Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At room temperature and pressure, another solid form of carbon known as graphite is the chemically stable form, but diamond never converts to it. Diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any natural material, properties that are utilized in major industrial applications such as cutting and polishing tools, they are the reason that diamond anvil cells can subject materials to pressures found deep in the Earth. Because the arrangement of atoms in diamond is rigid, few types of impurity can contaminate it. Small numbers of defects or impurities color diamond blue, brown, purple, orange or red. Diamond has high optical dispersion. Most natural diamonds have ages between 1 billion and 3.5 billion years. Most were formed at depths between 150 and 250 kilometers in the Earth's mantle, although a few have come from as deep as 800 kilometers. Under high pressure and temperature, carbon-containing fluids dissolved minerals and replaced them with diamonds.
Much more they were carried to the surface in volcanic eruptions and deposited in igneous rocks known as kimberlites and lamproites. Synthetic diamonds can be grown from high-purity carbon under high pressures and temperatures or from hydrocarbon gas by chemical vapor deposition. Imitation diamonds can be made out of materials such as cubic zirconia and silicon carbide. Natural and imitation diamonds are most distinguished using optical techniques or thermal conductivity measurements. Diamond is a solid form of pure carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal. Solid carbon comes in different forms known as allotropes depending on the type of chemical bond; the two most common allotropes of pure carbon are graphite. In graphite the bonds are sp2 orbital hybrids and the atoms form in planes with each bound to three nearest neighbors 120 degrees apart. In diamond they are sp3 and the atoms form tetrahedra with each bound to four nearest neighbors. Tetrahedra are rigid, the bonds are strong, of all known substances diamond has the greatest number of atoms per unit volume, why it is both the hardest and the least compressible.
It has a high density, ranging from 3150 to 3530 kilograms per cubic metre in natural diamonds and 3520 kg/m³ in pure diamond. In graphite, the bonds between nearest neighbors are stronger but the bonds between planes are weak, so the planes can slip past each other. Thus, graphite is much softer than diamond. However, the stronger bonds make graphite less flammable. Diamonds have been adapted for many uses because of the material's exceptional physical characteristics. Most notable are its extreme hardness and thermal conductivity, as well as wide bandgap and high optical dispersion. Diamond's ignition point is 720 -- 800 °C in 850 -- 1000 °C in air; the equilibrium pressure and temperature conditions for a transition between graphite and diamond is well established theoretically and experimentally. The pressure changes linearly between 1.7 GPa at 0 K and 12 GPa at 5000 K. However, the phases have a wide region about this line where they can coexist. At normal temperature and pressure, 20 °C and 1 standard atmosphere, the stable phase of carbon is graphite, but diamond is metastable and its rate of conversion to graphite is negligible.
However, at temperatures above about 4500 K, diamond converts to graphite. Rapid conversion of graphite to diamond requires pressures well above the equilibrium line: at 2000 K, a pressure of 35 GPa is needed. Above the triple point, the melting point of diamond increases with increasing pressure. At high pressures and germanium have a BC8 body-centered cubic crystal structure, a similar structure is predicted for carbon at high pressures. At 0 K, the transition is predicted to occur at 1100 GPa; the most common crystal structure of diamond is called diamond cubic. It is formed of unit cells stacked together. Although there are 18 atoms in the figure, each corner atom is shared by eight unit cells and each atom in the center of a face is shared by two, so there are a total of eight atoms per unit cell; each side of the unit cell is 3.57 angstroms in length. A diamond cubic lattice can be thought of as two interpenetrating face-centered cubic lattices with one displaced by 1/4 of the diagonal along a cubic cell, or as one lattice with two atoms associated with each lattice point.
