Howard Devoto is an English singer and songwriter, who began his career as the frontman for the punk rock band Buzzcocks, but left to form Magazine, one of the first post-punk bands. After Magazine, he went solo and formed indie band Luxuria, his singing has been characterized as a "speak-sing voice that veered between amused croon and panicked yelp." Born in Scunthorpe, Devoto grew up in Nuneaton and Moortown, where he attended Leeds Grammar School and met and befriended future Buzzcocks manager Richard Boon. In 1972, he went to Bolton Institute of Technology to study psychology, humanities. During these college years, he met his future bandmates Ben Mandelson. Inspired by the Sex Pistols, Devoto co-formed Buzzcocks with singer/guitarist Pete Shelley in 1976, he left the band in February 1977 after only one record and a small number of performances to form the band Magazine. Devoto formed the influential post-punk band Magazine in 1977, they released several critically acclaimed albums, which met with moderate commercial success, as well as minor hits such as "Shot by Both Sides" and "A Song from Under the Floorboards".
Magazine reformed in February 2009 performing on a tour of five dates, subsequently continued playing live and began to record new material. A studio album, No Thyself, was released in October 2011. After Magazine split in 1981 Devoto spent two years putting together a solo album with former Magazine keyboard player Dave Formula. Jerky Versions of the Dream reached No. 57 in the UK Albums Chart in August 1983, was reissued in 2007 by Virgin/EMI, featuring several tracks of bonus material. A collaboration with Bernard Szajner on the Brute Reason LP was released on Island Records in 1983; this was followed by a rendering of Big Star's "Holocaust" for the loose collective This Mortal Coil. The album It'll End in Tears contained contributions from many of the 4AD label's best artists, Devoto's presence being somewhat atypical. In 1997, Devoto wrote the lyrics to the Mansun track, "Everyone Must Win", which appeared on the Closed for Business EP. A year he collaborated again with the band, writing lyrics for and singing on "Railings", a B-side for "Being a Girl".
One of his next projects was a 1988 collaboration with Liverpool multi-instrumentalist Noko. As Luxuria they released two albums and a music video for the single "Redneck". For most of the 1990s, Devoto was little involved in music, earning his living by working for a photo agency. In 2001, Devoto teamed up for the first time in twenty-five years with Buzzcocks Pete Shelley and released the much-anticipated Buzzkunst under the name ShelleyDevoto. Reviews were mixed. In 2002, Devoto had a small part in the movie 24 Hour Party People, a film about Manchester's Factory Records. In his brief cameo appearance, Devoto appears as a janitor cleaning a men's toilet while actor Martin Hancock portrays Devoto having a tryst with the wife of promoter/journalist Tony Wilson; the real-life Devoto breaks the fourth wall by addressing the camera and stating in deadpan, "I don't remember this happening". In February 2009 Magazine reformed, with former Luxuria partner Noko replacing the deceased John McGeoch on guitar.
On 9 July 2009, Devoto was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Bolton for his contribution to music. In November 2011 it was announced he would be returning to the stage with the Buzzcocks for two special shows as part of the Buzzcocks "Back to Front" tour on 25 and 26 May 2012; these took place at the O2 Apollo in Manchester and the O2 Academy in Brixton A number of bands continue to be influenced by his work. Momus recorded the tribute song "The Most Important Man Alive" for the Bungalow Records compilation Suite 98 in 1988. Mansun have covered "Shot by Both Sides" live, it was recorded in their fourth and final album Kleptomania. Radiohead and Jarvis Cocker have both covered "Shot by Both Sides". Both Ministry and Peter Murphy have covered Magazine's "The Light Pours Out of Me", whilst Morrissey, My Friend the Chocolate Cake and Strange Boutique have covered Magazine's "A Song from Under the Floorboards". For Magazine and Luxuria, see Discography of Magazine and Discography of Luxuria.
