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A speedometer or a speed meter is a gauge that measures and displays the instantaneous speed of a vehicle. Now universally fitted to motor vehicles, they started to be available as options in the 1900s, as standard equipment from about 1910 onwards. Speedometers for other vehicles use other means of sensing speed. For a boat, this is a pit log. For an aircraft, this is an airspeed indicator. Charles Babbage is credited with creating an early type of a speedometer, fitted to locomotives; the electric speedometer was invented by the Croatian Josip Belušić in 1888 and was called a velocimeter. Patented by Otto Schultze on 7 October 1902, it uses a rotating flexible cable driven by gearing linked to the output of the vehicle's transmission; the early Volkswagen Beetle and many motorcycles, use a cable driven from a front wheel. When the vehicle is in motion, a speedometer gear assembly turns a speedometer cable, which turns the speedometer mechanism itself. A small permanent magnet affixed to the speedometer cable interacts with a small aluminum cup attached to the shaft of the pointer on the analogue speedometer instrument.

As the magnet rotates near the cup, the changing magnetic field produces eddy current in the cup, which themselves produce another magnetic field. The effect is that the magnet exerts a torque on the cup, "dragging" it, thus the speedometer pointer, in the direction of its rotation with no mechanical connection between them; the pointer shaft is held toward zero by a fine torsion spring. The torque on the cup increases with the speed of rotation of the magnet, thus an increase in the speed of the car will twist the cup and speedometer pointer against the spring. The cup and pointer will turn until the torque of the eddy currents on the cup are balanced by the opposing torque of the spring, stop. Given the torque on the cup is proportional to the car's speed, the spring's deflection is proportional to the torque, the angle of the pointer is proportional to the speed, so that spaced markers on the dial can be used for gaps in speed. At a given speed, the pointer will remain motionless and pointing to the appropriate number on the speedometer's dial.

The return spring is calibrated such that a given revolution speed of the cable corresponds to a specific speed indication on the speedometer. This calibration must take into account several factors, including ratios of the tailshaft gears that drive the flexible cable, the final drive ratio in the differential, the diameter of the driven tires. One of the key disadvantages of the eddy current speedometer is that it cannot show the vehicle speed when running in reverse gear since the cup would turn in the opposite direction – in this scenario the needle would be driven against its mechanical stop pin on the zero position. Many modern speedometers are electronic. In designs derived from earlier eddy-current models, a rotation sensor mounted in the transmission delivers a series of electronic pulses whose frequency corresponds to the rotational speed of the driveshaft, therefore the vehicle's speed, assuming the wheels have full traction; the sensor is a set of one or more magnets mounted on the output shaft or differential crownwheel, or a toothed metal disk positioned between a magnet and a magnetic field sensor.

As the part in question turns, the magnets or teeth pass beneath the sensor, each time producing a pulse in the sensor as they affect the strength of the magnetic field it is measuring. Alternatively,particularly in vehicles with multiplex wiring, some manufacturers use the pulses coming from the ABS wheel sensors which communicate to the instrument panel via the CAN Bus. Most modern electronic speedometers have the additional ability over the eddy current type to show the vehicle speed when moving in reverse gear. A computer converts the pulses to a speed and displays this speed on an electronically controlled, analog-style needle or a digital display. Pulse information is used for a variety of other purposes by the ECU or full-vehicle control system, e.g. triggering ABS or traction control, calculating average trip speed, or to increment the odometer in place of it being turned directly by the speedometer cable. Another early form of electronic speedometer relies upon the interaction between a precision watch mechanism and a mechanical pulsator driven by the car's wheel or transmission.

