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A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of flows from a dam or levee into a downstream area the riverbed of the dammed river itself. In the United Kingdom, they may be known as overflow channels. Spillways destroy the dam. Floodgates and fuse plugs may be designed into spillways to regulate reservoir level; such a spillway can be used to regulate downstream flows – by releasing water in small amounts before the reservoir is full, operators can prevent sudden large releases that would happen if the dam were overtopped. Other uses of the term "spillway" include bypasses of dams or outlets of channels used during high water, outlet channels carved through natural dams such as moraines. Water flows over a spillway only during flood periods – when the reservoir cannot hold the excess of water entering the reservoir over the amount used. In contrast, an intake tower is a structure used to release water on a regular basis for water supply, hydroelectricity generation, etc. A spillway is located at the top of the reservoir pool.

Dams may have bottom outlets with valves or gates which may be operated to release flood flow, a few dams lack overflow spillways and rely on bottom outlets. There are two main types of spillways: controlled and uncontrolled. A controlled spillway has mechanical gates to regulate the rate of flow; this design allows nearly the full height of the dam to be used for water storage year-round, flood waters can be released as required by opening one or more gates. An uncontrolled spillway, in contrast, does not have gates; the rate of discharge is controlled only by the depth of water above the reservoir's spillway. Storage volume in the reservoir above the spillway crest can only be used for the temporary storage of floodwater. In an intermediate type, normal level regulation of the reservoir is controlled by the mechanical gates. If inflow to the reservoir exceeds the gate's capacity, an artificial channel called either an auxiliary or emergency spillway, blocked by a fuse plug dike will operate.

The fuse plug is designed to over-top and wash out in case of a large flood, greater than the discharge capacity of the spillway gates. Although it may take many months to restore the fuse plug and channel after such an operation, the total damage and cost to repair is less than if the main water-retaining structures had been overtopped; the fuse plug concept is used where it would be costly to build a spillway with capacity for the probable maximum flood. A chute spillway is a common and basic design which transfers excess water from behind the dam down a smooth decline into the river below; these are designed following an ogee curve. Most they are lined on the bottom and sides with concrete to protect the dam and topography, they may have a controlling device and some are thinner and multiply lined if space and funding are tight. In addition, they are not always intended to dissipate energy like stepped spillways. Chute spillways can be ingrained with a baffle of concrete blocks but have a'flip lip' and/or dissipator basin which creates a hydraulic jump, protecting the toe of the dam from erosion.

Stepped channels and spillways have been used for over 3,000 years. Despite being superseded by more modern engineering techniques such as hydraulic jumps in the mid twentieth century, since around 1985 interest in stepped spillways and chutes has been renewed due to the use of new construction materials and design techniques; the steps produce considerable energy dissipation along the chute and reduce the size of the required downstream energy dissipation basin. Research is still active on the topic, with newer developments on embankment dam overflow protection systems, converging spillways and small weir design. A bell-mouth spillway is designed like an inverted bell where water can enter around the entire perimeter; these uncontrolled spillways are called morning glory, or glory hole spillways. In areas where the surface of the reservoir may freeze, this type of spillway is fitted with ice-breaking arrangements to prevent the spillway from becoming ice-bound. In some cases bell-mouth spillways are gate controlled.

The spillway at Hungry Horse Dam, in Montana, U. S. the highest morning glory structure in the world, is controlled by a 64-by-12-foot ring gate. One of the most well-known of these spillways is the one in Covão dos Conchos reservoir lake, in Portugal, constructed to look like a natural formation; the largest bell-mouth spillway is in Geehi Dam, in New South Wales, measuring 105 ft in diameter at the lake's surface. A siphon makes use of the difference in the height between the intake and the outlet to create a pressure difference needed to remove excess water. Siphons however require priming or the removal of air in the bend in order for them to function and most siphon spillways are designed with a system that makes use of water to remove the air and automatically prime the siphon. One such design is the volute siphon which makes use of water forced into a spiral vortex by volutes or fins on a funnel that draw air out of the system; the priming happens automatically when the water level rises above the inlets that are used to drive the priming process.