This is from his solo career: Albums 1983: Jerky Versions of the Dream - No. 57 UKSingles 1983: "Rainy Season" - No. 97 UK 1983: "Cold Imagination" Spiral Scratch Real Life #29 UK Secondhand Daylight #38 UK The Correct Use of Soap #28 UK Magic and the Weather #39 UK Jerky Versions of the Dream #57 UK Unanswerable Lust Beast Box Buzzkunst No Thyself #167 UK Magazine official website Interview Buzzcocks official website
Self-publishing is the publication of media by its author without the involvement of an established publisher. In common parlance, the term refers to physical written media, such as books and magazines, or digital media, such as e-books and websites, it can apply to albums, brochures, video content, zines, or uploading images to a website. Unlike the traditional publishing model, in which control of the publication is shared with a publisher, the author controls the entire process, including design, distribution and public relations; the author may perform these activities they may outsource these tasks. In traditional publishing, the publisher bears the costs, such as editing and paying advances, reaps a substantial share of the profits; the $1 billion market of self-publishing has changed in the past two decades with new technologies such as the Internet providing increasing alternatives to traditional publishing. Self-publishing is becoming the first choice for writers. Most self-published books sell few copies, although there are a dozen books that sell into the millions.
The quality of self-published works varies with many low quality titles on the market. Self-publishing is not a new phenomenon. In 1759, British satirist Laurence Sterne's self-published the first two volumes of Tristram Shandy. While most novels were distributed by established publishers, there have been authors who chose to self-publish, or who chose to start their own presses, such as John Locke, Jane Austen, Emily Dickinson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Martin Luther, Marcel Proust, Derek Walcott, Walt Whitman. In 1908, Ezra Pound sold A Lume Spento for six pence each. Franklin Hiram King's book Farmers of Forty Centuries was self-published in 1911, was subsequently published commercially. In 1931 the author of The Joy of Cooking paid a local printing company to print 3000 copies. In 1941, writer Virginia Woolf chose to self-publish her final novel Between the Acts on her Hogarth Press, in effect starting her own press. Five years ago, self-publishing was a scar. Now it's a tattoo. Up until two decades ago, self-publishing used to be described by the negative term vanity press, with the connotation that the only reason that a book was being printed was to satisfy the author's personal ego.
Authors were considered to have been insufficiently talented to have been published the "proper" way via an established publishing house. Traditional publishers paid authors a percentage of the sales of their books, so publishers would select only those authors whose books they believed were to sell well; as a result, it was difficult for an unknown author to get a publishing contract under these circumstances. So-called vanity publishers offered an alternative: they would publish any book in exchange for an upfront payment by the author. With this arrangement, the author would not own the print run of finished books, would not control how they were distributed. Critics of vanity publishers included James D. Macdonald, who claimed that vanity publishing violated Yog's Law which states that "Money should flow toward the author." Vanity publishing required a one-time payment of $5,000 to $10,000 to do a print run of 1000 books. Self-published books have had a negative stigma. To be sure, self-publishing is sometimes seen as a sign that an author believes in her work.
Part of the reason for the negative stigma is that many self-published books in past decades, were of dubious quality. For example, in 1995, a retired TV repairman self-published his autobiography in which he described how he had been stepped on by a horse when he was a boy, how he had been murdered by his stepfather when he was a young man in Mexico, how his ex-wife had clawed his face with her fingernails; the repairman spent $10,000 to have his 150-page masterpiece printed up, for promotion purposes, he sent copies to a local library, to the White House, to everybody with the repairman's same last name. These efforts did not lead anywhere. In the first decade of the 21st century, self-publishing was seen as a "mark of failure", although there are many indicators that this is changing; the image of self-publishing has been improving, since many well-known writers, who generate high quality content, have first started by self-publishing, or have switched from traditional publishing to self-publishing.
