Beaulieu is a small village located on the south eastern edge of the New Forest national park in Hampshire and home to both Palace House and the British National Motor Museum. The name Beaulieu derives etymologically from the Latin bellus locus, meaning "beautiful place"; the village has remained unspoilt by progress, is a favourite tourist stop for visitors to the New Forest, for birders seeking local specialities like Dartford warbler, European honey buzzard and hobby. Palace House was featured in the 2005 comedy-drama film Mrs. Palfrey at the Claremont starring Joan Plowright and Rupert Friend; the nearest railway station is Beaulieu Road, about 4 miles away on the London-Weymouth main line. While this station had an infrequent service, there are now some 20 trains per day stopping here. Wilts & Dorset bus service 112 serves the village on its way between Lymington. In summer, Beaulieu is served by an hourly open-top bus service. Palace House, which overlooks the village from across Beaulieu River, began in 1204 as the gatehouse to Beaulieu Abbey, has been the ancestral home of a branch of the Montagu family since 1538, when it was bought from the Crown following the Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII.
The house was extended in the 16th century, again in the 19th century, is today a fine example of a Gothic country house. Although still home to the current Lord and Lady Montagu, parts of the house and gardens are open daily to the public, it is a member of the Treasure Houses of England consortium. The village is home to the British National Motor Museum; the museum was opened in 1952 as the Montagu Motor Museum and became a charitable trust in 1972. It contains an important collection of historic motor vehicles, including four world land speed record holders: Sir Malcolm Campbell's 1920 Sunbeam 350hp His son Donald Campbell's 1961 Bluebird-Proteus CN7 The 1927 Sunbeam 1000hp The 1929 Irving-Napier Special'Golden Arrow'; the last two were both driven by Major Henry Segrave. In the late 1950s Beaulieu was the surprising location for one of Britain's first experiments in pop festival culture, with the annual Beaulieu Jazz Festival, which expanded to become a significant event in the burgeoning jazz and youth pop music scene of the period.
Camping overnight, a rural invasion, eccentric dress, wild music and sometimes wilder behaviour — these now familiar features of pop festivals happened at Beaulieu each summer, culminating in the so-called'Battle of Beaulieu' at the 1960 festival, when rival gangs of modern and traditional jazz fans indulged in a spot of what sociologists went on to call'subcultural contestation'. List of jazz festivals List of historic rock festivals Lord Montagu of Beaulieu Wheels Within Wheels: An Unconventional Life. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. George McKay'"Unsafe things like youth and jazz": Beaulieu Jazz Festivals and the origins of pop festival culture in Britain'. In Andy Bennett, ed. Remembering Woodstock. George McKay Circular Breathing: The Cultural Politics of Jazz in Britain, chapter one'New Orleans jazz and carnival'. Durham NC: Duke University Press. Beaulieu Palace House webpage New Forest Community Media - A not-for-profit media site serving the National Park
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents are arranged in a ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macroscopic single crystals are identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations; the scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification; the word crystal derives from the Ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος, meaning both "ice" and "rock crystal", from κρύος, "icy cold, frost". Examples of large crystals include snowflakes and table salt. Most inorganic solids are not crystals but polycrystals, i.e. many microscopic crystals fused together into a single solid. Examples of polycrystals include most metals, rocks and ice. A third category of solids is amorphous solids, where the atoms have no periodic structure whatsoever.
Examples of amorphous solids include glass and many plastics. Despite the name, lead crystal, crystal glass, related products are not crystals, but rather types of glass, i.e. amorphous solids. Crystals are used in pseudoscientific practices such as crystal therapy, along with gemstones, are sometimes associated with spellwork in Wiccan beliefs and related religious movements; the scientific definition of a "crystal" is based on the microscopic arrangement of atoms inside it, called the crystal structure. A crystal is a solid where the atoms form a periodic arrangement.. Not all solids are crystals. For example, when liquid water starts freezing, the phase change begins with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse, forming a polycrystalline structure. In the final block of ice, each of the small crystals is a true crystal with a periodic arrangement of atoms, but the whole polycrystal does not have a periodic arrangement of atoms, because the periodic pattern is broken at the grain boundaries.