Other spillway types include an ogee crest which over-tops a dam, a side channel that wraps around the topography of a dam and

The Classics in Rhythm

The Classics in Rhythm is an album by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, published in 1989 by Arista Records as part of the Hooked on Classics series. This album was released as Hooked on Rhythm & Classics in the UK and as Rhythm & Classics in the Netherlands. Symphony No. 5 / Beethoven William Tell Overture / Rossini Canon / Pachelbel The Phantom Of The Opera / Andrew Lloyd Webber In The Hall Of The Mountain King / Grieg Flight Of The Bumble Bee / Rimsky-Korsakov Ode To Joy / Beethoven Arrival Of The Queen Of Sheba / Brandenburg Concerto No.3 / Handel, Bach Aranjuez Mon Amour / Rodrigo Post Horn Gallop / Koenig Toccata And Fugue In D Minor / Bach Sabre Dance / Khachaturian


Toihoukura is the school of Māori Visual Arts at Eastern Institute of Technology and is based in Gisborne, New Zealand. It is one of New Zealand’s predominant Māori Visual Arts schools. Toihoukura has developed a reputation for being an innovative national centre of Māori art practice, but is known for its involvement in community projects such as wharenui conservation. Students from Toihoukura have worked on Cliff Whiting’s marae at Te Papa and panels used at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games. Toihoukura is known for the distinctive style of contemporary Māori art it has developed, as well as its whare wānanga approach to learning. Toihoukura was founded in 1990 by Ivan Ehau at Tairawhiti Polytechnic. Tā moko artist Derek Lardelli joined the staff in 1992, kowhaiwhai artist Sandy Adsett in 1993, painter Steve Gibbs in 1994 and weaver Christina Wirihana in 2011; the school includes the Maia gallery, a koru-shaped space used for exhibitions with a meeting-house style entry way, the result of a collaboration between Gisborne architect Graeme Nicholl and Toihoukura tutors.

Toihoukura’s philosophy is to make sure that Māori art forms are continually developed. Toihoukura's philosophy is achieved in a wānanga learning environment that encourages each student to develop a strong sense of imagery related to their own ancestral whakapapa, while developing and professionally; the faculty offers the following programmes: NZ Certificate in Ngā Toi: Ka Tipu te Whaihanga Bachelor of Māori Visual Arts Te Hono ki Toi Bachelor of Professional Creative Practice Te Ara Pourewa: Graduate Diploma in Heritage and Museum Studies Te Hono ki Toi Master of Professional Creative Practice Each year the top student at Toihoukura is awarded the Ruanuku Award. A piece of the student’s work is given to Tairāwhiti Museum through the support of Professor Jack Richards who has sponsored the prize since 1995

Israeli Salad (album)

Israeli Salad is the 12th instrumental release by producer and musician The Alchemist. The album is a concept album, based on Israeli samples; the album was produced by Alchemist, was released through his own ALC Records on May 26, 2015. The Alchemist's father is a businessman of Israeli descent. After record shopping in Israel while visiting there, in a 2012 Billboard interview, Alchemist stated that he plans on creating an instrumental album with all Israeli samples; the project developed much and he announced it in late March 2015. Like other albums by The Alchemist, Israeli Salad is an instrumental hip hop album consisting of beats and audio collages; the album has many recordings in Hebrew. Some of the beats in the album were used before on rap produced by The Alchemist. For example, "The Type" was the beat of a song of the same title, featuring Prodigy, on Curren$y and Alchemist's album "Covert Coup", "Bold" was on Boldy James and Alchemist's album "My 1st Chemistry Set", more. All songs were produced and mixed by The Alchemist

1990s in video games

The 1990s was the third decade in the industry's history. It was a decade of marked innovation in video gaming, it was a decade of transition from sprite-based graphics to full-fledged 3D graphics and it gave rise to several genres of video games including, but not limited to, the first person shooter, real-time strategy, survival horror, MMO. Handheld gaming began to become more popular throughout the decade, thanks in part to the release of the Game Boy. Arcade games, although still popular in the early 1990s, began to decline as home consoles became more common. Starting in 1990 and ending in 1993, the fourth generation of video game consoles consisted of games and systems programmed for the 16-bit era. During this generation, 2D graphics had improved over the previous generation and experimentation began to occur with 3D graphics, although 3D games were more prevalent on the PC at the time; the fourth generation was the first time compact discs were considered a viable port for video game retail sales with the CD-i.

Some of the most notable systems released during this generation were the Mega Drive/Genesis, the Super NES and the Neo Geo. Nintendo's Game Boy was released during the fourth generation, which would become the most popular series of handheld gaming systems during the 1990s. A rivalry between Sega and Nintendo occurred during this generation, starting the 2nd major console war, The 1st being between Atari 2600 & Intellivision. Starting in 1993 and ending in 1999, the fifth generation of video games are most known to be the 32/64 bit era and for being the transition period for video games to evolve into the third dimension; the Nintendo 64, PlayStation, Sega Saturn are considered to be the big three gaming systems of this generation. With the introduction of the PlayStation and Saturn, compact discs began to replace cartridges however Nintendo continued using them with the Nintendo 64 due to the load times on CDs at the time and became one of the last cartridge based systems in mass production.