Looked at from a <1 1 1> crystallographic direction, it is formed of layers stacked in a repeating ABCABC... pattern. Diamonds can form an ABAB... structure, known as hexagonal diamond or lonsdaleite, but this is far less common and is formed under different conditions from cubic carbon. Diamonds occur most as euhedral or rounded octahedra and twinned octahedra known as macles; as diamond's crystal structure has a cubic arrangement of the atoms, they have many facets that belong to a cube, rhombicosidodecahedron, tetrakis hexahedron or disdyakis dodecahedron. The crystals can be elongated. Diamonds are found coated in nyf, an opaque gum-like skin; some diamonds have opaque fibers. They are referred to as opaque if the fibers
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how fast light propagates through the material. It is defined as n = c v, where c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the phase velocity of light in the medium. For example, the refractive index of water is 1.333, meaning that light travels 1.333 times as fast in vacuum as in water. The refractive index determines how much the path of light is bent, or refracted, when entering a material; this is described by Snell's law of refraction, n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2, where θ1 and θ2 are the angles of incidence and refraction of a ray crossing the interface between two media with refractive indices n1 and n2. The refractive indices determine the amount of light, reflected when reaching the interface, as well as the critical angle for total internal reflection and Brewster's angle; the refractive index can be seen as the factor by which the speed and the wavelength of the radiation are reduced with respect to their vacuum values: the speed of light in a medium is v = c/n, the wavelength in that medium is λ = λ0/n, where λ0 is the wavelength of that light in vacuum.
This implies that vacuum has a refractive index of 1, that the frequency of the wave is not affected by the refractive index. As a result, the energy of the photon, therefore the perceived color of the refracted light to a human eye which depends on photon energy, is not affected by the refraction or the refractive index of the medium. While the refractive index affects wavelength, it depends on photon frequency and energy so the resulting difference in the bending angle causes white light to split into its constituent colors; this is called dispersion. It can be observed in prisms and rainbows, chromatic aberration in lenses. Light propagation in absorbing materials can be described using a complex-valued refractive index; the imaginary part handles the attenuation, while the real part accounts for refraction. The concept of refractive index applies within the full electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to radio waves, it can be applied to wave phenomena such as sound. In this case the speed of sound is used instead of that of light, a reference medium other than vacuum must be chosen.
The refractive index n of an optical medium is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum, c = 299792458 m/s, the phase velocity v of light in the medium, n = c v. The phase velocity is the speed at which the crests or the phase of the wave moves, which may be different from the group velocity, the speed at which the pulse of light or the envelope of the wave moves; the definition above is sometimes referred to as the absolute refractive index or the absolute index of refraction to distinguish it from definitions where the speed of light in other reference media than vacuum is used. Air at a standardized pressure and temperature has been common as a reference medium. Thomas Young was the person who first used, invented, the name "index of refraction", in 1807. At the same time he changed this value of refractive power into a single number, instead of the traditional ratio of two numbers; the ratio had the disadvantage of different appearances. Newton, who called it the "proportion of the sines of incidence and refraction", wrote it as a ratio of two numbers, like "529 to 396".
Hauksbee, who called it the "ratio of refraction", wrote it as a ratio with a fixed numerator, like "10000 to 7451.9". Hutton wrote it as a ratio with a fixed denominator, like 1.3358 to 1. Young did not use a symbol for the index of refraction, in 1807. In the next years, others started using different symbols: n, m, µ; the symbol n prevailed. For visible light most transparent media have refractive indices between 1 and 2. A few examples are given in the adjacent table; these values are measured at the yellow doublet D-line of sodium, with a wavelength of 589 nanometers, as is conventionally done. Gases at atmospheric pressure have refractive indices close to 1 because of their low density. All solids and liquids have refractive indices above 1.3, with aerogel as the clear exception. Aerogel is a low density solid that can be produced with refractive index in the range from 1.002 to 1.265. Moissanite lies at the other end of the range with a refractive index as high as 2.65. Most plastics have refractive indices in the range from 1.3 to 1.7, but some high-refractive-index polymers can have values as high as 1.76.