Most macroscopic inorganic solids are polycrystalline, including all metals, ice, etc. Solids that are neither crystalline nor polycrystalline, such as glass, are called amorphous solids called glassy, vitreous, or noncrystalline; these have no periodic order microscopically. There are distinct differences between crystalline solids and amorphous solids: most notably, the process of forming a glass does not release the latent heat of fusion, but forming a crystal does. A crystal structure is characterized by its unit cell, a small imaginary box containing one or more atoms in a specific spatial arrangement; the unit cells are stacked in three-dimensional space to form the crystal. The symmetry of a crystal is constrained by the requirement that the unit cells stack with no gaps. There are 219 possible crystal symmetries, called crystallographic space groups; these are grouped into 7 crystal systems, such as hexagonal crystal system. Crystals are recognized by their shape, consisting of flat faces with sharp angles.
These shape characteristics are not necessary for a crystal—a crystal is scientifically defined by its microscopic atomic arrangement, not its macroscopic shape—but the characteristic macroscopic shape is present and easy to see. Euhedral crystals are those with well-formed flat faces. Anhedral crystals do not because the crystal is one grain in a polycrystalline solid; the flat faces of a euhedral crystal are oriented in a specific way relative to the underlying atomic arrangement of the crystal: they are planes of low Miller index. This occurs; as a crystal grows, new atoms attach to the rougher and less stable parts of the surface, but less to the flat, stable surfaces. Therefore, the flat surfaces tend to grow larger and smoother, until the whole crystal surface consists of these plane surfaces. One of the oldest techniques in the science of crystallography consists of measuring the three-dimensional orientations of the faces of a crystal, using them to infer the underlying crystal symmetry.
A crystal's habit is its visible external shape. This is determined by the crystal structure, the specific crystal chemistry and bonding, the conditions under which the crystal formed. By volume and weight, the largest concentrations of crystals in the Earth are part of its solid bedrock. Crystals found in rocks range in size from a fraction of a millimetre to several centimetres across, although exceptionally large crystals are found; as of 1999, the world's largest known occurring crystal is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina, Madagascar, 18 m long and 3.5 m in diameter, weighing 380,000 kg. Some crystals have formed by magmatic and metamorphic processes, giving origin to large masses of crystalline rock; the vast majority of igneous rocks are formed from molten magma and the degree of crystallization depends on the conditions under which they solidified. Such rocks as granite, which have cooled slowly and under great pressures, have crystallized.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in group 6, it is a steely-grey, lustrous and brittle transition metal. Chromium boasts a high usage rate as a metal, able to be polished while resisting tarnishing. Chromium is the main additive in stainless steel, a popular steel alloy due to its uncommonly high specular reflection. Simple polished chromium reflects 70% of the visible spectrum, with 90% of infrared light being reflected; the name of the element is derived from the Greek word χρῶμα, chrōma, meaning color, because many chromium compounds are intensely colored. Ferrochromium alloy is commercially produced from chromite by silicothermic or aluminothermic reactions and chromium metal by roasting and leaching processes followed by reduction with carbon and aluminium. Chromium metal is of high value for hardness. A major development in steel production was the discovery that steel could be made resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding metallic chromium to form stainless steel.
Stainless steel and chrome plating together comprise 85% of the commercial use. In the United States, trivalent chromium ion is considered an essential nutrient in humans for insulin and lipid metabolism. However, in 2014, the European Food Safety Authority, acting for the European Union, concluded that there was not sufficient evidence for chromium to be recognized as essential. While chromium metal and Cr ions are not considered toxic, hexavalent chromium is both toxic and carcinogenic. Abandoned chromium production sites require environmental cleanup. Chromium is the fourth transition metal found on the periodic table, has an electron configuration of 3d5 4s1, it is the first element in the periodic table whose ground-state electron configuration violates the Aufbau principle. This occurs again in the periodic table with other elements and their electron configurations, such as copper and molybdenum; this occurs. In the previous elements, the energetic cost of promoting an electron to the next higher energy level is too great to compensate for that released by lessening inter-electronic repulsion.
However, in the 3d transition metals, the energy gap between the 3d and the next-higher 4s subshell is small, because the 3d subshell is more compact than the 4s subshell, inter-electron repulsion is smaller between 4s electrons than between 3d electrons. This lowers the energetic cost of promotion and increases the energy released by it, so that the promotion becomes energetically feasible and one or two electrons are always promoted to the 4s subshell. Chromium is the first element in the 3d series where the 3d electrons start to sink into the inert core. Chromium is a strong oxidising agent in contrast to the tungsten oxides. Chromium is hard, is the third hardest element behind carbon and boron, its Mohs hardness is 8.5, which means that it can scratch samples of quartz and topaz, but can be scratched by corundum. Chromium is resistant to tarnishing, which makes it useful as a metal that preserves its outermost layer from corroding, unlike other metals such as copper and aluminium. Chromium has a melting point of 1907 °C, low compared to the majority of transition metals.
