Football in Italy
Football is the most popular sport in Italy. The Italian national football team is considered to be one of the best national teams in the world, they have won the FIFA World Cup four times, trailing only Brazil, runners-up in two finals and reaching a third place and a fourth place. They have won one European Championship appearing in two finals, finished third at the Confederations Cup, won one Olympic football tournament and two Central European International Cups. Italy's top domestic league, the Serie A, is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in the world and it is depicted as the most tactical national football league. Italy's club sides have won 48 major European trophies, making them the second most successful nation in European football. Serie A hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus and Inter, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs. Juventus and Inter, along with Roma, Fiorentina and Parma but now Napoli are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football.
Italian managers are the most successful in European Football in competitions such as the Champions League. More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any other league in the world. Other forms of football were played in Italy in ancient times, the earliest of, Harpastum, played during the times of the Roman Empire; this game may have been influential to other forms throughout Europe due to the expansion of the Empire, including Medieval football. From the 16th century onwards, Calcio Fiorentino, another code of football distinct from the modern game, was played in the Piazza Santa Croce in Florence; some famous Florentines were amongst players of the game the Medici family including Piero and Alessandro de' Medici. As well as Popes such as Clement VII, Leo XI and Urban VIII who played the game in the Vatican; the name calcio was adopted for football in Italy. The modern variation of the game was brought to Italy during the 1880s; the title of the first Italian football club is a controversial one, the most cited in popular history is Genoa Cricket and Football Club who were formed as a cricket club to represent England abroad, founded by Englishmen in 1893.
Three years in 1896 a man named James Richardson Spensley arrived in Genoa introducing the football section of the club and becoming its first manager. However, evidence exists to suggest. Edoardo Bosio, a merchant worker in the British textile industry had visited England and experienced the game, he was motivated to help spread football in his homeland. He founded Cricket Club that year while Nobili Torino soon followed; the second club bore the name of noble because it contained the Duke of the Abruzzi and Alfonso Ferrero di Ventimiglia. The two merged in 1891 to form Internazionale Football Club Torino, By 1898 the rival federation FIGC had been formed, with its center in Turin and the first two presidents as Mario Vicary and Luigi D'Ovidio. FIGC created the Italian Football Championship with the four founder clubs being; the first competition of, held at Velodromo Umberto I in Turin on 8 May 1898 and was won by Genoa. While it was common for clubs to compete in both FIGC and FNGI competitions early on, the titles won in the FIGC championship are the only ones recognised by the modern day league.
In the following years, the tournament was structured into regional groups with the winners of each group participating in a playoff with the eventual winners being declared champions. Until to 1904 the tournament was dominated by Genoa. Between 1905 and 1908 a Final Group among regional champions was contested to award the title and the Spensley Cup. Juventus won his first title and Spensley Cup in 1905, but the two following championships were won by Milan. In November 1907, the FIF organised two championships in the same season: Italian Championship, the main tournament where only Italian players were allowed to play; the majority of big clubs withdrew from both the championships in order to protest against the autarchical policy of the FIF. The Federal Championship was won by Juventus against Doria, while The Italian Championship 1908 and Coppa Buni were won by Pro Vercelli, beating Juventus, Doria and US Milanese. However, the Federal Championship won by Juventus was forgotten by FIGC, due to the boycott made by the dissident clubs.
In 1909 season, the two different championships were organised again, with Coppa Obe
Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams. The game consists of four quarters in which the two teams attempt to score goals by throwing the ball into the opposing team's goal; the team with the most goals at the end of the game wins the match. Each team is made up of one goalkeeper. Except for the goalkeeper, players participate in both defensive roles. Water polo is played in an all-deep pool meaning that players cannot touch the bottom. A game of water polo consists of the players swimming to move about the pool, treading water, passing the ball and shooting at goal. Teamwork, tactical thinking and game awareness are highly important aspects in a game of water polo. Water polo is a physical and demanding sport and has been cited as one of the toughest sports to play. Special equipment for water polo includes a ball which floats on the water; the game is thought to have originated in Scotland in the late 19th century as a sort of "water rugby". William Wilson is thought to have developed the game during a similar period.
