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Spelman College

Spelman College is a private, liberal arts, women's college in Atlanta, United States. The college is part of the Atlanta University Center academic consortium in Atlanta. Founded in 1881 as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary, Spelman received its collegiate charter in 1924, making it America's oldest private black liberal arts college for women; the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary was established on April 11, 1881 in the basement of Friendship Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia, by two teachers from the Oread Institute of Worcester, Massachusetts: Harriet E. Giles and Sophia B. Packard. Giles and Packard had met while Giles was a student, Packard the preceptress, of the New Salem Academy in New Salem and fostered a lifelong friendship there; the two of them traveled to Atlanta to found a school for black freedwomen, found support from Frank Quarles, the pastor of Friendship Baptist Church. Giles and Packard began the school with 11 African-American women and $100 given to them by the First Baptist Church in Medford, Massachusetts.

And a promise of further support from the Women's American Baptist Home Missionary Society, a group with which they were both affiliated in Boston. Although their first students were illiterate, they envisioned their school to be a liberal arts institution – the first circular of the college stated that they planned to offer "algebra, essays, rhetoric, political economy, mental philosophy, botany, Constitution of the United States, zoology, moral philosophy, evidences of Christianity". Over time, they attracted more students; the WABHMS made a down payment on a nine-acre site in Atlanta close to the church they began in, which had five buildings left from a Union Civil War encampment, to support classroom and residence hall needs. In 1882 the two women returned to Massachusetts to bid for more money and were introduced to wealthy Northern Baptist businessman John D. Rockefeller at a church conference in Ohio. Rockefeller was impressed by Packard's vision. In April 1884, Rockefeller visited the school.

By this time, the seminary had 16 faculty members. It was surviving on generous donations by the black community in Atlanta, the efforts of volunteer teachers, gifts of supplies. Rockefeller was so impressed. Rockefeller's Laura Spelman Rockefeller; the Spelmans were longtime activists in the abolitionist movement. Thus, in 1884 the name of the school was changed to the Spelman Seminary in honor of Laura Spelman, John D. Rockefeller's wife, her parents, who were longtime activists in the anti-slavery movement. Rockefeller donated the funds for what is the oldest building on campus, Rockefeller Hall, constructed in 1886. Packard was appointed as Spelman's first president in 1888, after the charter for the seminary was granted. Packard died in 1891, Giles assumed the presidency until her death in 1909; the years 1910 to 1953 saw great transition for the seminary. Upon Giles' death, Lucy Hale Tapley became president. Although the college was a stride in and of itself, at the time, neither the founders nor the current administration had interest in challenging the status quo of young women as responsible for the family and the home.

Tapley declared: "Any course of study which fails to cultivate a taste and fitness for practical and efficient work in some part of the field of the world's needs is unpopular at Spelman and finds no place in our curriculum." The nursing curriculum was strengthened. The Granddaughters' Club, a club for students whose mothers and aunts had attended Spelman was created, this club is still in existence today. In 1927, Spelman Baptist Seminary became Spelman College. Florence Matilda Read assumed the presidency in 1927. Shortly thereafter, Spelman entered into an "agreement of affiliation" with nearby Morehouse College and Atlanta University by chartering the Atlanta University Center in 1929. Atlanta University was to provide graduate education for students, whereas Morehouse and Spelman were responsible for the undergraduate education. At a time during which black students were denied access to graduate studies at predominantly white southern research universities, access to Atlanta University allowed the undergraduate students at Morehouse and Spelman immediate access to graduate training.