According to some views, the stigma of self-publishing is gone while others feel that self-publishing still has a way to go to cultivate respectability. Book critic Ron Charles in the Washington Post complained in an opinion piece that "No, I don't want to read your self-published book", citing concerns that there were too many published authors, that self-published books lacked quality, were published by authors with little understanding of the audience or the market, but the negative stigma has been receding with the advent of dozens of authors who have self-published their way to literary success. Breakaway bestsellers such as Fifty Shades of Grey and The Martian were first self-published, helping to lend respectability to self-publishing in general. Further, with new avenues of self-publishing
Multitrack recording —also known as multitracking, double tracking, or tracking—is a method of sound recording developed in 1955 that allows for the separate recording of multiple sound sources or of sound sources recorded at different times to create a cohesive whole. Multitracking became possible in the mid-1950s when the idea of recording different audio channels to separate discrete "tracks" on the same reel-to-reel tape was developed. A "track" was a different channel recorded to its own discrete area on the tape whereby their relative sequence of recorded events would be preserved, playback would be simultaneous or synchronized. Prior to the development of multitracking, the sound recording process required all of the singers, band instrumentalists, and/or orchestra accompanists to perform at the same time in the same space. Multitrack recording was a significant technical improvement as it allowed studio engineers to record all of the instruments and vocals for a piece of music separately.
Multitracking allowed the engineer to adjust the levels and tone of each individual track, if necessary, redo certain tracks or overdub parts of the track to correct errors or get a better "take." As well, different electronic effects such as reverb could be applied to specific tracks, such as the lead vocals, while not being applied to other tracks where this effect would not be desirable. Multitrack recording was much more than a technical innovation. In the 1980s and 1990s, computers provided means by which both sound recording and reproduction could be digitized, revolutionizing audio recording and distribution. In the 2000s, multitracking hardware and software for computers was of sufficient quality to be used for high-end audio recordings by both professional sound engineers and by bands recording without studios using available programs, which can be used on a high-end laptop computer. Though magnetic tape has not been replaced as a recording medium, the advantages of non-linear editing and recording have resulted in digital systems superseding tape.
In the 2010s, with digital multitracking being the dominant technology, the original word "track" is still used by audio engineers. Multi-tracking can be achieved with analogue recording, tape-based equipment, digital equipment that relies on tape storage of recorded digital data and hard disk-based systems employing a computer and audio recording software. Multi-track recording devices vary in their specifications, such as the number of simultaneous tracks available for recording at any one time. With the introduction of SMPTE timecode in the early 1970s, engineers began to use computers to synchronize separate audio and video playback, or multiple audio tape machines. In this system, one track of each machine carried the timecode signal, while the remaining tracks were available for sound recording; some large studios were able to link multiple 24-track machines together. An extreme example of this occurred in 1982, when the rock group Toto recorded parts of Toto IV on three synchronized 24-track machines.
This setup theoretically provided for up to 69 audio tracks, far more than necessary for most recording projects. For computer-based systems, the trend in the 2000s is towards unlimited numbers of record/playback tracks, although issues such as RAM memory and CPU available do limit this from machine to machine. Moreover, on computer-based systems, the number of available recording tracks is limited by the number of sound card discrete analog or digital inputs; when recording, audio engineers can select which track on the device will be used for each instrument, voice, or other input and can blend one track with two instruments to vary the music and sound options available. At any given point on the tape, any of the tracks on the recording device can be recording or playing back using sel-sync or Selective Synchronous recording; this allows an artist to be able to record onto track 2 and listen to track 1, 3 and 7, allowing them to sing or to play an accompaniment to the performance recorded on these tracks.
