The Ramones were an American punk rock band that formed in the New York City neighborhood of Forest Hills, Queens, in 1974. They are sometimes cited as the first true punk rock group. Despite achieving only limited commercial success the band was influential in the United States and the United Kingdom. All of the band members adopted pseudonyms ending with the surname "Ramone", although none of them were biologically related, they performed 2,263 concerts, touring nonstop for 22 years. In 1996, after a tour with the Lollapalooza music festival, the band played a farewell concert and disbanded. By 2014, all four of the band's original members had died – lead singer Joey Ramone, bass guitarist Dee Dee Ramone, guitarist Johnny Ramone and drummer Tommy Ramone. Recognition of the band's importance built over the years, are now mentioned in many assessments of all-time great rock music, such as number 26 in the Rolling Stone magazine list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" and number 17 in VH1's "100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock".
In 2002, the Ramones were ranked the second-greatest band of all time by Spin magazine, trailing only by the Beatles. On March 18, 2002, the original four members and Tommy's replacement on drums, Marky Ramone, were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on their first year of eligibility, though Joey had died by then. In 2011, the group was awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award; the original members of the band met in and around the middle-class neighborhood of Forest Hills in the New York City borough of Queens. John Cummings and Thomas Erdelyi had both been in a high-school garage band from 1965 to 1967 known as the Tangerine Puppets, they became friends with Douglas Colvin, who had moved to the area from Germany, Jeffrey Hyman, the initial lead singer of the glam rock band Sniper, founded in 1972. The Ramones began taking shape in early 1974 when Cummings and Colvin invited Hyman to join them in a band. Colvin wanted to play guitar and sing, Cummings would play guitar and Hyman would play drums.
The lineup was to be completed with their friend Richie Stern on bass. However, after only a few rehearsals it became clear that Richie Stern could not play bass, so in addition to singing, Colvin switched from guitar to bass and Cummings became the only guitarist. Colvin was the first to adopt the name "Ramone", he was inspired by Paul McCartney's use of the pseudonym Paul Ramon during his Silver Beetles days. Dee Dee convinced the other members to take on the name and came up with the idea of calling the band the Ramones. Hyman and Cummings became Johnny Ramone, respectively. A friend of the band, Monte A. Melnick, helped to arrange rehearsal time for them at Manhattan's Performance Studios, where he worked. Johnny's former bandmate Erdelyi was set to become their manager. Soon after the band was formed, Dee Dee realized that he could not sing and play his bass guitar simultaneously. Dee Dee would continue, however, to count off each song's tempo with his signature rapid-fire shout of "1-2-3-4!"
Joey soon realized that he could not sing and play drums and left the position of drummer. While auditioning prospective replacements, Erdelyi would take to the drums and demonstrate how to play the songs, it became apparent that he was able to perform the group's music better than anyone else, he joined the band as Tommy Ramone. The Ramones played before an audience for the first time on March 1974, at Performance Studios; the songs they played were fast and short. Around this time, a new music scene was emerging in New York centered on two clubs in downtown Manhattan—Max's Kansas City and, more famously, CBGB; the Ramones made their CBGB debut on August 16, 1974. Legs McNeil, who cofounded Punk magazine the following year described the impact of that performance: "They were all wearing these black leather jackets, and they counted off this song... and it was just this wall of noise... They looked so striking; these guys were not hippies. This was something new."The band swiftly became regulars at the club, playing there seventy-four times by the end of the year.
After garnering considerable attention for their performances—which averaged about seventeen minutes from beginning to end—the group was signed to a recording contract in late 1975 by Seymour Stein of Sire Records. After they were seen by Sire A&R man Craig Leon he brought the band to the attention of the label. Stein's wife, Linda Stein, saw the band play at Mothers. By this time, the Ramones were recognized as leaders of the new scene, being referred to as "punk"; the group's unusual frontman had a lot to do with their impact. As Dee Dee explained, "All the other singers were copying David Johansen, copying Mick Jagger... But Joey was unique unique." The Ramones recorded their debut album, Ramones, in February 1976. Of the fourteen songs on the album, the longest, "I Don't Wanna Go Down to the Basement" surpassed two and a half minutes. While the songwriting credits were shared by the entire band, Dee Dee was the primary writer; the Ramones album was produced by Sire's Craig Leon, with Tommy as associate producer, on an low budget of about $6,400 and released in April.