However, it still has the second highest melting point out of all the Period 4 elements, being topped by vanadium by 3 °C at 1910 °C. The boiling point of 2671 °C, however, is comparatively lower, having the third lowest boiling point out of the Period 4 transition metals alone behind manganese and zinc. Chromium has an unusually high specular reflection in comparison to that of other transition metals. At 425 μm, chromium was found to have a relative maximum reflection of about 72% reflectance, before entering a depression in reflectivity, reaching a minimum of 62% reflectance at 750 μm before rising again to reflecting 90% of 4000 μm of infrared waves.. When chromium is formed into a stainless steel alloy and polished, the specular reflection decreases with the inclusion of additional metals, yet is still rather high in comparison with other alloys. Between 40% and 60% of the visible spectrum is reflected from polished stainless steel; the explanation on why chromium displays such a high turnout of reflected photon waves in general the 90% of infrared waves that were reflected, can be attributed to chromium's magnetic properties.
Chromium has unique magnetic properties in the sense that chromium is the only elemental solid which shows antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature. Above 38 °C, its magnetic ordering changes to paramagnetic.. The antiferromagnetic properties, which cause the chromium atoms to temporarily ionize and bond with themselves, are present because the body-centric cubic's magnetic properties are disproportionate to the lattice periodicity; this is due to the fact that the magnetic moments at the cube's corners and the cube centers are not equal, but are still antiparallel. From here, the frequency-dependent relative permittivity of chromium, deriving from Maxwell's equations in conjunction with chromium's antiferromagnetivity, leaves chromium with a high infrared and visible light reflectance. Chromium metal left standing in air is passivated by oxidation, forming a th
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u
Histoire de Melody Nelson
Histoire de Melody Nelson is a 1971 concept album by French songwriter Serge Gainsbourg. Produced by Jean-Claude Desmarty, the album was released on March 1971 through Philips Records; the Lolita-esque pseudo-autobiographical plot of the album involves the middle-aged Gainsbourg unintentionally colliding his Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost into teenage girl Melody Nelson's bicycle, the subsequent seduction and romance that ensues. Histoire de Melody Nelson is considered by many critics and fans to be Gainsbourg's most influential and accomplished work, as well as one of the greatest French-language albums in popular music. At just under twenty-eight minutes, the short running time and the stylistic consistency and similarity throughout the album give it qualities more in line with an EP or an extended musical piece with a number of movements. Histoire de Melody Nelson‘s mix of freewheeling guitar, funk style bass guitar, near spoken word vocal delivery, lush, deep orchestrated string and choral arrangements by Jean-Claude Vannier who composed the entire music in collaboration with Gainsbourg for the album, have proven to be influential amongst francophone and anglophone musical performers.
After the release of the album, a music video was made for each song and released all together as "Melody", a short musical. On October 18, 2011 Mercury Records through Universal Music released the album with a second CD containing alternate takes of all seven tracks as well as instrumental and vocal versions of the excised track "Melody Lit Babar." A limited edition was released that included a DVD which featured the original album remixed in Dolby Digital 5.1 Surround Sound and a forty-minute documentary on the making of the album which includes interviews with Jane Birkin, Jean-Claude Vannier, others. This release includes a full-color booklet of liner notes in both French and English. Upon its release in 1971, Histoire de Melody Nelson received critical praise. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from critics, the album received an average score of 96, which indicates "universal acclaim", based on 9 reviews. Jason Ankeny of AllMusic described the album as "arguably his most coherent and realized studio album" and stated: "It's by turns fascinating and repellent and grim, but never dull -- which, in Gainsbourg's world, would be the ultimate sin."
Keith Phipps of The A. V. Club wrote: "It’s a true album—its tale of innocence lost and unearned last chances wouldn’t work as well in any other medium." Tom Ewing of Pitchfork stated: "The bookend tracks of Melody Nelson are a trip through far more hostile territories, the black spaces of a man's interior." He praised the "originality" of the record, describing its sound as similar to "nothing else in rock." D. M. Edwards of PopMatters commented: "This is genre-defying music, but anyone with an interest in hearing a blueprint for trip hop or a master class in the depiction of desire in pop music, should be sure to listen to this mysterious, contradictory album." Histoire de Melody Nelson is regarded by many critics and fans to be Gainsbourg's magnum opus and his most influential release. While it became a pivotal album of the 1970s and was instrumental in the development of French rock music and trip hop genre, it has influenced many musical artists outside France, including Jarvis Cocker of Pulp, Tricky, Barry Adamson of Magazine, David Holmes, Cibo Matto, Neil Hannon of The Divine Comedy, Michael Stipe of R.