They might record an alternate version on track 4 while listening to the other tracks. All the tracks can be played back in perfect synchrony, as if they had been played and recorded together; this can be repeated until all of the available tracks have been in some cases, reused. During mix down a separate set of playback heads with higher fidelity are used. Before all tracks are filled, any number of existing tracks can be "bounced" into one or two tracks, the original tracks erased, making more room for more tracks to be reused for fresh recording. In 1963, The Beatles were using twin track for Please Please Me; the Beatles' producer George Martin used this technique extensively to achieve multiple track results, while still being limited to using only multiple four-track machines, until an eight-track machine became available during the recording of the Beatles' White Album. The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds made innovative use of multitracking with 8-tra
Rip It Up (Orange Juice song)
"Rip It Up" was a 1983 single by Scottish post-punk band Orange Juice. It was the second single to be released from their 1982 album of the same name; the song became the band's only UK top 40 success, reaching no. 8 in the chart. "Rip It Up" signalled a departure from the sound of the band's earlier singles, with Chic-influenced guitars and using a synthesiser to create a more disco-oriented sound. The song was sampled in 2009 by British soul singer Beverley Knight on her song "In Your Shoes" from the album 100%. In 2014, NME ranked it at number 216 in its list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time, it was included by Pitchfork at number 157 in a list of The Best 200 Songs of the 1980s. The song was recorded as part of the sessions for Orange Juice's second studio album and would go on to become the title track of said album, it marked a departure from their previous guitar-pop based material, instead utilising Chic style guitar-funk and a bubbling Roland TB-303 synthesiser bassline, becoming the first chart single to feature the instrument.
The song features a snatch of the guitar riff from "Boredom", a song by Buzzcocks that featured on their debut Spiral Scratch EP. The riff chimes in, just as Collins namechecks the song in the lyrics claiming that "...and my favourite song is entitled'Boredom'." Backing vocals on the song were provided by Paul Quinn, the lead singer of fellow Scottish band Bourgie Bourgie, with whom Collins would record a single in 1984, a cover of the Velvet Underground song "Pale Blue Eyes." The video opens with the band in a futuristic, but cheaply constructed, control room as they sing and operate various controls. The band watch themselves on a monitor screen as they walk down a rainy British high street dressed in incongruous, brightly coloured summer clothes; the video cuts back to the control room, this time with the band playing their instruments superimposed over it, before returning to more scenes of a British city in torrential rain as the band walk around in scuba diving gear. The video cuts back to the band playing in a silver foil covered room, before superimposing them over a pile of random photographs.
"Rip It Up" was released as a single in the UK in February 1983. The seven inch vinyl version of the single was available in three versions, a double pack including a second seven-inch and a fold out poster, along with two versions of the standard release with a silver injection moulded labels, subsequently with paper printed labels; the song was released on twelve inch vinyl, with extended versions of the title track and B-side. All versions were housed in a paper sleeve depicting a US P-40 Warhawk fighter plane submerged, tail first, in the sea, drawn by Edwyn Collins. Music video on YouTube
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 within the Liverpool City Council local authority in 2017. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region. Liverpool is on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire, it became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880. In 1889, it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, its growth as a major port was paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with handling general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city merchants were involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In the 19th century, it was a major port of departure for Irish and English emigrants to North America.
Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic, the RMS Lusitania, RMS Queen Mary and RMS Olympic. The popularity of the Beatles and other music groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby; the Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007. In 2008, it was nominated as the annual European Capital of Culture together with Norway. Several areas of the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004; the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, William Brown Street. Liverpool's status as a port city has attracted a diverse population, drawn from a wide range of peoples and religions from Ireland and Wales.
The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country and the oldest Chinese community in Europe. Natives and residents of the city of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians, colloquially as "Scousers", a reference to "scouse", a form of stew; the word "Scouse" has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. The name comes from the Old English lifer, meaning thick or muddy water, pōl, meaning a pool or creek, is first recorded around 1190 as Liuerpul. According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, "The original reference was to a pool or tidal creek now filled up into which two streams drained"; the adjective Liverpudlian is first recorded in 1833. Other origins of the name have been suggested, including "elverpool", a reference to the large number of eels in the Mersey; the name appeared in 1190 as "Liuerpul", the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a legal record of 1418, may refer to Liverpool. Another such suggestion is derivation from Welsh llyvr pwl meaning "expanse or confluence at the pool".