In 1927, one of the most important buildings on campus, Sisters Chapel, was dedicated. The chapel was named for its primary benefactors, sisters Laura Spelman Rockefeller and Lucy Maria Spelman; the college had begun to see an improvement in extracurricular investment in the arts, with the organization of the Spelman College Glee Club in 1925, inauguration of the much-loved Atlanta tradition of the annual Spelman-Morehouse Christmas Carol Concert and smaller events such as the spring orchestra and chorus concert, the Atlanta University Summer Theater, the University Players, a drama organization for AUC students. The school began to see more of a focus on collegiate education, as it discontinued its elementary and high school divisions. In 1930 the Spelman Nursery School was created as a training center

Nelson Wheeler Whipple House

The Nelson Wheeler Whipple House is an adobe house in Salt Lake City, United States built in 1854. Whipple was born in Ssnford, New York in 1818, converting to Mormonism in 1844 and moving to Nauvoo, Illinois. After fleeing Nauvoo in 1846, Whipple lived in Garden Grove, Iowa until 1850, when he and his family moved to Salt Lake City. There he acquired two more wives and 17 children, providing wood shingles for the Mormon Tabernacle and keeping a diary that has become an important historical resource; the Whipple House measures about 28 feet by two stories high, containing twelve rooms. The adobe is covered with a Federal-style entrance and a gabled roof, it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on September 26, 1979. National Register of Historic Places portal National Register of Historic Places listings in Salt Lake City Media related to Nelson Wheeler Whipple House at Wikimedia Commons Historic American Buildings Survey No. UT-100, "Nelson Wheeler Whipple House, 564 West 400 North, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT", 2 measured drawings, 2 data pages

Otic vesicle

Otic vesicle, or auditory vesicle, consists of either of the two sac-like invaginations formed and subsequently closed off during embryonic development. It is part of the neural ectoderm, which will develop into the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear; this labyrinth is a continuous epithelium, giving rise to the vestibular system and auditory components of the inner ear. During the earlier stages of embryogenesis, the otic placode invaginates to produce the otic cup. Thereafter, the otic cup closes off. Once formed, the otic vesicle will reside next to the neural tube medially, on the lateral side will be paraxial mesoderm. Neural crest cells will migrate caudal to the placode; the general sequence in formation of the otic vesicle is conserved across vertebrates, although there is much variation in timing and stages. Patterning during morphogenesis into the distinctive inner ear structures is determined by homeobox transcription factors including PAX2, DLX5 and DLX6, with the former specifying for ventral otic vesicle derived auditory structures and the latter two specifying for dorsal vestibular structures.

The otic vesicle is derived from the cranial placode. The early otic vesicle is characterized as having broad competence and can be subdivided into sensory, non-sensory, neurogenic components. Sensory epithelial cells and neurons are derived from the proneurosensory domain; this domain can be prosensory sub-domain. Prosensory sub-domain gives rise to the support cells and hair cells while the neurogenic sub-domain gives rise to the auditory neuron and vestibular neuron; the middle part of the otic vesicle develops into the saccus endolymphaticus. The anterior end of the otic vesicle elongates as a tube and coils upon itself forming the beginnings of the cochlear duct; the vestibular extremity subsequently constricts to form the canalis reuniens. The central part of the otic vesicle represents the membranous vestibule, is subdivided by a constriction into a smaller ventral part, the saccule, a larger dorsal and posterior part, the utricle; the dorsal component of the inner ear consists of what will become the semicircular canals.

The utricle and saccule communicate with each other by means of a Y-shaped canal. The FGF, Bmp and Pax genes are to be involved in otic induction. FGF and BMP signals help control patterning in the early otic vesicle. Fgf3 and Fgf10 are suggested to play a role in otic induction in mice, as were Msx genes suggested to play a role in otic vesicle formation in chicks. Pax8 is expressed during the entirety of otic vesicle formation. Other genes found in the otic vesicle across species that may play a role in patterning include Hmx, Fox and Gbx genes. Formation of the otic vesicle has been studied extensively in developmental model organisms including chicken, zebrafish and mouse; the transition from the otic placode to the otic vesicle occurs during the 19th somite stage in Zebrafish and chick. In chick, invagination of the otic placode occurs passively due to the movements of the surrounding placode; the otic placode in zebrafish, on the other hand, occurs by cavitation. Otic vesicle formation occurs during the 25-30 somite stage in mice

Benjamin Bradley (inventor)