For infrared light refractive indices can be higher. Germanium is transparent in the wavelength region from 2 to 14 µm and has a refractive index of about 4. A type of new materials, called topological insulator, was found holding higher refractive index of up to 6 in near to mid infrared frequency range. Moreover, topological insulator material are transparent; these excellent properties make them a type of significant materials for infrared optics. According to the theory of relativity, no information can travel faster than the speed of light in vacuum, but this does not mean that the refractive index cannot be lower than 1; the refractive index measures the phase velocity of light. The phase velocity is the speed at which the crests of the wave move and can be faster than the speed of light in vacuum, thereby give a refractive index below 1; this can occur close to resonance frequencies, for absorbing media, in plasmas, for X-rays. In the X-ray regime the refractive indices are
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2. Pyrite is considered the most common of the sulfide minerals. Pyrite's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue give it a superficial resemblance to gold, hence the well-known nickname of fool's gold; the color has led to the nicknames brass and Brazil used to refer to pyrite found in coal. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πυρίτης, "of fire" or "in fire", in turn from πύρ, "fire". In ancient Roman times, this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel. By Georgius Agricola's time, c. 1550, the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. Pyrite is found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins, sedimentary rock, metamorphic rock, as well as in coal beds and as a replacement mineral in fossils, but has been identified in the sclerites of scaly-foot gastropods. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold, pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold.
Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite structure. In the Carlin–type gold deposits, arsenian pyrite contains up to 0.37% gold by weight. Pyrite enjoyed brief popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries as a source of ignition in early firearms, most notably the wheellock, where a sample of pyrite was placed against a circular file to strike the sparks needed to fire the gun. Pyrite has been used since classical times to manufacture copperas. Iron pyrite was allowed to weather; the acidic runoff from the heap was boiled with iron to produce iron sulfate. In the 15th century, new methods of such leaching began to replace the burning of sulfur as a source of sulfuric acid. By the 19th century, it had become the dominant method. Pyrite remains in commercial use for the production of sulfur dioxide, for use in such applications as the paper industry, in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. Thermal decomposition of pyrite into FeS and elemental sulfur starts at 540 °C. A newer commercial use for pyrite is as the cathode material in Energizer brand non-rechargeable lithium batteries.
Pyrite is a semiconductor material with a band gap of 0.95 eV. Pure pyrite is n-type, in both crystal and thin-film forms due to sulfur vacancies in the pyrite crystal structure acting as n-dopants. During the early years of the 20th century, pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers, is still used by crystal radio hobbyists; until the vacuum tube matured, the crystal detector was the most sensitive and dependable detector available – with considerable variation between mineral types and individual samples within a particular type of mineral. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point between galena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. Pyrite detectors can be as sensitive as a modern 1N34A germanium diode detector. Pyrite has been proposed as an abundant, non-toxic, inexpensive material in low-cost photovoltaic solar panels. Synthetic iron sulfide was used with copper sulfide to create the photovoltaic material.. More recent efforts are working toward thin-film solar cells made of pyrite.
Pyrite is used to make marcasite jewelry. Marcasite jewelry, made from small faceted pieces of pyrite set in silver, was known since ancient times and was popular in the Victorian era. At the time when the term became common in jewelry making, "marcasite" referred to all iron sulfides including pyrite, not to the orthorhombic FeS2 mineral marcasite, lighter in color and chemically unstable, thus not suitable for jewelry making. Marcasite jewelry does not contain the mineral marcasite. China represents the main importing country with an import of around 376,000 tonnes, which resulted at 45% of total global imports. China is the fastest growing in terms of the unroasted iron pyrites imports, with a CAGR of +27.8% from 2007 to 2016. In value terms, China constitutes the largest market for imported unroasted iron pyrites worldwide, making up 65% of global imports. From the perspective of classical inorganic chemistry, which assigns formal oxidation states to each atom, pyrite is best described as Fe2+S22−.
This formalism recognizes. These persulfide units can be viewed as derived from hydrogen disulfide, H2S2, thus pyrite would be more descriptively, not iron disulfide. In contrast, molybdenite, MoS2, features isolated sulfide centers and the oxidation state of molybdenum is Mo4+; the mineral arsenopyrite has the formula FeAsS. Whereas pyrite has S2 subunits, arsenopyrite has units, formally derived from deprotonation of H2AsSH. Analysis of classical oxidation states would recommend the description of arsenopyrite as Fe3+3−. Iron-pyrite FeS2 represents the prototype compound of the crystallographic pyrite structure; the structure is simple cubic and was among the first crystal structures solved by X-ray diffraction. It belongs to the crystallographic space group Pa3 and is denoted by the Strukturbericht notation C2. Under thermodynamic standard conditions the lattice constant a of stoichiometric iron pyrite FeS2 amounts to 541.87 pm. The unit cell is composed of a Fe face-centered cubic sublattice into.