The game thus developed with the formation of the London Water Polo League and has since expanded, becoming popular in various parts of Europe, the United States, China and Australia. The history of water polo as a team sport began as a demonstration of strength and swimming skill in late 19th century England and Scotland, where water sports and racing exhibitions were a feature of county fairs and festivals. Men's water polo was among the first team sports introduced at the modern Olympic games in 1900. Water polo is now popular in many countries around the world, notably Europe, the United States and Australia; the present-day game involves teams of seven players, with a water polo ball similar in size to a soccer ball but constructed of air-tight nylon. One of the earliest recorded viewings of water polo was conducted at the 4th Open Air Fete of the London Swimming Club, held at the Crystal Palace, London on 15 September 1873. Another antecedent of the modern game of Water Polo was a game of water ‘handball’ played at Bournemouth on 13 July 1876.
This was a game between 12 members of the Premier Rowing Club, with goals being marked by four flags placed in the water near to the midpoint of Bournemouth Pier. The game lasted for 15 minutes watched by a large crowd; the rules of water polo were developed in the late nineteenth century in Great Britain by William Wilson. Wilson is believed to have been the First Baths Master of the Arlington Baths Club in Glasgow; the first games of'aquatic football' were played at the Arlington in the late 1800s, with a ball constructed of India rubber. This "water rugby" came to be called "water polo" based on the English pronunciation of the Balti word for ball, pulu. Early play allowed brute strength and holding opposing players underwater to recover the ball. Players held underwater for lengthy periods surrendered possession; the goalie stood outside the playing area and defended the goal by jumping in on any opponent attempting to score by placing the ball on the deck. The rules of water polo cover the play, procedures and officiating of water polo.
These rules are similar throughout the world, although slight variations to the rules do occur regionally and depending on the governing body. Governing bodies of water polo include FINA, the international governing organization for the rules. There are seven players in the water from each team at one time. There are one goalkeeper. Unlike most common team sports, there is little positional play; these positions consist of a center forward, a center back, the two wing players and the two drivers. Players who are skilled in all positions of offense or defense are called utility players. Utility players tend to come off of the bench. Certain body types are more suited for particular positions, left-handed players are coveted on the right-hand side of the field, allowing teams to launch two-sided attacks; the offensive positions include: one center forward, two wings, two drivers, one "point", positioned farthest from the goal. The wings and point are called the perimeter players. There is a typical numbering system for these positions in U.
S. NCAA men's division one polo. Beginning with the offensive wing to the opposing goalie's right side is called one; the flat in a counter clockwise from one is called two. Moving along in the same direction the point player is three, the next flat is four, the final wing is five, the hole set is called six
Genoa Cricket and Football Club referred to as Genoa, is an Italian professional football club based in Genoa, Liguria. Established on 7 September 1893, it is Italy's fourth oldest football team and the most enduring one, with 125 years of activity. During their long history, Genoa have won the Italian Championship nine times. Genoa's first title came at the inaugural championship in 1898 and their most recent was in 1923–24, they have won the Coppa Italia once. Genoa are the fourth most successful Italian club in terms of championships won; this slew of early successes may lie at the origin of the love professed for the team by the godfather of Italian sports journalists Gianni Brera, despite having been born nowhere near Genoa, always declared himself a supporter of the team. Brera went as far as creating the nickname Vecchio Balordo for Genoa; the club has played its home games at the 36,536 capacity Stadio Luigi Ferraris since 1911. Since 1946, the ground has been shared with local rivals Sampdoria.