Benjamin Bradley was an American engineer and inventor. Benjamin's correct surname was Boardley, but since 1859 when the African Repository published an article wrongly spelling Benjamin's surname as Bradley, authors have written about him with the incorrect surname. Benjamin Bradley was born a slave in Anne Arundel County, Maryland in March 1836, it has been theorized. According to the Maryland State Manumission records, Bradley's owner was John T. Hammond; as a teenager, Bradley worked at a printing office. He showed ingenuity and mechanical skills by the age of 16, when he built a steam engine out of a gun barrel, round steel, other various materials, his master was impressed and was able to get him a job as a helper in the Department of Natural and Experimental Philosophy at the Naval Academy at Annapolis. At the U. S. Naval Academy, Bradley worked as a helper. According to the African Repository of 1859, he was paid in full for his work, but the money he had made went to his master, who allowed Bradley to keep five dollars a month for himself.

As a helper at the academy, Bradley helped set up science experiments. It is mentioned that his professors at the Naval Academy were impressed with him. Professor Hopkins of the Naval Academy wrote about Bradley's work as a helper at the Academy, writing that he would set up experiments, that he was a quick learner and that "he looks for the law by which things act." Professor Hopkins's children taught Bradley how to write as well as do math. During his time at the Naval Academy, Bradley built a steam engine and sold it to the a "Midshipmen". With the money he had made from selling the steam engine and the money that he had saved while working at the Naval Academy, he developed and built a steam engine large enough to run the first "cutter of a sloop-of-war" that could exceed up to 16 knots an hour, he sold this model engine to another classmate at the Naval Academy and used the proceeds to develop and build the "first steam-powered warship."Because he was a slave, Bradley was not allowed to get a patent for the engine he developed.

He was, able to sell the engine. He used the proceeds, plus the money given to him by professors at the Naval Academy, to buy his freedom for $1,000. According to the Maryland State Manumission records, Bradley was manumitted from his owner, John T. Hammond, on September 30, 1859 in the County of Anne Arundel, Maryland. During the Civil War, the U. S. Naval Academy was relocated to Rhode Island. According to the African Repository Aug. 1865, Bradley was employed as a freeman at the U. S. Naval Academy in Rhode Island and worked under Prof. A. W. Smith. There Bradley continued his work on constructing small steam engines and continued to show his ingenious mechanical skills, he worked as an instructor in the Philosophical Department at the Naval Academy in 1864. He was credited at designing and constructing a "miniature steam-engine and boiler about 6-fly power." According to the 1900 U. S. Census, Bradley was 64 years old and living in Massachusetts, his occupation was described as a "philosophical lecturer".

The Census indicated that he was married to Gertrude Boardley for 19 years, they had three children together. Bradley is buried at the Mashpee Town Cemetery in Massachusetts. Benjamin Bradley, Black Inventor's On-Line Museum

Korala Associates Limited

KAL is a company specialising in ATM software for bank ATMs, self-service kiosks, bank branch networks. All KAL products are Windows-compliant and conform to the industry XFS standard. KAL is the world's number two supplier of true multivendor ATM software. KAL supplies its software to major global banks including China Construction Bank and UniCredit; the company was established in 1989 by Dr. Aravinda Korala. KAL is headquartered in Scotland. KAL has office locations elsewhere in the UK, plus in the US, India, Japan and Australia. In 2011 KAL won the Queen’s Award for Enterprise in the International Trade category. KAL's major product is self-service software for kiosks. In 2012, KAL introduced the RTM; the RTM dispenses vouchers instead of cash meaning banks can operate in inaccessible areas while still offering the complete feature set of an ATM. KAL was the first ATM software company to deliver its products certified for Microsoft Windows 8 – just one week after the new operating system was launched by Microsoft in November 2012.

