A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread or yarn from fibres. It was fundamental to the cotton textile industry prior to the Industrial Revolution, it laid the foundations for machinery such as the spinning jenny and spinning frame, which displaced the spinning wheel during the Industrial Revolution. Basic spinning of yarn involves taking a clump of fibres and teasing a bit of them out twisting it into a basic string shape. You continue pulling and twisting to make it longer and longer, to control the thickness. Thousands of years ago, people begin doing this onto a stick, called a spindle, a lengthy process; the actual wheel part of a spinning wheel doesn't take place of the spindle, instead it automates the twisting process, allowing you to "twist" the thread without having to do so manually, the size of the wheel lets you more finely control the amount of twist. The thread still ends up on a spindle; the wheel itself was free-moving, spun by a hand or foot reaching out and turning it directly.
Simple mechanisms were created that let you push at a pedal and keep the wheel turning at an more constant rate. This mechanism has been the main source of technological progress for the spinning wheel, before the 18th century; the spinning wheel was most invented in the Islamic world by the early 11th century. There is evidence pointing to the spinning wheel being known in the Islamic world by 1030, the earliest clear illustration of the spinning wheel is from Baghdad, drawn in 1237. Evidence points to the spinning wheel reaching China by 1090, with the earliest clear Chinese illustration of the machine dated to around 1270; the spinning wheel spread from the Islamic world to Europe and India by the 13th century, with the earliest European illustration dated to around 1280 and the earliest unambiguous Indian reference dated to 1350. C. Wayne Smith and J. Tom Cothren have claimed that the spinning wheel was invented in India between 500 and 1000. However, this claim is disputed by the historians Arnold Pacey and Irfan Habib who note that early references to cotton spinning in India are vague and do not identify a wheel, but more refer to hand spinning.
The earliest unambiguous reference to a spinning wheel in India is dated to 1350, suggesting that the spinning wheel was introduced from Iran to India. In France, the spindle and distaff were not displaced until the mid 18th century; the spinning wheel replaced the earlier method of hand spinning with a spindle. The first stage in mechanizing the process was mounting the spindle horizontally so it could be rotated by a cord encircling a large, hand-driven wheel; the great wheel is an example of this type, where the fibre is held in the left hand and the wheel turned with the right. Holding the fibre at a slight angle to the spindle produced the necessary twist; the spun yarn was wound onto the spindle by moving it so as to form a right angle with the spindle. This type of wheel, while known in Europe by the 14th century, was not in general use until later; the construction of the Great Wheel made it good at creating long drawn soft fuzzy wools, but difficult to create the strong smooth yarns needed to create warp for weaving.
Spinning wheels did not develop the capability to spin a variety of yarns until the beginning of the 19th century and the mechanization of spinning. In general, the spinning technology was known for a long time before being adopted by the majority of people, thus making it hard to fix dates of the improvements. In 1533, a citizen of Brunswick is said to have added a treadle, by which the spinner could rotate her spindle with one foot and have both hands free to spin. Leonardo da Vinci drew a picture of the flyer, which twists the yarn before winding it onto the spindle. During the 16th century a treadle wheel with flyer was in common use, gained such names as the Saxony wheel and the flax wheel, it sped up production. According to Mark Elvin, 14th-century Chinese technical manuals describe an automatic water-powered spinning wheel. Comparable devices were not developed in Europe until the 18th century. However, it fell into disuse, it was forgotten by the 17th century. The decline of the automatic spinning wheel in China is an important part of Elvin's high level equilibrium trap theory to explain why there was no indigenous industrial Revolution in China despite its high levels of wealth and scientific knowledge.
On the eve of the Industrial revolution it took at least five spinners to supply one weaver. Lewis Paul and John Wyatt first worked on the problem in 1738, patenting the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-and-bobbin system, for drawing wool to a more thickness. Using two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds, yarn could be twisted and spun and efficiently. However, they did not have much financial success. In 1771, Richard Arkwright used waterwheels to power looms for the production of cotton cloth, his invention becoming known as the water frame. More modern spinning machines use a mechanical means to rotate the spindle, as well as an automatic method to draw out fibres, devices to work many spindles together at speeds unattainable. Newer technologies that offer faster yarn production include friction spinning, an open-end system, air jets. Numerous types of spinning wheels exist, including the great wheel known as walking wheel or wool wheel for rapid long draw spinning of woolen-spun yarns.