Genoa has spent most of its post-war history going up and down between Serie A and Serie B, with two brief spells in Serie C. For more details on this topic, see History of Genoa C. F. C; the club was founded on 7 September 1893 as Genoa Athletic Club. In its earliest years, it principally competed in athletics and cricket. Association football was only a secondary concern. Since the club was set up to represent England abroad, the original shirts worn by the organisation were white, the same colour as the England national team shirt. At first Italians were not permitted to join. Genoa's activities took place in the north-west of the city in the Campasso area, at the Piazza d'Armi; the men who handled the management of the club were. It was among the oldest in Italian football at the time, the only other founded clubs were four in Turin. Italians found a new ground in the form of Ponte Carrega; the first friendly match took place at home, against a mixed team of Internazionale Torino and FBC Torinese.
Not long after, Genoa recorded its first victory away against UPS Alessandria winning 2–0. Friendly games took place against various British sailors such as those from HMS Revenge. Football in Italy stepped up a level with the creation of the Italian Football Federation and the Italian Football Championship. Genoa competed in the first Italian Championship in 1898 at Velodromo Umberto I in Turin, they defeated Ginnastica Torino 2–1 in their first official game on 8 May, before winning the first championship that day by beating Internazionale Torino 3–1 after extra time. Genoa returned for this time with a few changes. A change in shirt colour was in order, as they changed to white and blue vertical stripes. Genoa won their second title on a one-day tournament which took place on 16 April 1899, by beating Internazionale Torino 3–1 for the second time. On their way to winning their third consecutive title in 1900 and beat local rivals Sampierdarenese 7–0; the final was secured with a 3–1 win over FBC Torinese.
The club strip was changed again in 1901, Genoa adopted its famous red-navy halves and therefore became known as the rossoblu. After a season of finishing runners-up to Milan Cricket and Football Club, things were back on track in 1902 with their fourth title. Juventus emerged as serious contenders to Genoa's throne from 1903 onwards, when for two seasons in a row Genoa beat the Old Lady in the national final. Notably Genoa became the first Italian football team to play an international match, when they visited France on 27 April 1903 to play FVC Nice, winning the fixture 3–0; as well as winning the Italian championship in 1904, the year was notable for Genoa reserves winning the first II Categoria league season. From 1905 onwards when they were runners-up, Genoa lost their foothold on the Italian championship; the fall in part during this period can be traced back to 1908 when FIGC agreed to Federal Gymnastics protests forbidding the use of foreign players. Since Genoa's birth they had always had a strong English contingent.
They disagreed, as did several other prominent clubs such as Milan and Firenze. The following season the federation reversed the decision and Genoa was rebuilt with players such as Luigi Ferraris and some from Switzerland, such as Daniel Hug who came from FC Basel; the rebuilding of the squad saw the creation of a new ground in the Marassi area of Genoa, when built it had a capacity of 25,000 and was comparable to British stadiums of the time. With the introduction of the Italian national football team, Genoa played an important part, with the likes of Renzo De Vecchi. Englishman William Garbutt was brought in as head coach to help revive the club, he was dubbed "Mister" by
Vittorio Pozzo was an Italian football manager and journalist. The creator of the Metodo tactical formation, Pozzo is regarded as one of the greatest managers of all time, is the only person to guide his national team to two FIFA World Cup champions as coach, leading the Italian national team to victory in the 1934 and 1938 FIFA World Cups, he led Italy to a gold medal at the 1936 Olympic football tournament, managed the champions of the 1930 and 1935 Central European International Cup. Vittorio Pozzo was born in Turin from a family originary of Ponderano, he attended the Liceo Cavour in his hometown. He studied in Manchester at the turn of the 20th century and met Manchester United half-back Charlie Roberts and Derby County's inside-left Steve Bloomer; as a player, he played professionally in Switzerland for Grasshopper Club Zürich the 1905–06 season, before returning to Italy where he helped found Torino F. C. a team which he played for five seasons until retiring from football in 1911. He would serve as the technical director of Torino from 1912 to 1922.