E. M. Portishead, The Last Shadow Puppets and Arctic Monkeys. Portishead based its musical style on the album's mixture of orchestrations with dusty drums, while Beck utilized the album's main theme on his song "Paper Tiger", on his 2002 album, Sea Change. French electronic music act Air was influenced by the album. Faith No More and Mr. Bungle vocalist Mike Patton expressed his appreciation for the album and Gainsbourg's music, stating that "he was awe-struck by the elegance and detail of Serge's'pop' forms". "It made me think that I had a lot to learn". The songs on Histoire de Melody Nelson were covered and sampled by various artists of different genres. British rock band Placebo recorded a cover version of "The Ballad of Melody Nelson", released on a compilation of cover versions with their Sleeping with Ghosts album. Portishead covered the song in French, collaborating with Jane Birkin. Mick Harvey of Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds released a total of four Gainsbourg tribute albums, two in the 1990s, Intoxicated Man and Pink Elephants, two more nearly 20 years Delirium Tremens and Intoxicated Women.
He joined the stage with frequent collaborator PJ Harvey in 1996 for performances of two Gainsbourg songs and Clyde and Harley Davidson. Michael Stipe covered "L'hôtel particulier" under the name "L'Hotel" on a 2006 Gainsbourg tribute album Monsieur Gainsbourg Revisited. Hip hop act De La Soul sampled "Ah! Melody" on their song, "Held Down" from AOI: Bionix. Mirwais, a French producer, known for his work for Madonna, sampled "Cargo Culte" on his album Production. David Holmes used a sample of "Melody" on his track "Don't Die Just Yet", from his 1997 album Let's Get Killed. Brazilian musician Rogério Skylab covered "Ah! Melody" for his 2009 album Skygirls; the album was referenced in non-musical fields. "Melody" is the default author name and "Nelson" is the default password in Six Apart's Movable Type weblog software, which had the working title of "Serge", after Gainsbourg. An open source fork of Movable Type carries the
Claude Goodman Johnson was a British motor vehicle manufacturer, instrumental in the creation of Rolls-Royce Limited. Johnson described himself as the hyphen in the Rolls-Royce name; when Royce fell ill and took his design staff home in 1908, after the death of Rolls in July 1910, it was Johnson, responsible for keeping the business running, until his own death in April 1926. Claude Johnson was born in Datchet, Berkshire on 24 October 1864 to the middle of the large family of William Goodman Johnson and his wife Sophia Fanny, his father was on the staff of the South Kensington Museum. Known as CJ, Johnson was a large broad-shouldered extrovert. Educated at St Paul's School he attended the Art School, South Kensington, joined the Imperial Institute in South Kensington and, for the Institute, organised the first automobile exhibition in England at Richmond Park in 1896. Hired in 1897 by F R Simms, who had noted his organisational ability and public relations flair, Johnson became the first secretary of the Royal Automobile Club where he organised the club's Thousand Mile trial of 1900.
The RAC Club's Jubilee Book stated "To him is owed the fact of the club's existence today". Leaving the RAC in 1903 for a manufacturing venture Johnson became joint manager with Charles Rolls of C. S. Rolls & Co finding high quality cars for friends, to lead first to their discovery of F H Royce in Manchester and a 1904 contract for Royce to supply cars branded Rolls-Royce and in 1906 to Rolls-Royce Limited. Johnson became a close friend with newspaper proprietor Alfred Harmsworth which ensured more publicity, Harmsworth dominated the British press. At first responsibilities were divided three ways. Charles Rolls promoted the cars by competing in trials and races, Johnson understudied Rolls at this but was responsible for sales as well as business organisation, Royce's responsibility was production. Claude Johnson brought the necessary business acumen to the partnership of Royce; the board soon recognised. In 1908 after four years of incessant work Royce's health failed. Johnson persuaded temperamental Royce to work at home with a team of draughtsmen.
Rolls's death in 1910 triggered a breakdown in Royce's health and he underwent a major operation. Johnson persuaded him to live in a villa in the south of France—next to Johnson's own villa— with his drawing office and personal staff of eight in adjoining premises. Thereafter Royce divided his time between winters in France and Kent West Wittering in Sussex and "never came within a hundred miles of Derby", it was Johnson's idea to limit their various car models to one, the 40/50, silent, costly—the best car that money can buy— and reliable as he demonstrated to the buying public. A journalist promptly dubbed it the best car in the world; the original car finished in special livery to his special order, this particular vehicle was named in advance by him The Silver Ghost, is pictured here in 1907 when new and again 97 years on display at the celebration of the company's centenary in 2004. He drove his unique Silver Ghost non-stop around Britain for 15,000 miles and asked the RAC to strip it down and restore its working parts to mint condition.