The pyrite structure is used by other compounds MX2 of trans
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents are arranged in a ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macroscopic single crystals are identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations; the scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification; the word crystal derives from the Ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος, meaning both "ice" and "rock crystal", from κρύος, "icy cold, frost". Examples of large crystals include snowflakes and table salt. Most inorganic solids are not crystals but polycrystals, i.e. many microscopic crystals fused together into a single solid. Examples of polycrystals include most metals, rocks and ice. A third category of solids is amorphous solids, where the atoms have no periodic structure whatsoever.
Examples of amorphous solids include glass and many plastics. Despite the name, lead crystal, crystal glass, related products are not crystals, but rather types of glass, i.e. amorphous solids. Crystals are used in pseudoscientific practices such as crystal therapy, along with gemstones, are sometimes associated with spellwork in Wiccan beliefs and related religious movements; the scientific definition of a "crystal" is based on the microscopic arrangement of atoms inside it, called the crystal structure. A crystal is a solid where the atoms form a periodic arrangement.. Not all solids are crystals. For example, when liquid water starts freezing, the phase change begins with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse, forming a polycrystalline structure. In the final block of ice, each of the small crystals is a true crystal with a periodic arrangement of atoms, but the whole polycrystal does not have a periodic arrangement of atoms, because the periodic pattern is broken at the grain boundaries.
Most macroscopic inorganic solids are polycrystalline, including all metals, ice, etc. Solids that are neither crystalline nor polycrystalline, such as glass, are called amorphous solids called glassy, vitreous, or noncrystalline; these have no periodic order microscopically. There are distinct differences between crystalline solids and amorphous solids: most notably, the process of forming a glass does not release the latent heat of fusion, but forming a crystal does. A crystal structure is characterized by its unit cell, a small imaginary box containing one or more atoms in a specific spatial arrangement; the unit cells are stacked in three-dimensional space to form the crystal. The symmetry of a crystal is constrained by the requirement that the unit cells stack with no gaps. There are 219 possible crystal symmetries, called crystallographic space groups; these are grouped into 7 crystal systems, such as hexagonal crystal system. Crystals are recognized by their shape, consisting of flat faces with sharp angles.
These shape characteristics are not necessary for a crystal—a crystal is scientifically defined by its microscopic atomic arrangement, not its macroscopic shape—but the characteristic macroscopic shape is present and easy to see. Euhedral crystals are those with well-formed flat faces. Anhedral crystals do not because the crystal is one grain in a polycrystalline solid; the flat faces of a euhedral crystal are oriented in a specific way relative to the underlying atomic arrangement of the crystal: they are planes of low Miller index. This occurs; as a crystal grows, new atoms attach to the rougher and less stable parts of the surface, but less to the flat, stable surfaces. Therefore, the flat surfaces tend to grow larger and smoother, until the whole crystal surface consists of these plane surfaces. One of the oldest techniques in the science of crystallography consists of measuring the three-dimensional orientations of the faces of a crystal, using them to infer the underlying crystal symmetry.
A crystal's habit is its visible external shape. This is determined by the crystal structure, the specific crystal chemistry and bonding, the conditions under which the crystal formed. By volume and weight, the largest concentrations of crystals in the Earth are part of its solid bedrock. Crystals found in rocks range in size from a fraction of a millimetre to several centimetres across, although exceptionally large crystals are found; as of 1999, the world's largest known occurring crystal is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina, Madagascar, 18 m long and 3.5 m in diameter, weighing 380,000 kg. Some crystals have formed by magmatic and metamorphic processes, giving origin to large masses of crystalline rock; the vast majority of igneous rocks are formed from molten magma and the degree of crystallization depends on the conditions under which they solidified. Such rocks as granite, which have cooled slowly and under great pressures, have crystallized.