The sixth generation was initiated by the release of the Dreamcast in 1999. It introduced several innovations including Internet gaming as a standard feature through its built-in modem, a web browser, it was the first home console to always display full SD resolution. Despite its early success, the Dreamcast was discontinued prematurely as sales slowed following the release of the PlayStation 2 on March 4, 2000. Said to be one of the most revolutionary video games, Super Mario 64 was praised for how it took to 3D environments of wide open spaces and graphics at the time. Many games that moved onto 3D tried to mimic Mario's success. Instead of pixels, polygons became a standard sight to be in video games from on as they looked more lifelike when programmed into the right shapes. Preceding Super Mario 64 by 3 years, was Doom, credited as the origin of modern FPS video games; some people give this credit to Wolfenstein 3D, as it was released a year and a half earlier than Doom, but was not nearly as popular."Wolfenstein 3D" was one of the first video games to feature texture mapping where graphical textures are wrapped around 3D objects.

Lara Croft of the Tomb Raider series became the first video game sex symbol, becoming a recognizable figure in the entertainment industry throughout the late 1990s. Nearly every system released in the mid-late 1990s began to move to the new CD-ROM technology, with the Nintendo 64 being the last major home video game console to use ROM cartridges. Appealing to publishers was the fact that CDs could be produced at less expense and with more flexibility, they were able to pass the lower costs onto consumers. In particular, the fifth generation marked a turning point for optical-based storage media; as games grew more complex in content and graphics, the CD proved more than capable of providing enough space for the extra data. The cartridge format, was pushed beyond the limits of its storage capacity. Many game developers shifted their support away from the Nintendo 64 to the PlayStation. Due to CD-ROMs lacking the built-in memory of ROM Cartridges, the Sony PlayStation introduced the use of memory cards to store saved game data.

This became the standard for video game consoles until it was replaced by the use of hard drives and built-in flash memory during the seventh generation in the late first decade of the 21st century. The Super NES controller introduced a more rounded dog-bone like design and added two more face buttons, "X" and "Y", arranging the four in a diamond formation. Another addition was the "L" and "R" shoulder buttons, which have been imitated by most controllers since; the PlayStation controller was the first standard operating device for a home console to use two handle-bars at the bottom of the controller whereas this feature had been relegated to niche specialist controllers. This has been standard in most game controllers since; the Virtual Boy controller was a controller which utilized dual joypads similar to how analog sticks functioned in "dual control" sixth-generation systems. The presence of two pads was an effort to control objects in a 3D environment. Analog stick, it was subsequently followed in the industry during the fifth generation by the 3D Control Pad, the Sony Dual Analog gamepad which introduced the use of two analog sticks, the Sony DualShock.

Since all major video g

1990 Soviet Union presidential election

Presidential elections were held in the Soviet Union on 14 March 1990 to elect a president for a five-year term. This was the only presidential election in the Soviet Union, as the post of president was introduced in 1990, the Soviet Union disintegrated in the following year; the elections were uncontested, with Mikhail Gorbachev as the only candidate. Although the constitution required the president to be directly-elected, it was decided that the first elections should be held on an indirect basis as it was necessary for a president to be elected and processes taking place in the country did not leave time for elections to be held. On February 7, 1990, about a month prior to the election, Communist Party leaders voted on establishing a presidency; the third Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR began on 12 March 1990. The congress decided to create the post of President of the USSR; the president would be elected to five-year terms. The CPD would elect the president for this election cycle turn over future elections to the public starting in 1995—which never happened due to the USSR's collapse in 1991.

On 14 March during a plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, Interior Minister Vadim Bakatin and former Prime Minister Nikolai Ryzhkov were nominated as presidential candidates. Gorbachev worked with the CPD to make sure. One of the tactics he used was threatening to resign if a two-thirds majority wasn't attained. At the time of the elections, 2,245 of the 2,250 seats were filled. March 15, the day after the election, at a meeting of the Congress of People's Deputies, Gorbachev took office as President. On March 24, 10 days after the election, President Gorbachev appointed his cabinet; the means of this election drew mixed reactions. Sergei Stankevich, a deputy from Moscow, decided that he would abstain from voting, despite supporting Gorbachev, because he believed that the president should face a nationwide vote. Others were upset with the lack of opposition against Gorbachev for a position that sought to increase democracy throughout the USSR. Sakhalin Island deputy Ivan Zhdakayev expressed discontent over this: "Elections mean a popular vote, not this charade."

Kazakhstani deputy Olzhas Suleimenov believed that reforms under Gorbachev were inconsistent