Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants; the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, in the larger Leiden urban area Teylingen and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south and some 40 km from Amsterdam to its north; the recreational area of the Kaag Lakes lies just to the northeast of Leiden. A university city since 1575, Leiden has been one of Europe's most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Leiden is a typical university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city and the many students from all over the world give the city a bustling and international atmosphere.
Many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden's motto: ‘City of Discoveries’. The city houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, Leiden University Medical Center. Leiden University is one of Europe's top universities, with thirteen Nobel Prize winners, it is a member of the League of European Research Universities and positioned in all international academic rankings. It is twinned with the location of the United Kingdom's oldest university. Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences together have around 35,000 students. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave. Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but in the arts. One of the world's most famous painters, was born and educated in Leiden. Other famous Leiden painters include Jan van Goyen and Jan Steen. Leiden was formed on an artificial hill at the confluence of the rivers Nieuwe Rijn.
In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon. The name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- "canal" in dative pluralis, thus meaning "at the canals". "Canal" is not the proper word. A leitha was a human-modified natural river natural artificial. Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum; this particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, the city's name was thought to be derived from the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in fact closer to the town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern-day Leiden was called Matilo; the landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill, was subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around 1100 the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold: Holland. Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland.
He captured Ada. Leiden received city rights in 1266. In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons. In 1420, during the Hook and Cod wars, Duke John III of Bavaria along with his army marched from Gouda in the direction of Leiden in order to conquer the city since Leiden did not pay the new Count of Holland Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, his niece and only daughter of Count William VI of Holland. Burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels, but John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first. He rolled the cannons along with his army but one, too heavy went by ship. By firing at the walls and gates with iron balls the citadels fell one by one. Within a week John of Bavaria conquered the castles of Poelgeest, Ter Does, Hoichmade, de Zijl, ter Waerd, Warmond and de Paddenpoel. On 24 June the army appeared before the walls of Leiden. On 17 August 1420, after a two-month siege the city surrendered to John of Bavaria.
The burgrave Filips of Wassenaar was stripped of his offices and rights and lived out his last years in captivity. Leiden flourished in the 17th century. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments of Leiden were important, after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. In the same period, Leiden developed an important publishing industry; the influential printer Christoffel Plantijn lived there at one time. One of his pupils was Lodewijk Elzevir, who established the largest bookshop and printing works in Leiden, a business continued by his descendants through 1712 and the name subsequently adopted by contemporary publisher Elsevier. In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town.
As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly on 3 Oc
Dyeing is the application of dyes or pigments on textile materials such as fibers and fabrics with the objective of achieving color with desired fastness. Dyeing is done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. Dye molecules are fixed to the fibre by absorption, diffusion, or bonding with temperature and time being key controlling factors; the bond between dye molecule and fibre may be weak, depending on the dye used. Dyeing and printing are different applications; the primary source of dye has been nature, with the dyes being extracted from animals or plants. Since the mid-19th century, humans have produced artificial dyes to achieve a broader range of colors and to render the dyes more stable to washing and general use. Different classes of dyes are used for different types of fiber and at different stages of the textile production process, from loose fibers through yarn and cloth to complete garments. Acrylic fibers are dyed with basic dyes, while nylon and protein fibers such as wool and silk are dyed with acid dyes, polyester yarn is dyed with disperse dyes.
Cotton is dyed with a range of dye types, including vat dyes, modern synthetic reactive and direct dyes. The word dye is from Old English dag and dah; the first known use of the word dye was before the 12th century. The earliest dyed flax fibers have been found in a prehistoric cave in the Republic of Georgia and date back to 34,000 BC. More evidence of textile dyeing dates back to the Neolithic period at the large Neolithic settlement at Çatalhöyük in southern Anatolia, where traces of red dyes from ocher, an iron oxide pigment derived from clay, were found. In China, dyeing with plants and insects has been traced back more than 5,000 years. Early evidence of dyeing comes from Sindh province in Pakistan, where a piece of cotton dyed with a vegetable dye was recovered from the archaeological site at Mohenjo-daro; the dye used in this case was madder, along with other dyes such as indigo, was introduced to other regions through trade. Natural insect dyes such as Cochineal and kermes and plant-based dyes such as woad and madder were important elements of the economies of Asia and Europe until the discovery of man-made synthetic dyes in the mid-19th century.
