SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Spin bowling

Spin bowling is a bowling technique in cricket and the bowler is referred to as a spinner. The main aim of spin bowling is to bowl the cricket ball with rapid rotation so that when it bounces on the pitch it will deviate from its normal straight path, thus making it difficult for the batsman to hit the ball cleanly; the speed the ball travels is not critical, is slower than that for fast bowling. A typical spin delivery has a speed in the range 70–90 km/h. Spin bowling is divided into four different categories, depending on the particular physical technique used. There is no overlap between the two basic biomechanical techniques of wrist spin and finger spin. Off spin – Right-handed with finger spin technique. Left-arm orthodox spin – Left-handed with finger spin technique. Leg spin – Right-handed with wrist spin technique. Left-arm unorthodox spin – Left-handed with wrist spin technique. Depending on technique, a spin bowler uses either predominant wrist or finger motion to impart spin to the ball around a horizontal axis, at an oblique angle to the length of the pitch.

This sort of spin means it is possible for the Magnus effect to cause the ball to deviate sideways through the air, before it bounces. Such deviation is called drift; the combination of drift and spin can make the ball's trajectory complex, with a change of direction at the bounce. Spin bowlers are given the task of bowling with an old, worn cricket ball. A new cricket ball better suits the techniques of fast bowling than spin bowling, while a worn one grips the pitch better and achieves greater spin. Spin bowlers are more effective in a game, as the pitch dries up and begins to crack and crumble; this again produces greater deviation. Spin bowlers that open the bowling are rare, but became a more viable option with the introduction of Twenty20 cricket when pitch conditions are in their favour, the ball generally drifts more in the air. Spin bowlers can be used tactically in shorter forms of the game, to'take the pace off the ball'; this strategy is effective to slow down the scoring rates of batsmen who specialise in making use of the pace of faster bowlers to score runs quickly.

The lower inherent momentum of a spin bowler necessitates more power exerted by the batsman to achieve the same results. Both finger spin and wrist spin bowlers use a range of different angles of spin to confuse the batsman and dismiss them. Many of these variations have direct equivalents in the other discipline, but the names used for the various deliveries may be different. In recent times, spin bowling has been a forte of the bowlers from the South Asian sub-continent; the primary reason for, that the pitches in the sub-continent provide more help to the spin bowlers. The faster the pitch degenerates, the earlier the spinners come into the picture. Australian and South African pitches are very hard and bouncy, helping the fast bowlers more, they do not break up much during the duration of the match. In contrast, pitches in the sub-continent are not that hard, they are not held together by the grass as much. In addition to this, spin bowling is considered to be less tiring than pace bowling as it does not employ a lengthy run up.

Therefore, spin bowling is more prevalent in the hot and humid conditions of the sub-continent as a form of energy conservation in multi-day competitions. In general, leg-spin is considered to be one of the toughest types of bowling in which to keep control of the ball, but it is effective in picking off wickets, it is customary among cricket commentators to describe and judge the quality of spin bowling in terms of the characteristics flight, bounce and dip. All these are arts to require lots of practice; the basic trajectory of spin bowling is two-lines-at-an-angle, but the above characteristics modify this'normal' trajectory into more complex shapes. Turn: How much the ball turns after pitching, it depends on the direction of revolutions of the ball. The movement and rotation of the ball varies, depending on the position of the finger. An occasional unexpected straight ball can usefully be included in an attack, but spin variation is the main technique used to deceive the batsman and take wickets.

A high rate of turn is above 33 rev/second, or 2000 rpm, which Graeme Swann spin over 2000 rpm, the most amongst English spinners until Liam Dawson topped 35 rev/second, or 2100 rpm. The slower the ball, it tends to deviate more. For an offspinner, you will have to bowl from a wider of off-stump to get the ball to turn into the right-handed batsman and force them to nick off the edge to a fielder or into the top of off stump. Bounce: Getting the ball to bounce more than normal, so that the ball meets the batsman at a greater height than expected. Sometimes, if the ball spins horizontally, the batsman will not be able to make contact with the ball and it may hit the stumps before the second bounce. Drift: Getting the ball to move sideways while in air. Late drift causes the batsman to cover the wrong line and the ball may catch the edge of the bat. Dip: Getting the ball to pitch at a shorter distance than normal. Late dip causes the batsman to misjudge the l