The watch mechanism endeavors to push the speedometer pointer toward zero, while the vehicle-driven pulsator tries to push it toward infinity. The position of the speedometer pointer reflects the relative magnitudes of the outputs of the two mechanisms. Typical bicycle speedometers measure the time between each wheel revolution, give a readout on a small, handlebar-mounted digital display; the sensor is mounted on the bike at a fixed location, pulsing when the spoke-mounted magnet passes by. In this way, it is analogous to an electronic car speedometer using pulses from an ABS sensor, but with a much cruder time/distance resolution – one pulse/display update per revolution, or as as once every 2–3 seconds at low speed with a 26-inch wheel. However, this is a critical problem, the system provides frequent updates at higher road speeds where the information is of more importance; the low pulse frequency has little impact on measurement accuracy, as these digital devices can be programmed by wheel size, or additionally by wheel or tire circumference in order to make distance measurements more accurate and precise than a typical motor vehicle gauge.

However these devices carry some minor disadvantage in requiring power from batteries that must be replaced every so in the rece

Arthur Rawson Ashwell

Arthur Rawson Ashwell was a canon residentiary of Chichester and principal of the Theological College, Chichester. Ashwell was born at Chelsea. In 1843 he entered Trinity College, but migrated to Caius College in 1845, being elected a foundation scholar there the following year. In 1847 he graduated BA as fifteenth wrangler, in 1848 he received holy orders, became curate of Speldhurst, Kent. In the following year he returned to Cambridge as curate of St. Mary the Less, in order that he might study theology under the direction of Professor Blunt. In 1851 he was appointed vice-principal of St. Mark's College, in 1853 through the instrumentality of Canon Butler of Wantage, he was appointed by Bishop Wilberforce principal of the newly founded Oxford Diocesan Training College at Culham. Here he remained for several years, besides his work in the college, assisted the bishop in organising a system of diocesan inspection. In 1862 his health compelled him to retire to lighter work, for two years he was minister of Holy Trinity Church, Conduit Street, Hanover Square.

The fame of his success at Durham led Bishop Durnford, an entire stranger to him, to offer him in 1870 the principalship of the Theological College, with a canonry attached, he held for a short time the rectory of St. Martin's, that of St. Andrew's, in that city. Canon Ashwell was active in literature. In 1864 Ashwell became editor of the Literary Churchman, which office he held for twelve years, when he became editor of the Church Quarterly Review, a little while before his death he resumed the editorship of the Literary Churchman. To both these periodicals he was a regular contributor, he was a contributor to the third series of Tracts for the Christian Seasons. Ashwell was in great request as a preacher in his own cathedral and elsewhere, he was, moreover, a frequent reader and speaker at church congresses, an effective conductor of mission services. It is no wonder that his constitution was impaired by this excessive work, that he succumbed to an attack of congestion of the lungs, which prematurely cut short a most active and useful life on 23 October 1879.

A window and a lectern in Chichester Cathedral perpetuate his memory in a spot of which he had been a distinguished ornament. Ashwell achieved reputation as a writer, a preacher, a teacher; some of his periodical essays excited much attention. His articles upon Dr. Farrar's Life of Christ in the second number of the Church Quarterly Review, upon the State of the Church in the July number of the Quarterly Review, 1874, excited much interest, his article on Samuel Wilberforce in the April number, 1874, of the same Review was the main cause of his being asked to write the bishop's life. His longest consecutive work was the first volume of the Life of Bishop Wilberforce; as a preacher Ashwell was acceptable among the more thoughtful and educated congregations. His little volume of printed sermons, entitled God in Nature, is full of striking and original ideas, expressed tersely and incisively, evidently with a view to arrest or force attention; as a trainer, first of future schoolmasters, of future clergy, Ashwell made his influence felt.

His clear, epigrammatic style was the style to command the attention of young men. He was a strict disciplinarian, the kindest of friends and counsellors to all pupils who sought his aid in confidence, as many of them have testified to the present writer. Canon Ashwell was a staunch and definite English churchman. Besides the writings mentioned, he published'The Schoolmaster's Studies','The Argument against Evening Communions','Lectures on the Holy Catholic Church', and'Septuagesima Lectures', all small works. In 1854 Ashwell married Elizabeth Fixsen, of Blackheath. Sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Overton, John Henry. "Ashwell, Arthur Rawson". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 2. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 183–184

Celestia (band)