The first synthetic dye was William Perkin's mauveine in 1856, derived from coal tar. Alizarin, the red dye present in madder, was the first natural pigment to be duplicated synthetically in 1869, a development which led to the collapse of the market for grown madder; the development of new colored synthetic dyes followed and by the 1870s commercial dyeing with natural dyestuffs was disappearing. Dyes are applied to textile goods by printing from dye pastes. Methods include direct yarn dyeing. Selection of the appropriate dye is important because any given dye is not applicable on every type of fiber. Furthermore, resistance to washing and light differ among dyes; the choice of dye depends on the objective in dyeing. For example, indigo dyes have poor wash and rubbing fastness on denim, so they are used to produce washed-down effects on that fabric. In contrast, vat or reactive dyes are applied on cottons to achieve excellent washing fastness; the term "direct dye application" stems from some dyestuff having to be either fermented as in the case of some natural dye or chemically reduced as in the case of synthetic vat and sulfur dyes before being applied.
This renders the dye soluble so that it can be absorbed by the fiber since the insoluble dye has little substantivity to the fiber. Direct dyes, a class of dyes for dyeing cotton, are water-soluble and can be applied directly to the fiber from an aqueous solution. Most other classes of synthetic dye, other than vat and surface dyes, are applied in this way; the term may be applied to dyeing without the use of mordants to fix the dye once it is applied. Mordants were required to alter the hue and intensity of natural dyes and improve color fastness. Chromium salts were until extensively used in dyeing wool with synthetic mordant dyes; these were used for economical high color fastness dark shades such as navy. Environmental concerns have now restricted their use, they have been replaced with reactive and metal complex dyes that do not require mordant. There are many forms of yarn dyeing. Common forms are the hanks form. Cotton yarns are dyed at package form, acrylic or wool yarn are dyed at hank form.
In the continuous filament industry, polyester or polyamide yarns are always dyed at package form, while viscose rayon yarns are dyed at hank form because of technology. The common dyeing process of cotton yarn with reactive dyes at package form is as follows: The raw yarn is wound on a spring tube to achieve a package suitable for dye penetration; these softened. The packages are pressed up to a desired height to achieve suitable density of packing; the carrier is loaded on the dyeing machine and the yarn is dyed. After dyeing, the packages are unloaded from the carrier into a trolley. Now the trolley is taken to hydro extractor; the packages are hydro extracted to remove the maximum amount of water leaving the desired color into raw yarn. The packages are dried to achieve the final dyed package. After this process, the dyed yarn packages are delivered. Garment dyeing is the process of dyeing fashioned garments subs
A bobbin is a spindle or cylinder, with or without flanges, on which wire, thread or film is wound. Bobbins are found in sewing machines and within electronic equipment. In non-electrical applications the bobbin is used for tidy storage without tangles. In electrical applications a coil of wire carrying a current has important magnetic properties as solenoids; as used in spinning, knitting, sewing, or lacemaking, the bobbin provides temporary or permanent storage for yarn and may be made of plastic, bone, or wood. Bobbin lacemaking is a handcraft which requires the winding of yarn onto a temporary storage spindle made of wood turned on a lathe. Exotic woods are popular with contemporary lacemakers. Many lace designs require dozens of bobbins at any one time. Both traditional and contemporary bobbins may be decorated with designs, inscriptions, or pewter or wire inlays; the bobbins are'spangled' to provide additional weight to keep the thread in tension. A hole is drilled near the base to enable glass beads and other ornaments to be attached by a loop of wire.
These spangles provide a means of self-expression in the decoration of a tool of the craft. Antique and unique bobbins, sometimes spangled, have become sought after by collectors. Electrical transformers and relay coils use bobbins as permanent container for the wire to form and retain shape, to ease assembly of the windings into or onto the magnetic core; the bobbin may be made of thermosetting materials. This plastic has to have a TÜV, UL or other regulatory agency flammability rating for safety reasons; the term "bobbins" appears in northern English slang, meaning "rubbish", i.e. something worthless or incorrect. Taken from the cockney "bobbins of cotton", meaning "rotten"; this may be related to the contemporary British slang usage, where "bobbins" can be used to denote something negative in theatrical circles. Stott Park Bobbin Mill Axle The Craft of Bobbin Making
Asbestos is a set of six occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their asbestiform habit: i.e. long, thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes. The minerals are chrysotile, crocidolite, tremolite and actinolite. Asbestos has been mined for over 4,000 years, but large-scale mining began at the end of the 19th century, when manufacturers and builders began using asbestos for its desirable physical properties; some of those properties are sound absorption, average tensile strength and resistance to fire and electricity. It was used in such applications as electrical insulation for hotplate wiring and in building insulation; when asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are mixed with cement or woven into fabric or mats. These desirable properties led to asbestos being used widely until the late 20th century. Inhalation of asbestos fibers can cause serious and fatal illnesses including lung cancer and asbestosis.
