top of Suribachi is one of the most important locations on the island, from that vantage point, the Japanese defenders were able to spot artillery accurately onto the Americans – particularly the landing beaches. The Japanese fought most of the battle from underground bunkers and pillboxes, the American effort concentrated on isolating and capturing Suribachi first, a goal that was achieved on February 23,1945, four days after the battle began.
Despite capturing Suribachi, the continued to rage for many days. A U. S. flag was first raised atop Mount Suribachi soon after the mountaintop was captured at around 10,20 on February 23,1945. Before the climb up, Lt. Col. Johnson had taken the 54-by-28-inch/140-by-71-centimeter flag from the transport ship, USS Missoula. Johnson said to Schrier, If you get to the top, Lt. Schrier assembled the patrol at 8 AM to begin the climb up the mountain. Seeing the raising of the national colors immediately caused a loud cheering reaction from the Marines, the loud noise made by the servicemen and blasts of the ship horns, alerted the Japanese, who up to this point had stayed in their cave bunkers. Schrier and his men near the flagstaff on top of Mt. Suribachi found themselves under fire from Japanese troops, but the Marines quickly eliminated the threat
Barbara Morgan (photographer)
Barbara Morgan was an American photographer best known for her depictions of modern dancers. She was a co-founder of the photography magazine Aperture, Morgan’s drawings, prints and paintings were exhibited widely in California in the 1920s, and in New York and Philadelphia in the 1930s. Barbara Brooks Johnson was born on July 8,1900 in Buffalo and her family moved to the West Coast that same year and she grew up on a Southern California peach ranch. Her art training at UCLA, from 1919 to 1923, was based on Arthur Wesley Dows principles of art “synthesis. ”Abstract design was parallel to figurative drawing and painting. Art history was taught with significant emphasis on the primitive, while a student, Johnson she read from the Chinese Six Canons of Painting, about “rhythmic vitality”, or essence of life force, described as the artist’s goal of expression. This concept related directly to her father’s teaching that all things are made of “dancing atoms, ”, Johnson joined the faculty at UCLA in 1925, and became an advocate for modern art when many of her colleagues were oriented to a more traditional approach to art.
She exhibited her drawings and watercolors throughout California, in 1929, Los Angeles Times critic Arthur Miller wrote, “One of the finest sets of prints in the show is that by Barbara Morgan, and these chance to be the most abstract works here. … Miss Morgan serves it with a sauce that is not produced in a casual kitchen. So abstract has she become that we see her taking hints from Kandinsky, arch abstractionist of them all. ”In the same year, Prudence Wollet of the Los Angeles Times wrote, “For out and out independence, Barbara Morgan has taken the most liberties yet… I contend that this experimenter bears watching. ”In 1925, Barbara Johnson married Willard D. Morgan, a writer who illustrated his articles with his own photographs. Barbara assisted Willard in photographing the modern architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright and Richard Neutra, Willard saw the importance of photography, which he claimed to be the real modern art of the twentieth century. Barbara continued to paint, feeling that photography was only as record.
”In 1927. Weston’s rich, brilliant prints of Californian and Mexican subject matter “rang the bell” for her when she was hanging this show at UCLA, in 1935, she gave birth to her son, Douglas O. Morgan. He married noted photographer Liliane de Cock, every summer when classes were over and Barbara loaded their car, with painting and photography equipment and headed for the desert. Barbara painted as much as possible for winter exhibits and helped Willard photograph for articles, Willard had two Model A Leicas, with which the couple photographed each other in cliff ruins, climbing Rainbow Bridge, in the Hopi mesas and canyons. The resulting photographs were among the first 35mm images to appear in American magazines illustrating Willards articles, morgans Southwest experiences were deeply influential to her. The stratification of Grand Canyon and Monument Valley attuned her to geologic time, the Navajo and Pueblo Indian tribes through ritual dance displayed their “partnership in the cosmic process” and connected her to a universal primal.
In response to Willards Leica-illustrated articles, E. Leitz, Inc. offered him a job publicizing the new 35mm camera, and the couple moved to New York City in the summer of 1930. After one year traveling the east with Willard, Barbara set up a studio in 1931 on 23rd street opposite Washington Square Park in New York City
Yasushi Nagao was a Japanese Pulitzer Prize-winning press photographer. Nagao is best known for his photograph of Otoya Yamaguchi assassinating Japanese Socialist Party politician Inejiro Asanuma, at the time Nagao was a cameraman working for Mainichi Shimbun, Hisatake Abo, Nagaos picture editor, told Nagao to cover a debate at Hibiya Hall. As Yamaguchi challenged Asanuma, Nagao changed the focus to fifteen feet from ten feet, Nagao won the 1961 Pulitzer Prize and the 1960 World Press Photo of the Year award. The second award allowed Nagao to travel widely, impossible for most Japanese people at the time. Nagao left the newspaper in 1962 and became a freelance photographer, Nagao was discovered collapsed in his bathroom on May 2,2009. It is believed he died of natural causes, great News Photos and the Stories Behind Them