King John's letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool. By the middle of the 16th century, the population was still around 500; the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape: Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street and Whiteacre Street. In the 17th century there was slow progress in population growth. Battles for control of the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the nearby city of Chester on the River Dee had been the region's principal port on the Irish Sea. However, as the Dee began to silt up, maritime trade from Chester became difficult and shifted towards Liverpool on the neighbouring River Mersey.
As trade from the West Indies, including sugar, surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, as the River Dee continued to silt up, Liverpool began to grow with increasing rapidity. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade and tobacco helped the town to prosper and grow, although several prominent local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the abolitionist movement. By the start of the 19th century, a large volume of trade was passing through Liverpool, the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway; the population continued to rise especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. In her poem "Liverpool", which celebrates the city's worldwide commerce, Letitia Elizabeth Landon refers to the Macgregor Laird expedition to the Niger River, at that time in progress.
Great Britain was a major market for cotton imported from the Deep South of the United States, which fed the textile industry in the country. Given the crucial place of both cotton and slavery in the city's economy, during the American Civil War Liverpool was, in the words of historian Sven Beckert, "the most pro-Confederate place in the world outside the Confederacy itself." For periods during the 19th century, the wealth of Liverpool
A chain store or retail chain is a retail outlet in which several locations share a brand, central management, standardized business practices. They have come to dominate the retail and dining markets, many service categories, in many parts of the world. A franchise retail establishment is one form of chain store. In 2004, the world's largest retail chain, became the world's largest corporation based on gross sales. In 1792, Henry Walton Smith and his wife Anna established W. H. Smith as a news vending business in London that would become a national concern in the mid-19th century under the management of their grandson William Henry Smith; the firm took advantage of the railway boom by opening news-stands at railway stations beginning in 1848. The firm, now called WHSmith, had more than 1,400 locations as of 2017. In the U. S. chain stores began with the founding of The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company in 1859. The small chain sold tea and coffee in stores located in New York City and operated a national mail order business.
The firm grew to 70 stores by 1878 when George Huntington Hartford turned A&P into the country's first grocery chain. In 1900, it operated 200 stores. Isidore and Modeste Dewachter originated the idea of the chain department store in Belgium in 1868, ten years before A&P began offering more than coffee and tea, they started with four locations for Maisons Dewachter: La Louvière, Mons and the tiny crossroads village of Leuze. They incorporated as Dewachter frères on January 1, 1875; the brothers offered ready-to-wear clothing for men and children and specialty clothing such as riding apparel and beachwear. Isidore owned 51% of the company, while his brothers split the remaining 49%. Under Isidore's leadership, Maisons Dewachter would become one of the most recognized names in Belgium and France with stores in 20 cities and towns; some cities had multiple stores, such as France. Louis Dewachter became an internationally known landscape artist, painting under the pseudonym Louis Dewis. By the early 1920s, the U.
S. boasted three national chains: A&P, Woolworth's, United Cigar Stores. By the 1930s, chain stores had come of age, stopped increasing their total market share. Court decisions against the chains' price-cutting appeared as early as 1906, laws against chain stores began in the 1920s, along with legal countermeasures by chain-store groups. A chain store is characterised by the ownership or franchise relationship between the local business or outlet and a controlling business. While chains are "formula retail", a chain refers to ownership or franchise, whereas "formula retail" refers to the characteristics of the business. There is considerable overlap because key characteristic of a formula retail business is that it is controlled as a part of a business relationship, is part of a chain. Most codified municipal regulation relies on definitions of formula retail, in part because a restriction directed to "chains" may be deemed an impermissible restriction on interstate commerce, or as exceeding municipal zoning authority.