Asbestos is estimated to cause 255,000 deaths per year. Concern for asbestos-related illness began in the 20th century and escalated during the 1920s and 1930s. By the 1980s and 1990s, asbestos trade and use were restricted, phased out, or banned outright in an increasing number of countries. Many developing countries still support the use of asbestos as a building material, mining of asbestos is ongoing, with the top producer Russia producing around one million metric tonnes in 2015. Despite the severity of asbestos-related diseases, the material has widespread use in many areas. Continuing long-term use of asbestos after harmful health effects were known or suspected, the slow emergence of symptoms decades after exposure ceased, made asbestos litigation the longest, most expensive mass tort in U. S. history though a much lesser legal issue in most other countries involved. Asbestos-related liability remains an ongoing concern for many manufacturers and reinsurers; the word "asbestos", first used in the 1600s derives from the Ancient Greek ἄσβεστος, meaning “unquenchable” or “inextinguishable”.
The name reflects use of the substance for wicks. It was adopted via the Old French abestos, which in turn got the word from Greek via Latin, but in the original Greek, it referred to quicklime, it is said by the Oxford English Dictionary to have been wrongly used by Pliny for asbestos, who popularized the misnomer. Asbestos was referred to in Greek as amiantos, meaning "undefiled", because it was not marked when thrown into a fire; this is the source for the word for asbestos such as the Portuguese amianto. It had been called "amiant" in English in the early 15th century, but this usage was superseded by "asbestos"; the word is pronounced or. People have used asbestos for thousands of years to create flexible objects, such as napkins, that resist fire. In the modern era, companies began producing asbestos consumer goods on an industrial scale. Now people recognize the health hazard that asbestos poses, it is banned or regulated around the world. Asbestos use dates back at least 4,500 years, when the inhabitants of the Lake Juojärvi region in East Finland strengthened earthenware pots and cooking utensils with the asbestos mineral anthophyllite.
One of the first descriptions of a material that may have been asbestos is in Theophrastus, On Stones, from around 300 BC, although this identification has been questioned. In both modern and ancient Greek, the usual name for the material known in English as "asbestos" is amiantos, adapted into the French as amiante and into Spanish and Portuguese as amianto. In modern Greek, the word ἀσβεστος or ασβέστης stands and for lime; the term asbestos is traceable to Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder's manuscript Natural History, his use of the term asbestinon, meaning "unquenchable". While Pliny or his nephew Pliny the Younger is popularly credited with recognising the detrimental effects of asbestos on human beings, examination of the primary sources reveals no support for either claim. Wealthy Persians amazed guests by cleaning a cloth by exposing it to fire. For example, according to Tabari, one of the curious items belonging to Khosrow II Parviz, the great Sassanian king, was a napkin that he cleaned by throwing it into fire.
Such cloth is believed to have been made of asbestos imported over the Hindu Kush. According to Biruni in his book, any cloths made of asbestos were called shostakeh; some Persians believed the fiber was the fur of an animal, called the samandar, which lived in fire and died when exposed to water, where the former belief that the salamander could tolerate fire originated. Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor, is said to have had a tablecloth made of asbestos. Marco Polo recounts having been shown, in a place he calls Ghinghin talas, "a good vein from which the cloth which we call of salamander, which cannot be burnt if it is thrown into the fire, is made..."Some archaeologists believe that ancients made shrouds of asbestos, wherein they burned the bodies of their kings, in order to preserve only their ashes, prevent them being mixed with those of wood or other combustible materials used in funeral pyres. Others assert that the ancients used asbestos to make perpetual wicks for other lamps.