The now iconic front cover photograph of the band was taken by Roberta Bayley, a photographer for Punk magazine. Punk, responsible for codifying the term for the scene emerging around CBGB, ran
Michael Azerrad is an American author, music journalist and musician. A graduate of Columbia University, he has written for publications such as Spin, Rolling Stone, The New York Times. Azerrad's 1993 biography Come as You Are: The Story of Nirvana was named by Q as one of the 50 greatest rock books written, his 2001 book Our Band Could Be Your Life, a collection of profiles on prominent indie rock bands, received similar critical acclaim. Azerrad grew up in the New York City area and received his BA degree from Columbia College in 1983, his father was an art director at NBC, his mother a senior consultant at Art and Technology, a computer consulting firm in San Francisco. During his college years, he was both a roommate and a bandmate of keyboard virtuoso Marc Capelle May 21, 1988 he married Julia Barnett Just. After college, Azerrad played drums in various small bands while pursuing a career in music journalism. Besides writing features for Spin and Details, a stint at MTV News from 1987 through 1992, Azerrad wrote several hundred pieces for Rolling Stone from 1987 through 1993, including cover stories on The B-52's and Nirvana, was named contributing editor.
He has since written major features for The New Yorker, Italian GQ and the New York Times, as well as cover stories for Spin and Revolver. In 1993, Doubleday Books published Azerrad's definitive, best-selling biography of Nirvana, Come as You Are: The Story of Nirvana, which appeared six months before bandleader Kurt Cobain died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound. Azerrad spent many months interviewing the band members and their friends and associates, Cobain and the other members of the band shared a wide variety of archival materials with him, many of which are reproduced in the book. In 2000, Q magazine named it one of the 50 greatest rock books written, his subsequent book, Our Band Could Be Your Life was a collection of profiles of thirteen prominent indie rock bands of the 1980s and early 1990s, including Sonic Youth, Black Flag and The Replacements. In 2006 The Guardian rated the book as one of the 50 best music books written. In 2009, Paste magazine named it one of the 12 best music books of the decade.
He has spoken at various music festivals and conventions, including SXSW, CMJ, Insound, by:Larm, Orloff 5, the Incubate Festival. In 2006, Azerrad co-produced an award-winning documentary about Kurt Cobain, Kurt Cobain About a Son, he is the editor of See a Little Light, the autobiography of former Hüsker Dü and Sugar leader Bob Mould, published by Little, Brown in June 2011. During 2008/2009 Kingston, UK band Tubelord used Azerrad's name in their single "I Am Azerrad," which includes the line "I kill today, I'll kill you Azerrad," prompting Azerrad to write a humorous essay about the experience for Spin magazine. Since 2002 Azerrad has been member of now defunct indie band the King of France, whose acclaimed self-titled debut album was released in 2004, in 2005 became an original member of Reprise Records recording artists the LeeVees. In summer 2009, he became a founding member of children's music band the Macaroons, whose debut album Let's Go Coconuts was released by JDub Records in spring 2010.
Http://rockcriticsarchives.com/interviews/michaelazerrad/michaelazerrad_fury.html http://rockcriticsarchives.com/interviews/michaelazerrad/michaelazerrad_woods.html https://www.allmusic.com/artist/p559714
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, born Anjum Pervaiz Ali Khan, was a Pakistani vocalist and musician a singer of Qawwali, a form of Sufi Islamic devotional music. Considered one of the greatest voices recorded, he possessed an extraordinary range of vocal abilities and could perform at a high level of intensity for several hours. Extending the 600-year old Qawwali tradition of his family, Khan is credited with introducing Qawwali music to international audiences, he is popularly known as "Shahenshah-e-Qawwali", meaning "The Emperor of Qawwali". Born in Faisalabad, Khan had his first public performance at the age of 16, at his father's chelum, he became the head of the family qawwali party in 1971. He was signed by Oriental Star Agencies, England in the early 1980s. Khan went on to release movie scores and albums in Europe, Japan and the U. S, he engaged in collaborations and experiments with Western artists, becoming a well-known world music artist. He toured extensively. In addition to popularising Qawwali music, he had a big impact on contemporary South Asian popular music, including Pakistani pop, Indi-pop and Bollywood music.