Celestia was a black metal band from Avignon, formed in 1995 by Noktu. Noktu was the only consistent member of the band. Celestia disbanded in 2015. Celestia remained in the demo stage until around 1999 when they released the EP "A Cave Full of Bats" through Drakkar Productions with a line-up consisting of Noktu and Fureïss/Franck. A few more demos, split albums and a live album were done before they released their first full-length album "Apparitia - Sumptuous Spectre" through Full Moon Productions with the drummer Astreyla added to the line-up; the two main members of Celestia were Fureïss. Fureïss was the only guitarist for Celestia from 1998 to 2005, i.e. from the promo tape « A Dying Out Ecstasy » until the second mix of the 2002 album « Apparitia Sumptuous Spectre » in 2005 and he composed half the songs and arranged and recorded all the tracks on Celestia during this time. The current line-up is Ghaast. With the drummer Astreyla, who left the band, they recorded Celestia's second album "Frigidiis Apotheosia: Abstinencia Genesiis" released in 2008 through Apparitia records and keeping the same minimalistic black metal sound.

Malefic, a guest on the album added some keyboards to the music. Nowadays, various session drummers and guitarists are brought in for rehearsals and live shows. Noktu owns a record label called Drakkar Productions, on which he released some of The Black Legions albums. Noktu played in the band Mortifera, doing guitar and vocals, while Neige handled the drums, half of the vocals and composed tracks such as "Ciel Brouillé" and "Le Revenant". Mortifera has the same sound as Celestia; as well, Noktu has played in Genocide Kommando and Gestapo 666. "Evanescence" demo "A Dying Out Ecstasy" demo "Infected by Rats" demo "The Awakening of the Dormant Fiancée" demo "Pourriture et Vermine" demo "Dead Insecta Sequestration" demo "Delhÿs-cätess" demo "A Cave Full of Bats" EP "Spectra" 7" single "Evoking Grace and Splendour" 7" single "Apparitia - Sumptuous Spectre" Full Moon Productions "Frigidiis Apotheosia: Abstinencia Genesiis" Paragon Records "Archaenae Perfectii" Apparitia Recordings "Under the Reign of Terror and Tyranny" live album Split with Draugwath Split with Inferno "French-Southern Black Metal War" split with Evil "Darkness Enfold the Sky/Black Slaughterization" split with Goatfire "A Cave Full of Bats" best of "Crucified Dead Flesh" "Dead Insecta Sequestraton" Hemery, Mikael.

"Celestia Interview". Celtmik Metal Zine. Archived from the original on 2007-08-18. Retrieved 2008-10-23. Kalis, Quentin. "Music Is Magic Not Maths". Chronicles of Chaos. Retrieved 2008-10-23. Thrazar, Iormungand. "Drakkar Productions Interview". Guts of Darkness. Retrieved 2008-10-23. "Celestia Interview". Metallian. Meylan, France: Metallian Editions. March 2007. ISSN 1249-2396. Official Celestia website Celestia MySpace Homepage Celestia on Encyclopaedia Metallum

List of bridges in the United States by height

This is a list of the highest bridges in the United States by height over land or water. Height in this list refers to the distance from the bridge deck to the lowest point on the land, or the water surface, directly below. A bridge's deck height is greater than its clearance below, measured from the bottom of the deck structure, with the difference being equal to the thickness of the deck structure at the point with the greatest clearance below. Official figures for a bridge's height are provided only for the clearance below, so those figures may be used instead of actual deck height measurements. For bridges that span tidal water, the clearance below is measured at the average high water level; the minimum height for inclusion in this list is 130 ft, which may be either the deck height or the clearance below depending on available references. Note that the following types of bridges are not included in this list: demolished high bridges; the clearance below required under bridges for the largest ships—container ships, ocean liners and cruise ships—is around 220 feet so there are bridges with that height located in coastal cities with bays or inlets, such as New York City's Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge.