After completing his studies, he joined Pirelli, where he became manager, a position he would leave for the Italian national team. He was appointed commissioner for the first time of the national team during the Olympic Games in Stockholm in June 1912, the first debut for an Italian selection in an official competition; the team was eliminated in the first round losing 3-2 to Finland after extra time. Pozzo returned to work at Pirelli. Throughout his first term the national team was guided by this diverse group of people. With the brief exception of Augusto Rangone and Carlo Carcano, Pozzo was the only person to play the role of sole commissioner until the sixties. Pozzo would serve with the Alpini as lieutenant during the First World War. In 1921, Pozzo was commissioned by the Football Association to study a draft reform of the league to address the tensions between the bigger and the smaller teams, because it was thought that the number of participants in the championship had to be reduced.
The mediation failed resulting in the split between the FIGC and CCI, before merging again the following year. In 1924, on the occasion of the Olympic Games in Paris, Pozzo was again appointed sole commissioner; this time the Azzurri were able to reach the quarter-finals, where they were beaten 2–1 by Switzerland. After this defeat, Pozzo resigned and returned to devote himself to his work and his wife, who shortly after died due to a disease. After the death of his wife, he moved to Milan, where he held his job at Pirelli, alongside that of a journalist for La Stampa in Turin, which he continued until his death. Pozzo returned to coach the Italy national team on a permanent basis from December 1929 Italy won the 1930 version of the Central European International Cup, defeating Hungary 5–0 in Budapest, they pipped the title from Meisl's Austrian side, the so-called Wunderteam who went on to win the second edition of that tournament. Following the 1930 defeat to Spain, Pozzo left out Adolfo Baloncieri, his captain and an international of ten years standing.
In 1932, Austria beat Italy, as did the Czechs, while a defeat to Hungary was only averted because of a missed penalty. This led to Pozzo bringing back the Bologna player Angelo Schiavio, a regular goalscorer for his club, but in February 1934 with the World Cup looming Austria defeated Italy in Turin 4–2, again Pozzo fell the axe on the team captain Umberto Caligaris. During the 1934 FIFA World Cup in their home country, Pozzo's Italian side benefited from controversy in the first tournament on European soil; the game against Spain in the quarter-finals raised questions against the performance of the referee Louis Baert in the match, a draw. A foul on Ricardo Zamora for the equaliser in the first leg went unpunished while another on Joan Josep Nogués in the replay earned Italy a semi-final place. Italy benefited as well from the quarter-final played elsewhere between Austria. By the time of the semi-final, Johann Horvath was absent and Italy won by a goal over Austria. Enrique Guaita, one of the squad's Oriundi, scored from close range after Giuseppe Meazza had fallen over goalkeeper Peter Platzer.
On the back of the World Cup success, Pozzo was awarded the title of Commendatore for greatness in his profession. The Battle of Highbury on 14 November 1934 against England led by Arsenal's Wilf Copping ended 3–2 in favour of England. Italy repeated as Central European International Cup winners in 1935, going into the 1936 Summer Olympics on the back of a run which had seen them lose only to Austria and England. By the time of the 1938 World Cup, Italy remained undefeated in recent competition under Pozzo. Silvio Piola earned his first cap in 1935, scoring for the national side and proving an effective partner for Meazza. Pozzo learned that the Brazilians were so confident of appearing in the final in Paris that they had requisitioned the only airplane from Marseilles to Paris on the day after the semifinal against Pozzo's Italy. Pozzo went to the Brazilians that sunbathed in Côte d'Azur and asked them to surrender him the aerial bookings in case of Italian victory; the Brazilians arrogantly answered "it is not possible because to Paris we will go, because we will beat you
Stadio Renato Dall'Ara
Stadio Renato Dall'Ara is a multi-purpose stadium in Bologna, Italy. It is used for football matches and the home of Bologna F. C. 1909. The stadium was built in 1927 and holds 38,279, it has been named Stadio Littoriale. It replaced the Stadio Sterlino; the stadium is named after Renato Dall ` a former president of Bologna for thirty years. The stadium hosted matches in both the 1990 FIFA World Cup; the last match of the tournament played there was the England vs Belgium match in the Round of 16 which ended 1–0 courtesy of an extra-time goal scored by David Platt in the 119th minute. Located in the Saragozza district, about 6 km from the center of the city, it hosts Bologna's home matches. With around 36,000 seats it is the eleventh Italian stadium for capacity, which can increase up to 55,000 for concerts, it is considered one of the best fields in Italy and in Europe, together with the Artemio Franchi stadium in Florence, due to the extraordinary draining quality and compactness of the turf. The 17 November 1993 qualifier between San Marino and England finished with England winning 7–1, but only after the hosts scored in the opening seconds of the match.