Spearman–Brown prediction formula

The Spearman–Brown prediction formula known as the Spearman–Brown prophecy formula, is a formula relating psychometric reliability to test length and used by psychometricians to predict the reliability of a test after changing the test length. The method was published independently by Brown. Predicted reliability, ρ x x ′ ∗, is estimated as: ρ x x ′ ∗ = n ρ x x ′ 1 + ρ x x ′ where n is the number of "tests" combined and ρ x x ′ is the reliability of the current "test"; the formula predicts the reliability of a new test composed by replicating the current test n times. Thus n = 2 implies doubling the exam length by adding items with the same properties as those in the current exam. Values of n less than one may be used to predict the effect of shortening a test; the formula can be rearranged to predict the number of replications required to achieve a degree of reliability: n = ρ x x ′ ∗ ρ x x ′ Until the developement of tau-equivalent reliability, split-half reliability using the Spearman-Brown formula was the only way to obtain inter-item reliability.

After splitting the whole item into arbitrary halves, the correlation between the split-halves can be converted into reliability by applying the Spearman-Brown formula. That is, ρ x x ′ = 2 ρ 12 1 + ρ 12,where ρ 12 is the Pearson correlation between the split-halves. Although the Spearman-Brown formula is used as a split-half reliability coefficient after the development of tau-equivalent reliability, some scholars claim that this method is still useful. Cho suggests using systematic nomenclature and formula expressions, criticizing that reliability coefficients have been represented in an disorganized and inconsistent manner with inaccurate and uninformative names; the assumption of the Spearman-Brown formula is that split-halves are parallel, which means that the variances of the split-halves are equal. The systematic name proposed for the Spearman-Brown formula is split-half parallel reliability. In addition, the following systematic formula has been proposed. Ρ S P = 4 ρ 12 4 ρ 12 + 2 Split-half tau-equivalent reliability is a reliability coefficient that can be used when the variances of split-halves are not equal.

Flanagan-Rulon, Guttman suggested the following formula expressions: ρ F R 1 = 4 ρ 12 σ 1 σ 2 σ 1 2 + σ 2 2 + 2 ρ 12 σ 1 2 σ 2 2, ρ F R 2 = 1 − σ D 2 σ X 2, λ 4 = 2. Where

Scott Secor

Scott Secor is a former American football Placekicker for the Ball State Cardinals. Finished the regular season ranked 2nd in the FBS 1-A with 25 field goals made behind Josh Lambert from WVU with 27. With 25 field goals 2014 Secor is tied for 1st place in Ball State history with the most field goals in a single season, 2014. With 60 extra points in 2013, Secor is 2nd in Ball States record book behind Ian McGarvey, 2008. Secor made 25 out of 32 fields goals in his high school career including one for 51 yards; as a senior, he was named to the all-state second team. After a redshirt season in 2010, Secor’s played in his first college game in the 27–20 victory over Indiana University at Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, Ind. In this game Cardinal fans were introduced to new head coach Pete Lembo. Secor predominantly handles the kickoff duties for the Cardinals in 2011 Secor played in all 13 games, including the Beef'O' Brady's Bowl St. Petersburg, FL. Again he handled the kickoff duties for the Cardinals.

He had a season high nine kickoffs vs. Ohio for season best 510 yards. Other highlights included seven kickoffs vs Indiana, and eight kickoffs vs. Eastern Michigan, at Kent State and at Central Michigan. Secor made his first career field goal attempt on a 22-yarder in the 51–28 win over Illinois State, he made six extra points vs. Illinois State in the season opener. Highlights from 2013 include six extra points and two made field goals in the 48–27 win over Virginia. Secor made 13 consecutive field goals, the second longest streak in Ball State history, before missing one in the GoDaddy Bowl, he would finish the season 19 of 60 extra points. Finished the regular season ranked 1st in the FBS 1-A with 25 field goals made. Secor starts all 12 games in his senior season. Highlights include 17 points scored vs Akron. Secor made a career long 55 yard field goal to win the game in the 32–29 victory over Central Michigan. Secor punted for a single game record of 160 yards in the 17–13 loss to Iowa. Secor recorded his longest punt of 63 yards vs Toledo.

Secor was named the 2014 MAC Special Teams Player of the Year. As well as being named to the 2014 All-MAC First Team Offense. 2014 MAC Special Teams Player of the Year 2014 All-MAC First Team Offense Semifinalist for the 2014 Lou Groza Collegiate Placekicking Award 2013 All-Mid-American Conference Third Team