The ten highest bridges in the United States: Transport portal Engineering portal United States portal List of highest bridges List of longest bridges List of tallest bridges

BOH (drug)

BOH known as 3,4-methylenedioxy-β-methoxyphenethylamine, is a drug of the phenethylamine class. It is the β-methoxy analog of methylenedioxyphenethylamine and is more distantly related to methylone. On account of its similarity to norepinephrine, the effects of BOH may be of a purely adrenergic nature. BOH was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. In his book PiHKAL, the dosage range is listed as 80–120 mg, the duration listed as 6–8 hours. Shulgin reports that BOH causes slight warmth, anorexia, mild nausea, cold feet, with no psychedelic, entactogen, or euphoriant effects, he gives it a ++ on the Shulgin Rating Scale. Little is known about the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicity of BOH; this substance is a Class A drug in the Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act. BOB BOD BOHD MDMA MDPEA Methylone

Thornton Manor

Thornton Manor is a large manor house in the village of Thornton Hough, Merseyside, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building; the house was first built in the middle of the 19th century and has been altered and extended in a number of phases since. From 1888 to the end of the 20th century the house was occupied by the Viscounts Leverhulme; the land on which the house stands was owned by the Mostyn family of North Wales. The land was bought in 1849 by a solicitor, it is thought that he built the manor house. In 1863 Potts sold the house and land to Thomas Brittain Forwood, a businessman who died in 1884, his son, Sir William Forwood, chairman of Liverpool Overhead Railway, let the house to William Lever, builder of the soap factory and model village at Port Sunlight, in 1888. Thornton Manor became the home of the Viscount Leverhulmes. William Lever bought the house in 1893 and lived here from 1888 until 1919, retaining ownership until his death in 1925.

Lever started on a series of additions soon after his purchase. The architect Jonathan Simpson made some minor alterations but the first major work was designed by the Chester firm Douglas and Fordham in about 1896; this was in Elizabethan style. In 1899 stables designed by J. J. Talbot were built and around this time a kitchen and service quarters designed by Grayson and Ould were added. In 1902 a music room followed designed by Talbot, this formed a new block to the northeast of the main block. Two years a temporary ballroom was built, converted into a swimming pool. A porch was added to the south front in 1906, changing the main entrance to the house from the west to the south. A gatehouse designed by J. Lomax-Simpson was built in 1910. In 1913 a major reconstruction of the house took place when Elizabethan-style wings were added to the west side of the house. Lomax-Simpson was again the architect. In the process of the reconstruction, most of the work designed by Douglas and Fordham was demolished, leaving from their design only two shaped gables and semicircular bay windows.

Plans for further enlargement of the house were prepared by Lomax-Simpson, but these were not built because of the intervention of the First World War. The 1st Viscount Leverhulme died in 1925 and the house was inherited by his son, William Hulme Lever, 2nd Viscount Leverhulme, he died in the house passed to his son, Philip Lever, 3rd Viscount Leverhulme. Philip Lever died in 2000 and the following year the house was sold with planning permission to convert it into a hotel; the house contents sale broke the UK record by raising £10 million in 2001. The house is built in stone with slate roofs, it has an irregular plan. The entrance front has protruding wings on both sides. Behind the house, at an angle towards the northeast, is the wing containing the music room; the windows are mullioned and a number of them are in canted, two-storey bays. The stables extend to the northwest; the park was first laid out during Forwood's ownership. It included a small summer house and a bridge; the gardens as they now are were planned by the 1st Viscount.

The kitchen garden contains a loggia dated 1912, there is another loggia to the southeast of the house. To the northeast of the house is a structure known as The Lookout, designed in 1896 by Douglas and Fordham. A lake lies to the west of the house. A system of tree-lined avenues was laid out in 1912–14 by Lomax-Simpson, has a total length of about 5 miles; the Manor House is now owned and is avaiable to hire for weddings and events. British Prime Minister Boris Johnson and Irish Taoiseach Leo Varadkar held private talks at Thornton Manor on 10 October 2019 in relation to Brexit. Grade II* listed buildings in Merseyside Listed buildings in Thornton Hough List of houses and associated buildings by John Douglas List of works by Grayson and Ould