The stadium hosted three international rugby union test match in 1995, Italy vs. All Blacks, in 1997 Italy vs. Springboks and Italy vs. Ireland; the stadium features as the lead song on the Los Campesinos album'Sick Scenes'. The stadium was used for two matches during the 1934 FIFA World Cup including the round of 16 game between Sweden and Argentina and the quarterfinal match between Austria and Hungary; the stadium was one of the venues of the 1990 FIFA World Cup. The stadium was witness to the World Cup competition's quickest goal scored, by Davide Gualtieri of San Marino, taking 8.3 seconds to put his team ahead against England. It hosted the following matches: World Stadiums Article Stadium Guide Article Stadium Journey Article
Società Sportiva Calcio Napoli referred to as Napoli, is an Italian professional football club based in Naples, Campania that plays in Serie A, the top flight of Italian football. The club have won two league titles, five Coppa Italias, two Supercoppa Italiana titles, one UEFA Cup. Formed in 1926, the club saw little success in its early years, winning one Coppa Italia until 1965, where they were refounded. Napoli saw increased success in the 1980s, after the club acquired Diego Maradona. During his time in Naples, Maradona helped the team win several trophies, which led to the club retiring his number 10 jersey. Following his departure, Napoli struggled financially, endured several relegations, prior to being refounded in 2004 by film producer Aurelio De Laurentiis. Under his guise, the club has stabilized. By attendance, Napoli have the fourth biggest fanbase in Italy, were ranked as the fifth highest-earning football club in Serie A, with $182 million in revenue during the 2017–18 season. In 2018, Forbes estimated.
Napoli are one of the associate members of the European Club Association. Since 1959, the club has played their home games at Stadio San Paolo, have traditionally worn sky blue shirts and white shorts; the club have a long-standing rivalry with Roma, with whom they contest the Derby del Sole. The club's anthem is "'O surdato'nnammurato"; the first club was founded as Naples Foot-Ball & Cricket Club in 1904 by English sailor William Poths and his associate Hector M. Bayon. Neapolitans such as Conforti and Amedeo Salsi were involved, the latter of whom was the club's first president; the original kit of the club was a sky navy blue striped shirt, with black shorts. Naples' first match was a 3–2 win against the English crew of the boat Arabik with goals from William MacPherson, Michele Scafoglio and Léon Chaudoir. Early into its existence, the Italian Football Championship was limited to just northern clubs, so southern clubs competed against sailors or in cups such as Thomas Lipton's Lipton Challenge Cup.
In the cup competed between Naples and Palermo FBC Naples won three finals. The foreign contingent at the club broke off in 1912 to form Internazionale Napoli, in time for both club's debut in the Italian Championship of 1912–13. Under the presidency of Giorgio Ascarelli, the club changed its name to Associazione Calcio Napoli on 23 August 1926. After a poor start, with a sole point in an entire championship, Napoli was readmitted to Serie A's forerunner, the Divizione Nazionale, by the Italian Football Federation, began to improve thanks in part to Paraguayan-born Attila Sallustro, the first fledged hero to the fans, he was a capable goal-scorer and set the all-time goal-scoring record for Napoli, surpassed by players like Diego Maradona and Marek Hamšík. Napoli entered the Serie A era under the management of William Garbutt. During Garbutt's six-year stint, the club would be transformed finishing in the top half of the table; this included two third-place finishes during the 1932–33 and 1933–34 seasons, with added notables such as Antonio Vojak, Arnaldo Sentimenti and Carlo Buscaglia.