Khan was born in a Punjabi Muslim family in Faisalabad, Pakistan, in 1948, shortly after the partition of India in 1947 during which his family had migrated to Pakistan from their native city of Jalandhar in Punjab, British India. His family originates from Basti Sheikh in Jalandhar, his ancestors adopted it as a profession. He was the fifth child and first son of Fateh Ali Khan, a musicologist, vocalist and qawwal. Khan's family, which included four older sisters and a younger brother, Farrukh Fateh Ali Khan, grew up in central Faisalabad; the tradition of qawwali in the family had passed down through successive generations for 600 years. His father did not want Khan to follow the family's vocation, he had his heart set on Nusrat choosing a much more respectable career path and becoming a doctor or engineer because he felt Qawwali artists had low social status. However, Khan showed such an aptitude for and interest in Qawwali, that his father relented, he began by learning the tabla before moving on to vocals.
In 1964, Khan's father died, leaving his musical education under the supervision of his paternal uncles, Mubarak Ali Khan and Salamat Ali Khan. He is the uncle of singer Rahat Fateh Ali Khan. Nusrat was known as Pervaiz until he visited Ghulam Ghaus Samdani who changed his name to Nusrat Fateh Ali. Samdani told him that he would become a great singer. In 1971, after the death of his uncle Mubarak Ali Khan, Khan became the official leader of the family Qawwali party and the party became known as Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Mujahid Mubarak Ali Khan & Party. Khan's first public performance as the leader of the Qawwali party was at a studio recording broadcast as part of an annual music festival organized by Radio Pakistan, known as Jashn-e-Baharan. Khan sang in Urdu and Punjabi and in Persian, Braj Bhasha and Hindi, his first major hit in Pakistan was the song Haq Ali Ali, performed in a traditional style and with traditional instrumentation. The song featured restrained use of Khan's sargam improvisations.
In the summer of 1985, Khan performed at the World of Music and Dance festival in London. He performed in Paris in 1985 and 1988, he first visited Japan in 1987, at the invitation of the Japan Foundation. He performed at the 5th Asian Traditional Performing Art Festival in Japan, he performed at Brooklyn Academy of Music, New York in 1989, earning him admiration from the American audience. Khan, throughout his career, had great understanding with many south Asian singers such as Alam Lohar, the Noor Jehan, various other Pakistani and Indian singers. In the 1992 to 1993 academic year, Khan was a Visiting Artist in the Ethnomusicology department at the University of Washington, Washington, United States. In 1988, Khan teamed up with Peter Gabriel on the soundtrack to The Last Temptation of Christ, which led to Khan being signed to Gabriel's Real World label, he would go on to release five albums of traditional Qawwali through Real World, along with the more experimental albums Mustt Mustt, Night Song, the posthumous remix album Star Rise.
Khan's experimental work for Real World, which featured his collaborations with the Canadian guitarist Michael Brook, spurred on several further collaborations with a number of other Western composers and rock musicians. One of the most noteworthy of these collaborations came in 1995, when Khan grouped with Pearl Jam's lead singer Eddie Vedder on two songs for the soundtrack to Dead Man Walking. Khan provided vocals for The Prayer Cycle, put together by Jonathan Elias, but died before the tracks could be completed. Alanis Morissette was brought in to sing with his unfinished vocals. In 2002, Gabriel included Khan's vocals on the posthumously released track "Signal to Noise" on his album Up. Khan's album Intoxicated Spirit was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Traditional Folk Album in 1997; that same year, his album Night Song was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best World Music Album. Khan contributed songs to, performed in, several Pakistani films. Shortly before his death, he composed music for three Bollywood films, which includes the film Aur Pyaar Ho Gaya, in which he sang for "Koi Jaane Koi Na Jaane" on-screen with the lead pair, "Zindagi Jhoom Kar".