The sulfide minerals are a class of minerals containing sulfide as the major anion. Some sulfide minerals are economically important as metal ores; the sulfide class includes the selenides, the tellurides, the arsenides, the antimonides, the bismuthinides, the sulfarsenides and the sulfosalts. Sulfide minerals are inorganic compounds. Common or important examples include: Acanthite Ag2S Chalcocite Cu2S Bornite Cu5FeS4 Galena PbS Sphalerite ZnS Chalcopyrite CuFeS2 Pyrrhotite Fe1−xS Millerite NiS Pentlandite 9S8 Covellite CuS Cinnabar HgS Realgar AsS Orpiment As2S3 Stibnite Sb2S3 Pyrite FeS2 Marcasite FeS2 Molybdenite MoS2Sulfarsenides: Cobaltite AsS Arsenopyrite FeAsS Gersdorffite NiAsSSulfosalts: Pyrargyrite Ag3SbS3 Proustite Ag3AsS3 Tetrahedrite Cu12Sb4S13 Tennantite Cu12As4S13 Enargite Cu3AsS4 Bournonite PbCuSbS3 Jamesonite Pb4FeSb6S14 Cylindrite Pb3Sn4FeSb2S14 IMA-CNMNC proposes a new hierarchical scheme; this list uses the Classification of Nickel–Strunz. Abbreviations: "*" - discredited.
"?" - questionable/doubtful. "REE" - Rare-earth element "PGE" - Platinum-group element 03. C Aluminofluorides, 06 Borates, 08 Vanadates, 09 Silicates: Neso: insular Soro: grouping Cyclo: ring Ino: chain Phyllo: sheet Tekto: three-dimensional framework Nickel–Strunz code scheme: NN. XY.##x NN: Nickel–Strunz mineral class number X: Nickel–Strunz mineral division letter Y: Nickel–Strunz mineral family letter ##x: Nickel–Strunz mineral/group number, x add-on letter 02. A Simple Sulfides, etc. 02. AA Alloys of metalloids with Cu, Ag, Sn, Au: 10a Algodonite, 10b Domeykite, 10d Koutekite. AB Ni-metalloid alloys: 10 Orcelite, 15 Maucherite, 20 Oregonite 02. AC Alloys of metalloids with PGE: 05a Atheneite, 05a Vincentite. B Metal Sulfides, M:S > 1:1 02. BA With Cu, Ag, Au: 05a Chalcocite, 05b Djurleite, 05c Geerite, 05d Roxbyite, 05e Digenite, 05f Anilite. BB With Ni, Fe: 05 Heazlewoodite. BC With Rh, Pd, Pt, etc.: 05 Palladseite, 05 Miassite. BD With Hg, Tl: 05 Imiterite, 10 Gortdrumite. BE With Pb: 05 Betekhtinite, 10 Furutobeite.
C Metal Sulfides, M:S = 1:1 02. CA With Cu: 05a Covellite, 05b Klockmannite, 05c Spionkopite, 05d Yarrowite. CB With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, Au, etc.: 05a Rudashevskyite, 05a Hawleyite, 05a Coloradoite, 05a Metacinnabar, 05a Sphalerite, 05a Tiemannite, 05a Stilleite, 05b Sakuraiite, 05c Polhemusite. CC With Ni, Fe, Co, PGE, etc.: 05 Zlatogorite, 05 Breithauptite, 05 Freboldite, 05 Langisite, 05 Nickeline, 05 Sederholmite, 05 Stumpflite, 05 Sudburyite, 05 Sobolevskite, 05 Achavalite, 05 Jaipurite*, 05 Hexatestibiopanickelite, 05 Kotulskite. CD With Sn, Pb, Hg, etc.: 05 Herzenbergite, 05 Teallite.
Hexagonal crystal family
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems and 2 lattice systems. The hexagonal crystal family consists of the 12 point groups such that at least one of their space groups has the hexagonal lattice as underlying lattice, is the union of the hexagonal crystal system and the trigonal crystal system. There are 52 space groups associated with it, which are those whose Bravais lattice is either hexagonal or rhombohedral; the hexagonal crystal family consists of two lattice systems: rhombohedral. Each lattice system consists of one Bravais lattice. In the hexagonal family, the crystal is conventionally described by a right rhombic prism unit cell with two equal axes, an included angle of 120° and a height perpendicular to the two base axes; the hexagonal unit cell for the rhombohedral Bravais lattice is the R-centered cell, consisting of two additional lattice points which occupy one body diagonal of the unit cell with coordinates and.