KAL is a participatory member of the ATM and self-service industry and belongs to the following industry associations and standards: Product suite conformed to the WOSA 1.11 industry standard in 1995 The Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council Membership of ATM Industry Association Official KAL site Official RTM site

Shocker (comics)

Shocker is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Herman Schultz is a career criminal who, after several prison terms for robbery, built a battle suit that sent out shock waves to open safes as well as give him a significant advantage over the police, his criminal career as the self-styled "Shocker" put him in direct conflict with the superhero Spider-Man, belonging to his rogues gallery. The character has been featured in various media adaptations, such as feature films, television series and video games; the character made his cinematic debut in Spider-Man: Homecoming portrayed by Bokeem Woodbine set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. The character first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #46 and was created by writer Stan Lee and artist John Romita Sr, he appeared as a regular character in Thunderbolts from issue #157 to 162, when he deserted the team. He was one of the main characters in "The Superior Foes of Spider-man" comic series. Herman Schultz was born in New York City.

He was a high school dropout who had brilliant talents as an engineer. Instead of using such talents to gain legitimate employment, he became a successful burglar and the world's best safe-cracker. After being caught and incarcerated for his crimes, he developed a pair of gauntlets designed to shoot air blasts, vibrating at high frequency. Schultz uses his gauntlets to escape from prison and becomes the supervillain known as "The Shocker", he defeats Spider-Man in their first confrontation during a robbery. While robbing a bank, he was beaten and sent back to prison after Spider-Man pinned Schultz's thumbs away from the gauntlets' triggers with the webbing and knocked him out. Shocker stole an ancient stone tablet with an inscription for a formula that could restore youth, earlier stolen by the Kingpin. Schultz's most ambitious solo exploit was his attempt to hold New York City for ransom by blacking out various electrical grids to spell out his name, extort one million dollars from the city.

He made one million dollars by harassing a stock broker. Shocker joined Egghead's Masters of Evil to incriminate Dr. Henry Pym on trial for treason; the Masters battled the Avengers in this encounter. Shocker was hired by the Nazi war criminal Baron Von Lundt to kill Dominic Fortune, built the vibro-shock units into his entire uniform to do so. Shocker was hired by the Hammerhead to induce Electro to join their organization. Shocker attempted to steal thousands of charity dollars at the celebrity fund raiser for the New York City Library. He's sent to prison, he escapes with the help of fellow inmate Boomerang. By this time, he's developed severe confidence issues and has become terrified that the Scourge of the Underworld is going to kill him. A tipping point occurs when Spider-Man seems to not take him seriously. Enraged, Shocker defeats Spider-Man and is about to finish him off when a Scourge imposter intervenes, causing Shocker to flee; when he next appeared his confidence issues are gone. He aims to kill him first.

Shocker has proven to be a constant presence among Spider-Man's gallery of enemies. He works as a member of a team or in partnership with at least one other villain. Previous alliances include Boomerang, the Beetle, Leila Davis, Hydro-Man, Speed Demon, the Trapster and Jack O'Lantern, he teamed up with a large group of villains during the Acts of Vengeance, when he helped them unsuccessfully attack the Fantastic Four. During one of his team-ups with Doctor Octopus, he participated in a raid on Avengers Mansion, hoping to help conquer it as the heroes were distracted by the events of the Infinity War. Shocker was forced to fight alongside the heroes called the Guardians of the Galaxy when alien doubles of both sides attacked. After the doubles stopped coming, Doctor Octopus tried to order Shocker and the others to continue fighting the heroes but instead, they turned on Doctor Octopus, they did not wish to harm the people. Shocker helped chase Doctor Octopus out of the building. At one point in his career, Shocker became paranoid that he was on the Scourge of the Underworld's hit list though there was no actual proof that he was.

He thus started seeking ways to become more powerful, hoping to thwart any attempt on his life by the vigilante group. Shocker somehow acquired actual superhuman vibration powers; as he becomes more powerful, he realizes that the new powers will kill him. He is aided by Night Thrasher and Spider-Man. Shocker has had Spider-Man on the ropes on several occasions, with timely interventions saving Spider-Man. Individuals thwarting Shocker's victories over Spider-Man include security guards, Dominic Fortune, a Scourge of the Underworld impostor. Shocker has let Spider-Man go on a few occasions, the first being when he found Spider-Man incapacitated with a bout of vertigo on the outside of a tall building, he doesn't kill Spider-Man, thinking it an unworthy end, but doesn't help him eith