He composed music for Kartoos, where he sang for "Ishq Da Rutba", "Bahaa Na Aansoo", alongside Udit Narayan. He died shortly prior to the movie's release, his final music composi
Le Sony'r Ra, better known as Sun Ra, was an American jazz composer, bandleader and synthesizer player, poet known for his experimental music, "cosmic" philosophy, prolific output, theatrical performances. For much of his career, Ra led "The Arkestra", an ensemble with an ever-changing name and flexible line-up. Born and raised in Alabama, Blount became involved in the Chicago jazz scene during the late 1940s, he soon abandoned. He developed a complex persona and an idiosyncratic, myth-based credo that would make him a pioneer of Afrofuturism, he claimed to be an alien from Saturn on a mission to preach peace, throughout his life he publicly denied ties to his prior identity. His eclectic and avant-garde music echoed the entire history of jazz, from ragtime and early New Orleans hot jazz, to swing music, free jazz and fusion, his compositions ranged from keyboard solos to works for big bands of over 30 musicians, along with electronic excursions, chants, percussion pieces, anthems. From the mid-1950s until his death, Ra led the musical collective The Arkestra.
Its performances included dancers and musicians dressed in elaborate, futuristic costumes inspired by ancient Egyptian attire and the Space Age. Though his mainstream success was limited, Sun Ra was a prolific recording artist and frequent live performer, remained both influential and controversial throughout his life for his music and persona, he is now considered an innovator. Over the course of his career, he recorded dozens of singles and over one hundred full-length albums, comprising well over 1000 songs, making him one of the most prolific recording artists of the 20th century, he was born Herman Blount on May 22, 1914, in Birmingham, Alabama, as discovered by his biographer, John F. Szwed, published in his 1998 book, he was named after the popular vaudeville stage magician Black Herman, who had impressed his mother. He was nicknamed "Sonny" from his childhood, had an older sister and half-brother, was doted upon by his mother and grandmother. For decades little was known about Sun Ra's early life, he contributed to its obscurity.
As a self-invented person, he gave evasive, contradictory or nonsensical answers to personal questions, denied his birth name. He speculated, only half in jest, that he was distantly related to Elijah Poole famous as Elijah Muhammad, leader of the Nation of Islam, his birthday for years remained unknown, as he claimed it for years ranging from 1910 to 1918. Only a few years before his death, the date of Sun Ra's birth was still a mystery. Jim Macnie's notes for Blue Delight said, but Szwed was able to uncover a wealth of information about his early life and confirmed a birth date of May 22, 1914. As a child, Blount was a skilled pianist. By the age of 11 or 12, he was sight reading music. Birmingham was an important stop for touring musicians, he saw famous musicians such as Fletcher Henderson, Duke Ellington, Fats Waller, along with others who were quite talented but never made the big time. Sun Ra once said, "The world let down a lot of good musicians". In his teenage years, Blount demonstrated prodigious musical talent: many times, according to acquaintances, he went to big band performances and produced full transcriptions of the bands' songs from memory.
By his mid-teens, Blount was performing semi-professionally as a solo pianist, or as a member of various ad hoc jazz and R&B groups. He attended Birmingham's segregated Industrial High School, where he studied under music teacher John T. "Fess" Whatley, a demanding disciplinarian, respected and whose classes produced many professional musicians. Though religious, his family was not formally associated with any Christian church or sect. Blount had few or no close friends in high school but was remembered as kind-natured and quiet, an honor roll student, a voracious reader, he took advantage of the Black Masonic Lodge as one of the few places in Birmingham where African Americans had unlimited access to books. Its collection on Freemasonry and other esoteric concepts made a strong impression on him. By his teens, Blount suffered from cryptorchidism, it left him with a nearly constant discomfort. Szwed suggests that Blount felt shame about it and the condition contributed to his isolation. In 1934 Blount was offered his first full-time musical job by Ethel Harper, his biology teacher from the high school, who had organized a band to pursue a career as a singer.
Blount joined a musicians' trade union and toured with Harper's group through the US Southeast and Midwest. When Harper left the group mid-tour to move to New York, Blount took over leadership of the group, renaming it the Sonny Blount Orchestra, they continued touring for several months before dissolving as unprofitable. Though the first edition of the Sonny Blount Orchestra was not financially successful, they earned positive notice from fans and other musicians. Blount afterward found steady employment as a musicia
The Rolling Stone Album Guide
The Rolling Stone Album Guide known as The Rolling Stone Record Guide, is a book that contains professional music reviews written and edited by staff members from Rolling Stone magazine. Its first edition was published in 1979 and its last in 2004; the guide can be seen at Rate Your Music, while a list of albums given a five star rating by the guide can be seen at Rocklist.net. The Rolling Stone Record Guide was the first edition of what would become The Rolling Stone Album Guide, it was edited by Dave Marsh and John Swenson, included contributions from 34 other music critics. It is divided into sections by musical genre and lists artists alphabetically within their respective genres. Albums are listed alphabetically by artist although some of the artists have their careers divided into chronological periods. Dave Marsh, in his Introduction, cites as precedents Leonard Maltin's book TV Movies and Robert Christgau's review column in the Village Voice, he gives Tape Guide as raw sources of information.