Hence, there are 3 lattice points per unit cell in total and the lattice is non-primitive. The Bravais lattices in the hexagonal crystal family can be described by rhombohedral axes; the unit cell is a rhombohedron. This is a unit cell with parameters a = b = c. In practice, the hexagonal description is more used because it is easier to deal with a coordinate system with two 90° angles. However, the rhombohedral axes are shown in textbooks because this cell reveals 3m symmetry of crystal lattice; the rhombohedral unit cell for the hexagonal Bravais lattice is the D-centered cell, consisting of two additional lattice points which occupy one body diagonal of the unit cell with coordinates and. However, such a description is used; the hexagonal crystal family consists of two crystal systems: hexagonal. A crystal system is a set of point groups in which the point groups themselves and their corresponding space groups are assigned to a lattice system; the trigonal crystal system consists of the 5 point groups that have a single three-fold rotation axis.
These 5 point groups have 7 corresponding space groups assigned to the rhombohedral lattice system and 18 corresponding space groups assigned to the hexagonal lattice system. The hexagonal crystal system consists of the 7 point groups that have a single six-fold rotation axis; these 7 point groups have 27 space groups, all of which are assigned to the hexagonal lattice system. Graphite is an example of a crystal; the trigonal crystal system is the only crystal system whose point groups have more than one lattice system associated with their space groups: the hexagonal and rhombohedral lattices both appear. The 5 point groups in this crystal system are listed below, with their international number and notation, their space groups in name and example crystals; the point groups in this crystal system are listed below, followed by their representations in Hermann–Mauguin or international notation and Schoenflies notation, mineral examples, if they exist. Hexagonal close packed is one of the two simple types of atomic packing with the highest density, the other being the face centered cubic.
However, unlike the fcc, it is not a Bravais lattice as there are two nonequivalent sets of lattice points. Instead, it can be constructed from the hexagonal Bravais lattice by using a two atom motif associated with each lattice point. Quartz is a crystal that belongs to the hexagonal lattice system but exists in two polymorphs that are in two different crystal systems; the crystal structures of α-quartz are described by two of the 18 space groups associated with the trigonal crystal system, while the crystal structures of β-quartz are described by two of the 27 space groups associated with the hexagonal crystal system. The lattice angles and the lengths of the lattice vectors are all the same for both the cubic and rhombohedral lattice systems; the lattice angles for simple cubic, face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic lattices are π/2 radians, π/3 radians, arccos radians, respectively. A rhombohedral lattice will result from lattice angles other than these. Crystal structure Close-packing Wurtzite Hahn, Theo, ed..
International Tables for Crystallography, Volume A: Space Group Symmetry. A. Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag. Doi:10.1107/97809553602060000100. ISBN 978-0-7923-6590-7. Media related to Trigonal lattices at Wikimedia Commons Mineralogy database
In the field of mineralogy, fracture is the texture and shape of a rock's surface formed when a mineral is fractured. Minerals have a distinctive fracture, making it a principal feature used in their identification. Fracture differs from cleavage in that the latter involves clean splitting along the cleavage planes of the mineral's crystal structure, as opposed to more general breakage. All minerals exhibit fracture, but when strong cleavage is present, it can be difficult to see. Conchoidal fracture breakage that resembles the concentric ripples of a mussel shell, it occurs in amorphous or fine-grained minerals such as flint, opal or obsidian, but may occur in crystalline minerals such as quartz. Subconchoidal fracture is similar to with less significant curvature. Earthy fracture is reminiscent of freshly broken soil, it is seen in soft, loosely bound minerals, such as limonite and aluminite. Hackly fracture is jagged and not even, it occurs when metals are torn, so is encountered in native metals such as copper and silver.
Splintery fracture comprises sharp elongated points. It is seen in fibrous minerals such as chrysotile, but may occur in non-fibrous minerals such as kyanite. Uneven fracture is a rough one with random irregularities, it occurs in a wide range of minerals including arsenopyrite and magnetite. Rudolf Duda and Lubos Rejl: Minerals of the World http://www.galleries.com/minerals/property/fracture.htm