Non-codified restrictions will sometimes target "chains". Brick-and-mortar chain stores have been in decline as retail has shifted to online shopping, leading to high retail vacancy rates; the hundred-year-old Radio Shack chain went from 7,400 stores in 2001 to 400 stores in 2018. FYE is the last remaining music chain store in the United States and has shrunk from over 1000 at its height to 270 locations in 2018. In 2019, Payless ShoeSource stated that it would be closing all remaining 2,100 stores in the US. A restaurant chain is a set of related restaurants in many different locations that are either under shared corporate ownership or franchising agreements; the restaurants within a chain are built to a standard format through architectural prototype development and offer a standard menu and/or services. Fast food restaurants are the most common, but sit-down restaurant chains exist. Restaurant chains are found near highways, shopping malls and tourist areas; the displacement of independent businesses by chains has sparked increased collaboration among independent businesses and communities to prevent chain proliferation.
These efforts include community-based organizing through Independent Business Alliances and "buy local" campaigns. In the U. S. trade organizations such as the American Booksellers Association and American Specialty Toy Retailers do national promotion and advocacy. NGOs like the New Rules Project and New Economics Foundation provide research and tools for pro-independent business education and policy while the American Independent Business Alliance provides direct assistance for community-level organizing. A variety of towns and cities in the United States whose residents wish to retain their distinctive character—such as San Francisco, they don't exclude the chain itself, only the standardized formula the chain uses, described as "formula businesses". For example, there could be a restaurant owned by McDonald's that sells hamburgers, but not the formula franchise operation with the golden arches and standardized menu and procedures; the reason these towns regulate chain stores is aesthetics and tourism.
Proponents of formula restaurants and formula retail allege th
"New Rose" is the first single by British punk rock group the Damned, released on 22 October 1976 on Stiff Records, in 1977 in the Netherlands and France. It is considered to be the first single by a British punk group. Written by guitarist Brian James, "New Rose" was included on the group's full-length debut album, Damned Damned Damned; the deadpan intro by singer Dave Vanian parodied the 1964 Shangri-Las song "Leader of the Pack". The single's B-side was a cover of the Beatles' hit "Help!", performed about twice as fast as the original. Both songs became staples of the Damned's live shows, appeared on various compilations. "New Rose" was reissued in Stiff's Damned 4 Pack mail-order set. Original copies had a press-out centre. Copies from the four-pack had matrix details: ""AY 50332" printed. A CD version was issued in the Stiff Singles 1976–1977 boxed set by Castle Music in 2003. "Help!" appeared on Hits Greatest Stiffs. The song was produced by Nick Lowe, it was recorded at Pathway Studios in London, recorded in one day, according to drummer Rat Scabies. and "Nick Lowe may have taken an extra day to mix it".
"New Rose" was released on 22 October 1976. James stated that Captain Sensible wanted the song "I Fall" as the first single. Sensible said that "I Fall" would have been "even more gobsmacking because it's so snotty and fast". In a retrospective review in 1992, music critic Dave Thompson heaped praise on the single:'New Rose' is today rightly revered as one of the greatest songs to emerge from 1970s Britain. More than anything outside of the Pistols,'New Rose' brought a focus to the still burgeoning punk scene lifting it out of the musical basket it had hitherto shared with the Stooges/Dolls/MC5 axis, knocking the Feelgoods and Hot Rods-powered pub rock angle clean out of sight; this was no high octane R&B revival. Rather, it was the absolute redefinition of all that rock'n' roll held dear, a stunning return to basics which threw every last iota of expertise and experience to the winds; the band's detractors thought they were smart when they called the Damned's record'primitive.' They were way off the mark – the Damned's fans saw it as primeval.
Guns N' Roses covered the track on their 1993 covers album "The Spaghetti Incident?". When asked about the Guns N' Roses cover, Damned guitarist Captain Sensible said that he had not heard it, as he does not listen to music released after 1980; the song was released as a promo single in 1993. Rachel Sweet covered the song on her 1980 album Protect the Innocent. "New Rose" – 2:46 "Help!" – 1:43 Producer: Nick Lowe Musicians: Dave Vanian − vocals Brian James − guitar Captain Sensible − bass Rat Scabies − drums Sources