My Father's Guests is a 2010 French comedy film written, directed by, starring Anne Le Ny, along with Karin Viard, Fabrice Luchini and Michel Aumont. Lucien Paumelle, retired physician, is a longtime activist. By conviction, he decided to host her daughter from Moldova, but the relationship between Tatiana and Lucien Paumelle aren't well regarded by his children and Arnaud. Karin Viard as Babette Paumelle Fabrice Luchini as Arnaud Paumelle Michel Aumont as Lucien Paumelle Valérie Benguigui as Karine Paumelle Veronica Novak as Tatiana Raphaël Personnaz as Carter Olivier Rabourdin as Rémy Flore Babled as Julie Max Renaudin Pratt as Simon Emma Siniavski as Sorina Benjamin Atlan as Théo Marie Agnès Brigot as Madame Delbard Cidalia Valente as Madame Da Silva Monique Couturier as Aunt Hélène Anne Le Ny as The woman in the car My Father's Guests on IMDb
Henry VIII is a 1911 British silent historical film directed by Will Barker and starring Arthur Bourchier, Herbert Tree and Violet Vanbrugh. It is based on William Shakespeare and John Fletcher's play Henry VIII. Tree was paid £1,000 for his role as Cardinal Wolsey, revealed as part of the film's publicity; the writer Louis N. Parker was employed as an advisor regarding historical accuracy; the film's success sparked a mini-boom in Shakespeare adaptations. Arthur Bourchier as Henry VIII Herbert Tree as Cardinal Wolsey Violet Vanbrugh as Queen Katharine Laura Cowie as Anne Boleyn S. A. Cookson as Cardinal Campeius Charles Fuller as Cranmer A. E. George as Duke of Norfolk Basil Gill as Duke of Buckingham Edward O'Neill as Duke of Suffolk Gerald Lawrence as Earl of Surrey Edward Sass as Lord Chamberlain Francis Chamier as Capucius Clarence Derwent as Lord Abergavenny Walter Creighton as Lord Sands Edmund Gurney as Sir Henry Guildford Henry Hewitt as Sir Thomas Lovell Charles James as Sir Nicholas Faux Reginald Owen as Thomas Cromwell Henry Morrell as Griffith Cyril Sworder as First Gentleman Charles Howard as Second Gentleman Clifford Heatherley as Garter King at Arms Acton Bond as Surveyor to Duke of Buckingham Adelaide Calvert as Old Lady Lila Barclay as Patience Arthur Gaskill as Sergeant-at-Arms W.
B. Abingdon as Servant Edmund Goulding as A Crier James Smythson as Scribe Ross Shore as Jester Micheál MacLiammóir as Page Macnab, Geoffrey. Searching for Stars: Stardom and Screen Acting in British Cinema. Cassell, 2000. Oakley, Charles. Where We Came In: Seventy Years of the British Film Industry. Routledge, 2013. Henry VIII on IMDb
The Christian Democrat Organization of America is an international organization made up of political parties that advocate the principles of Christian Democracy in their respective countries. Each of the member parties is different, sometimes having differing views of Christian Democracy itself; some of the member parties are in government in their country, others are in coalition government, others are not in government. There are 26 member political parties in 21 different countries with a constituency representing 30% of all registered voters in Latin America and 10% of the entire population of the region. Argentina – Christian Democratic Party Argentina – Justicialist Party Aruba – Aruban People's Party Bolivia – Christian Democratic Party Brazil – Democrats Chile – Christian Democrat Party of Chile Colombia – Colombian Conservative Party Costa Rica – Social Christian Unity Party Cuba – Cuban Democratic Directorate Cuba – Christian Democratic Party of Cuba Cuba – Christian Liberation Movement Cuba – Cuban Democratic Project Curaçao – National People's Party Dominican Republic – Social Christian Reformist Party Ecuador – Christian Democratic Union El Salvador – Christian Democratic Party Haiti – Rally of Progressive National Democrats Honduras – Christian Democratic Party of Honduras Honduras – National Party of Honduras Mexico – National Action Party Panama – People's Party Paraguay – Christian Democratic Party Peru – Christian People's Party Trinidad and Tobago – United National Congress Uruguay – Christian Democratic Party of Uruguay Venezuela – COPEI Brazil – Brazilian Social Democracy Party Guatemala – Guatemalan Christian Democracy Paraguay – Beloved Fatherland Party Peru – Christian Democrat Party Suriname – Progressive Surinamese People's Party Uruguay – Civic Union Uruguay – National Party Venezuela – National Convergence Christian democracy Centrist Democrat International Christian Democrat Organization of America
Eirik Holmen Johansen is a Norwegian footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for SK Brann. Johansen played for Teie IF in his native Norway before joining the Manchester City Academy system at the age of 16. Johansen has represented Norway at youth international level. Hailing from Nøtterøy outside Tønsberg, Johansen made his debut for Teie IF in the 4. Divisjon at the age of 14. After training with the Tippeligaen sides Sandefjord and Odd Grenland, he was invited on a trial with Manchester City. After Johansen got a fracture in the foot before his trial, his family managed to get a trial with his brother Tobias instead, who plays as a goalkeeper. Tobias got a contract with Manchester City. Eirik got a new trial with City, when he joined the Manchester City Academy in August 2008, their mother and two younger brothers moved to England. Tobias returned to Norway and Kongsvinger in 2010. Johansen was training with City's first team in the 2010–11 season, signed a new two-year contract with the club in May 2011.