However, in the years leading up to World War II, Napoli went into decline, only surviving relegation in 1939–40 by goal average. Napoli lost a contested relegation battle at the end of 1942 and were relegated to Serie B, they moved from the Stadio Giorgio Ascarelli to the Stadio Arturo Collana and remained in Serie B until after the war. When play continued, Napoli earned the right to compete in Serie A, but were relegated after two seasons for a bribery scandal; the club bounced back to ensure top flight football at the start of the 1950s. Napoli moved to their new home ground Stadio San Paolo in 1959. Despite erratic league form with highs and lows during this period, including a further relegation and promotion, Napoli had some cup success when they beat SPAL to lift the Coppa Italia in 1962, with goals from Gianni Corelli and Pierluigi Ronzon, their fourth relegation cut celebrations short the following season. As the club changed their name to Società Sportiva Calcio Napoli on 25 June 1964 they began to rise up again, gaining promotion in 1964–65.
Under the management of former player Bruno Pesaola, they won the Coppa delle Alpi and were back among the elite in Serie A, with consistent top-five finishes. Napoli came close to winning the league in 1967–68, finishing just behind Milan in second place; some of the most popular players from this period were Dino Zoff, José Altafini, Omar Sívori and hometown midfielder Antonio Juliano. Juliano would break the appearance records, which still stands today; the trend of Napoli performing well in the league continued into the 1970s, with third place spots in 1970–71 and 1973–74. Under the coaching of former player Luís Vinício, this gained them entry into the early UEFA Cup competitions. In 1974–75, they reached the third round knocking out Porto 2–0 en route. During the same season, Napoli finished second in Serie A, just two points behind champions Juventus. Solid performances from locally born players such as Giuseppe Bruscolotti, Antonio Juliano and Salvatore Esposito were relied upon during this period, coupled with goals from Giuseppe Savoldi.
After defeating Southampton 4–1 on aggregate to lift the Anglo-Italian League Cup, Napoli were entered into the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup for 1976–77, where they reached the semi-finals, losing 2–1 on aggregate to Anderlecht. The club won their second Coppa Italia trophy in 1975–76, eliminating Milan and Fiorentina en route, before beating rivals Hellas Verona 4–0 in the final. In the I
Aco Stojkov is a Macedonian international footballer who plays for Vardar. He has played with national teammate Goran Pandev in F. C. Internazionale Milano Primavera, 2001/02, which won the youth league title, he was loaned to lower level teams in Italy to gain some experience but failed to impress Internazionale and his contract with them expired. Stojkov has since played in Poland, Serbia and plays for Aarau in Switzerland, he joined FK Partizan in summer of 2006 and played with the club the first half of the 2006–07 season. Although he did not made any league appearance, he played one match in the Serbian Cup, he is renowned for his dribbling abilities. He has represented Macedonia on all youth levels before making his debut in the main national team in 2002. Debreceni VSCNemzeti Bajnokság I: 2006–07 Hungarian Cup: 2007–08 Hungarian Super Cup: 2007RabotnickiMacedonian First League: 2013–14 Macedonian Cup: 2013-14VardarMacedonian First League: 2012–13, 2015–16, 2016–17 Macedonian Super Cup: 2013, 2015SkënderbeuAlbanian Superliga: 2014–15 Aco Stojkov at Football Federation of Macedonia official website Profile at MacedonianFootball.com Aco Stojkov at 90minut.pl Aco Stojkov at RomanianSoccer.ro and StatisticsFootball.com Aco Stojkov at Soccerway