The first edition included black and white photographs of many of the covers of albums which received five star reviews. These titles are listed together in the Five-Star Records section, coincidentally five pages in length; the edition included reviews for many comedy artists including Lenny Bruce, Lord Buckley, Bill Cosby, The Firesign Theatre, Spike Jones, Richard Pryor. Comedy artists were listed in the catch-all section "Rock, Soul and Pop", which included the genres of folk, bluegrass and reggae, as well as comedy. Traditional pop performers were not included, with the notable exceptions of Frank Sinatra and Nat King Cole. Included too were some difficult-to-classify artists. Big band jazz was handled selectively, with certain band leaders omitted, while others were included. Many other styles of jazz did appear in the Jazz section; the book was notable for the time in the provocative, "in your face" style of many of its reviews. For example, writing about Neil Young's song, "Down by the River", John Swenson described it both as an "FM radio classic", as a "wimp anthem".
His colleague, Dave Marsh, in reviewing the three albums of the jazz fusion group Chase, gave a one-word review: "Flee.". Introduction Rock, Soul and Pop Blues Jazz Gospel Anthologies and Original Casts Five-Star Records Glossary Selected Bibliography The guide employs a five star rating scale with the following descriptions of those ratings: Indispensable: a record that must be included in any comprehensive collection Excellent: a record of substantial merit, though flawed in some essential way. Good: a record of average worth, but one that might possess considerable appeal for fans of a particular style. Mediocre: a record, artistically insubstantial, though not wretched. Poor: a record where technical competence is at question or it was remarkably ill-conceived. Worthless: a record that need never have been created. Reserved for the most bathetic bathwater; the New Rolling Stone Record Guide was an update of 1979's The Rolling Stone Record Guide. Like the first edition, it was edited by Swenson.
It included contributions from 52 music critics and featured chronological album listings under the name of each artist. In many cases, updates from the first edition consist of short, one-sentence verdicts upon an artist's work. Instead of having separate sections such as Blues and Gospel, this edition compressed all of the genres it reviewed into one section except for Jazz titles which were removed for this edition and were expanded and published in 1985 Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide. Besides adding reviews for many emerging punk and New Wave bands, this edition added or expanded a significant number of reviews of long-established reggae and ska artists. Since the goal of this guide was to review records that were in print at the time of publication, this edition featured a list of artists who were included in the first edition but were not included in the second edition because all of their material was out of print; this edition dispensed with the album cover photos found in the first edition.
Introduction to the Second Edition Introduction to the First Edition Ratings Reviewers Record Label Abbreviations Rock, Blues, Country and Pop Anthologies and Original Cast Index to Artists in the First Edition The second edition uses the same rating system as the first edition. The only difference is that in addition to a rating, the second edition employs the pilcrow mark to indicate a title, out of print at the time the guide was published; some artists had the ratings for their albums lowered as the book now offered a revisionist slant to rock's history. The Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide was published in 1985 and incorporated the jazz listings omitted from The New Rolling S
Eric Weisbard is an American music critic known for founding the Pop Conference, hosted annually by the Museum of Pop Culture. He organized the conference for many years. Weisbard serves as an associate professor of American studies at the University of Alabama, he is the author of both a 33⅓ book entry about Use Your Illusion and the 2014 book Top 40 Democracy: The Rival Mainstreams of American Music, a former editor for Spin. With Craig Marks, he was the co-editor of the Spin Alternative Record Guide, has written for the Village Voice. For Top 40 Democracy, he received the 2015 Woody Guthrie Award from the International Association for the Study of Popular Music's United States branch. Weisbard is married to Ann Powers, a music critic for NPR. Eric Weisbard publications indexed by Google Scholar