A famous example is the golden lamp asbestos lychnis, which the sculptor Callimachus made for the Erech
Sisal, with the botanical name Agave sisalana, is a species of Agave native to southern Mexico but cultivated and naturalized in many other countries. It yields a stiff fibre used in making various products; the term sisal may refer depending on the context. It is sometimes referred to as "sisal hemp", because for centuries hemp was a major source for fibre, other fibre sources were named after it; the sisal fibre is traditionally used for rope and twine, has many other uses, including paper, footwear, bags and dartboards. The native origin of Agave sisalana is uncertain. Traditionally it was deemed to be a native of the Yucatán Peninsula, but there are no records of botanical collections from there, they were shipped from the Spanish colonial port of Sisal in Yucatán. The Yucatán plantations now cultivate henequen. H. S. Gentry hypothesized a Chiapas origin, on the strength of traditional local usage. Evidence of an indigenous cottage industry there suggests it as the original habitat location as a cross of Agave angustifolia and Agave kewensis.
The species is now naturalized in other parts of Mexico, as well as in Spain, Morocco, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, many parts of Africa, Madagascar, Réunion, China, the Ryukyu Islands, Pakistan, Burma, Thailand, the Solomon Islands, Polynesia, Fiji, Florida, Central America and the West Indies. Sisal plants, Agave sisalana, consist of a rosette of sword-shaped leaves about 1.5–2 metres tall. Young leaves may lose them as they mature; the sisal plant has a 7–10 year life-span and produces 200–250 commercially usable leaves. Each leaf contains an average of around 1000 fibres; the fibres account for only about 4% of the plant by weight. Sisal is considered a plant of the tropics and subtropics, since production benefits from temperatures above 25 degrees Celsius and sunshine. Sisal was used by the Aztecs and the Mayans to make crude fabrics and paper. In the 19th century, sisal cultivation spread to Florida, the Caribbean islands, Brazil, as well as to countries in Africa, notably Tanzania and Kenya, Asia.
In Cuba its cultivation was introduced by Fernando Heydrich in Matanzas. The first commercial plantings in Brazil were made in the late 1930s and the first sisal fibre exports from there were made in 1948, it was not until the 1960s that Brazilian production accelerated and the first of many spinning mills was established. Today Brazil is the major world producer of sisal. There are both negative environmental impacts from sisal growing. Propagation of sisal is by using bulbils produced from buds in the flower stalk or by suckers growing around the base of the plant, which are grown in nursery fields until large enough to be transplanted to their final position; these methods offer no potential for genetic improvement. In vitro multiplication of selected genetic material using meristematic tissue culture offers considerable potential for the development of improved genetic material. Fibre is extracted by a process known as decortication, where leaves are crushed and brushed away by a rotating wheel set with blunt knives, so that only fibres remain.
Alternatively, in East Africa, where production is on large estates, the leaves are transported to a central decortication plant, where water is used to wash away the waste parts of the leaf. The fibre is dried and baled for export. Proper drying is important as fibre quality depends on moisture content. Artificial drying has been found to result in better grades of fibre than sun drying, but is not always feasible in the developing countries where sisal is produced. In the drier climate of north-east Brazil, sisal is grown by smallholders and the fibre is extracted by teams using portable raspadors which do not use water. Fibre is subsequently cleaned by brushing. Dry fibres are machine combed and sorted into various grades on the basis of the previous in-field separation of leaves into size groups. Sisal farming caused environmental degradation, because sisal plantations replaced native forests, but is still considered less damaging than many types of farming. No chemical fertilizers are used in sisal production, although herbicides are used this impact may be eliminated, since most weeding is done by hand.
The effluent from the decortication process causes serious pollution when it is allowed to flow into watercourses. In Tanzania there are plans to use the waste as bio-fuel. Sisal is considered to be an invasive species in Florida. Traditionally, sisal has been the leading material for agricultural twine because of its strength, ability to stretch, affinity for certain dyestuffs, resistance to deterioration in saltwater; the importance of this traditional use is diminishing with competition from polypropylene and the development of other haymaking techniques, while new higher-valued sisal products have been developed. Apart from ropes and general cordage, sisal is used in low-cost and specialty paper, buffing cloth, geotextiles, carpets, wire rope cores, Macramé. Sisal has been utilized as an environmentally friendly strengthening agent to replace asbestos and fibreglass in composite materials in various uses including the automobile industry; the lower-grade fibre is processed by the paper industry because of its high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses.