He made his debut for the first team when he played seven minutes of the friendly match against League of Ireland XI on 30 July 2011. After playing for the reserves during the 2011–12 season, Johansen signed a professional contract with the club in July 2012. Johansen played a number of pre-season friendlies ahead of the 2012–13 season, started the season on the bench during Manchester City's 2012 FA Community Shield win, he spent most of the season playing in the reserve team, before joining League One side Scunthorpe United on loan in March 2013 for the rest of the season as cover for the injured number one'keeper Sam Slocombe, out for six weeks with a torn thigh muscle. His debut for Scunthorpe United came in a 1–2 home defeat against Coventry City Johansen played the full 90 minutes. In January 2014, Johansen joined Norwegian club Sandefjord on a six-month loan-deal where he was reunited with his old goalkeeping-coach from Teie, Hans Petter Olsen; when signing Johansen, the club stated that they wanted him as their new first-choice goalkeeper, as the first-choice in the previous season, Iven Austbø, had transferred to Viking.
Johansen was linked with a move to Scottish Premiership side Ross County, but the move fell through. On 31 March 2015 Johansen signed with Major League Soccer club New York City FC, he was loaned to NYCFC's United Soccer League affiliate club Wilmington Hammerheads on 11 May 2015. Johansen made his NYCFC debut on 17 June 2015, starting in a US Open Cup 2 - 2 loss on penalty kicks against the New York Cosmos. Johansen made his second appearance for NYCFC, in a 1–0 loss in the US Open Cup against the New York Cosmos, on 15 June. On 23 October, he made his first league appearance, starting in a 4–1 win over Columbus Crew, in the season finale. Johansen started NYCFC's first playoff game on 30 October, a 0–2 loss to Toronto FC. In December 2017, Johansen re-joined Sandefjord on a permanent contract, signing for two years at the club. On 9 January 2019, Johansen signed with SK Brann on a four-year contract. Johansen has represented Norway at various youth levels, was in May 2012 training with the senior team in the absence of regular goalkeepers Espen Bugge Pettersen and Rune Jarstein.
As of match played 30 March 2019Notes Manchester City FA Community Shield: 2012Sandefjord Fotball 1. Division Norway: Champions, 2014 Eirik Johansen at Soccerway Profile at SK Brann
Adhyayan Suman is an Indian actor and singer who appears in Hindi language films. He debuted in 2008 with Haal–e–dil, his second film was Raaz – The Mystery Continues was a semi-hit. Suman's was praised for his performance in the 2009 Mukesh Bhatt film Jashnn. Suman is the only son of Alka Suman and Bollywood actor Shekhar Suman. Suman debuted in the Bollywood film industry in 2008 with Haal–e–dil, directed by Anil Devgan and produced by Kumar Mangat, his second film was Raaz – The Mystery Continues, a semi-hit, directed by Mohit Suri and produced by Mukesh Bhatt. His third film Jashnn was with Mukesh Bhatt and his performance in the film was critically acclaimed. Suman's latest release was his father. A film based on romantic medical thriller and explored the sensitive topic of anaesthesia and its awareness, he has been pursuing his singing career. His first single was Saareyan Nu Chaddeya, much appreciated by the audience, his last release the recreated version of Arjun Kanungo's - Aaya Na Tu, Aaya Na Tu 2.0 was stellar and it received a million views within 10 days of its release.
Adhyayan announced his own music channel AS Music with the release of Aaya Na Tu 2.0 and wants to assist talents across the globe in showcasing their talent and providing them with a platform which will guide them in producing their own music and making them reach out to the right target audience. His recent release Soniyo 2.0 received a brilliant response. It garnered 5 million hits in first 5 days. Adhyayan Suman on IMDb Adhyayan Suman on Facebook Bollywood Hungama Profile Adhyayan Suman biography at Koimoi