The medium-grade fibre is used in the cor
The spinning mule is a machine used to spin cotton and other fibres. They were used extensively from the late 18th to the early 20th century in the mills of Lancashire and elsewhere. Mules were worked in pairs by a minder, with the help of two boys: the little piecer and the big or side piecer; the carriage carried up to 1,320 spindles and could be 150 feet long, would move forward and back a distance of 5 feet four times a minute. It was invented between 1779 by Samuel Crompton; the self-acting mule was patented by Richard Roberts in 1825. At its peak there were 50,000,000 mule spindles in Lancashire alone. Modern versions are still in niche production and are used to spin woollen yarns from noble fibres such as cashmere, ultra-fine merino and alpaca for the knitware market; the spinning mule spins textile fibres into yarn by an intermittent process. In the draw stroke, the roving is twisted, its rival, the throstle frame or ring frame uses a continuous process, where the roving is drawn and wrapped in one action.
The mule was the most common spinning machine from 1790 until about 1900 and was still used for fine yarns until the early 1980s. In 1890, a typical cotton mill would have over 60 mules, each with 1,320 spindles, which would operate 4 times a minute for 56 hours a week. Before the 1770s, textile production was a cottage industry using wool. Weaving was a family activity; the children and women would card the fibre — break up and clean the disorganized fluff into long bundles. The women would spin these rough rovings into yarn wound on a spindle; the male weaver would use a frame loom to weave this into cloth. This was tentered in the sun to bleach it; the invention by John Kay of the flying shuttle made the loom twice as productive, causing the demand for cotton yarn to vastly exceed what traditional spinners could supply. There were two types of spinning wheel: the Simple Wheel, which uses an intermittent process, the more refined Saxony wheel, which drives a differential spindle and flyer with a heck in a continuous process.
These two wheels became the starting point of technological development. Businessmen such as Richard Arkwright employed inventors to find solutions that would increase the amount of yarn spun took out the relevant patents; the spinning jenny allowed a group of eight spindles to be operated together. It mirrored the simple wheel. A wheel was turned as the frame was pushed back, the spindles rotated, twisting the rovings into yarn and collecting it on the spindles; the spinning jenny was effective and could be operated by hand, but it produced weaker thread that could only be used for the weft part of cloth. The throstle and the water frame pulled the rovings through a set of attenuating rollers. Spinning at differing speeds, these pulled the thread continuously while other parts twisted it as it wound onto the heavy spindles; this produced thread suitable for warp, but the multiple rollers required much more energy input and demanded that the device be driven by a water wheel. The early water frame, had only a single spindle.
Combining ideas from these two system inspired the spinning mule. The increased supply of muslin inspired developments in loom design such as Edmund Cartwright's power loom; some spinners and handloom weavers opposed the perceived threat to their livelihood: there were frame-breaking riots and, in 1811–13, the Luddite riots. The preparatory and associated tasks allowed many children to be employed; the hand-operated mule was a breakthrough in yarn production and the machines were copied by Samuel Slater, who founded the cotton industry in Rhode Island. Development over the next century and a half led to an automatic mule and to finer and stronger yarn; the ring frame, originating in New England in the 1820s, was little used in Lancashire until the 1890s. It could not produce the finest counts. Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule in 1779, so called because it is a hybrid of Arkwright's water frame and James Hargreaves' spinning jenny in the same way that mule is the product of crossbreeding a female horse with a male donkey.
The spinning mule has a fixed frame with a creel of cylindrical bobbins to hold the roving, connected through the headstock to a parallel carriage with the spindles. On the outward motion, the rovings are twisted. On the return, the roving is clamped and the spindles reversed to take up the newly spun thread. Crompton built his mule from wood. Although he used Hargreaves' ideas of spinning multiple threads and of attenuating the roving with rollers, it was he who put the spindles on the carriage and fixed a creel of roving bobbins on the frame. Both the rollers and the outward motion of the carriage remove irregularities from the rove before it is wound on the spindle; when Arkwright's patents expired, the mule was developed by several manufacturers. Crompton's first mule could produce 1 pound of 60s thread a day; this demanded a spindle speed of 1,700 rpm, a power input of 1⁄16 horsepower. The mule produced thin yarn, suitable for any kind of textile, warp or weft, it was first used to spin cotton other fibres.
Samuel Crompton could not afford to patent his invention. He returned to weaving. Dale profited from it. Crompton's machi
Cotton-spinning machinery refers to machines which process prepared cotton roving into workable yarn or thread. Such machinery can be dated back centuries. During the 18th and 19th centuries, as part of the Industrial Revolution cotton-spinning machinery was developed to bring mass production to the cotton industry. Cotton spinning machinery was installed in large factories known as cotton mills; until the 1740s all spinning was done by hand using a spinning wheel. The state of the art spinning wheel in England was known as the Jersey wheel however an alternative wheel, the Saxony wheel was a double band treadle spinning wheel where the spindle rotated faster than the traveller in a ratio of 8:6, drawing on both was done by the spinners fingers. In 1738 Lewis Paul and John Wyatt of Birmingham patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-and-bobbin system, for drawing cotton to a more thickness, using two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds; this principle was the basis of Richard Arkwright's water frame design.
By 1742 Paul and Wyatt had opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey, this was not profitable and soon closed. A factory was opened in Northampton in 1743, with fifty spindles turning on five of Paul and Wyatt's machines, proving more successful than their first mill. Lewis Paul invented the hand-driven carding machine in 1748. A coat of wire slips were placed around a card, wrapped around a cylinder. Lewis' invention was developed and improved by Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton, although the design came under suspicion after a fire at Daniel Bourn's factory in Leominster which used Paul and Wyatt's spindles. Bourn produced a similar patent in the same year. Rev John Dyer of Northampton recognised the importance of the Paul and Wyatt cotton spinning machine in a poem in 1757: A circular machine, of new design In conic shape: it draws and spins a thread Without the tedious toil of needless hands. A wheel invisible, beneath the floor, To ev'ry member of th' harmonius frame, Gives necessary motion.
One intent O'erlooks the work. The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel, it was invented circa 1764, its invention attributed to James Hargreaves in Stanhill, near Blackburn, Lancashire. The Water frame was patented by Arkwright in the 1770s; the roving was twisted by winding it onto a spindle. It was heavy large scale machine that needed to be driven by power, which in the late 18th century meant by a water wheel. Cotton mills were designed for the purpose by Arkwright, Jedediah Strutt and others along the River Derwent in Derbyshire. Water frames could only spin weft; the spinning mule or mule jenny was created in 1779 by Samuel Crompton. It was a combination of Hargreaves' spinning jenny, it was so named. The mule consisted of a fixed frame containing a creel of bobbins holding the roving, connected through the headstock to a parallel carriage containing the spindles, it used an intermittent process: On the outward traverse, the rovings were paid out, twisted, the return traverse, the roving was clamped and the spindles reversed taking up the newly spun thread.
The rival machine, the throstle frame or ring frame was a continuous process, where the roving was drawn twisted and wrapped in one action. The spinning mule became self-acting in 1830s; the mule was the most common spinning machine from 1790 until about 1900, but was still used for fine yarns until the 1960s. A cotton mill in 1890 would contain over each with 1320 spindles. Between the years 1824 and 1830 Richard Roberts invented a mechanism that rendered all parts of the mule self-acting, regulating the rotation of the spindles during the inward run of the carriage; the Platt Brothers, based in Oldham, Greater Manchester were amongst the most prominent machine makers in this field of work. At first this machine was only used to spin coarse and low-to-medium counts, but it is now employed to spin all counts of yarn; the Throstle frame was a descendant of the water frame. It was better engineered and driven by steam. In 1828 the Danforth throstle frame was invented in the United States; the heavy flyer caused the spindle to vibrate, the yarn snarled every time the frame was stopped.
Not a success. It was named throstle, as the noise; the Ring frame is credited to John Thorp in Rhode Island in 1828/9 and developed by Mr. Jencks of Pawtucket, Rhode Island, who names as the inventor; the bobbins or tubes may be filled from "cops", "ring spools" or "hanks", but a stop motion is required for each thread, which will come into operation a fracture occurs. For many purposes, the threads as spun by the ring frame or the mule are ready for the manufacturer; this operation is known as "doubling". Cotton mill Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution Textile manufacturing Timeline of clothing and textiles technology Marsden, Richard. Cotton Spinning: its development and practice. George Bell and Sons 1903. Retrieved 2009-04-26. Marsden, ed.. Cotton Yearbook 1