Instead of the major overhaul any other car of the day would have required, the Silver Ghost's repair bill came to only £2.2s 7d. The name "Silver Ghost" caught on and though never used is since used for all 7,874 of the 40/50 model which remained in production until his death in 1926. For the Spirit of Ecstasy mascot he hired the sculptor Charles Sykes who used as his model the society belle Eleanor Thornton, secretary to John Scott Montagu, Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. In the winter of 1915–1916 Johnson named the first three Rolls-Royce aircraft piston engines, the Eagle and Falcon, starting the company's tradition of naming piston aero engines after birds of prey. By 1918 Johnson's business was the world's largest producer of aero-engines. Post-war the business prospered Johnson died on 12 April 1926 aged 61 at his house in London, 3 Adelphi Terrace House, Robert St, now NW1. Though suffering from a cold he had insisted on attending a niece's wedding and succumbed to pneumonia. Married twice, in 1891 and 1919, Johnson left a widow, Evelyn Maud who remarried and died in 1955, two surviving children, a daughter from each marriage.
"Since we last met the company has suffered a grievous loss by the death of Mr Claude Johnson to whose policy, coupled with the engineering achievements of Mr Royce, it owes its present pre-eminence. A memorial to him designed by Sir Herbert Baker and with an inscription written by Mr Rudyard Kipling is to be erected at the works. Mr Basil Johnson, appointed the new managing director, was the general manager, for 12 years shared with his brother the management of the company's affairs." Lord Wargrave, chairman"Our existing aero engines continue to maintain their reputation for unparalleled reliability. Quite three flying boats equipped with Rolls-Royce Eagle engines accomplished a memorable flight of 4,500 miles across Africa. Another flying boat, fitted with two Rolls-Royce Condor engines, succeeded in carrying 55 passengers at one time in its trials on Lake Constance; such an achievement was as unique today as was the conquest of the Atlantic made by our engines in 1919. The first flights across the North and South Atlantic and to Australia, South Africa and India were all made by Rolls-Royce engines."
Lord Wargrave, chairman. Johnson wrote The Early History of Motoring published after his death in 1927 by London, it has a preface by Lord Montagu of Beaulieu and co
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel is hard and ductile. Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area, shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion. So, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts in ultramafic rocks, in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis. An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's outer and inner cores. Use of nickel has been traced as far back as 3500 BCE. Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who mistook the ore for a copper mineral, in the cobalt mines of Los, Hälsingland, Sweden.
The element's name comes from a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology, who personified the fact that copper-nickel ores resisted refinement into copper. An economically important source of nickel is the iron ore limonite, which contains 1–2% nickel. Nickel's other important ore minerals include pentlandite and a mixture of Ni-rich natural silicates known as garnierite. Major production sites include the Sudbury region in Canada, New Caledonia in the Pacific, Norilsk in Russia. Nickel is oxidized by air at room temperature and is considered corrosion-resistant, it has been used for plating iron and brass, coating chemistry equipment, manufacturing certain alloys that retain a high silvery polish, such as German silver. About 9% of world nickel production is still used for corrosion-resistant nickel plating. Nickel-plated objects sometimes provoke nickel allergy. Nickel has been used in coins, though its rising price has led to some replacement with cheaper metals in recent years. Nickel is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic at room temperature.
Alnico permanent magnets based on nickel are of intermediate strength between iron-based permanent magnets and rare-earth magnets. The metal is valuable in modern times chiefly in alloys. A further 10% is used for nickel-based and copper-based alloys, 7% for alloy steels, 3% in foundries, 9% in plating and 4% in other applications, including the fast-growing battery sector; as a compound, nickel has a number of niche chemical manufacturing uses, such as a catalyst for hydrogenation, cathodes for batteries and metal surface treatments. Nickel is an essential nutrient for some microorganisms and plants that have enzymes with nickel as an active site. Nickel is a silvery-white metal with a slight golden tinge, it is one of only four elements that are magnetic at or near room temperature, the others being iron and gadolinium. Its Curie temperature is 355 °C; the unit cell of nickel is a face-centered cube with the lattice parameter of 0.352 nm, giving an atomic radius of 0.124 nm. This crystal structure is stable to pressures of at least 70 GPa.
Nickel belongs to the transition metals. It is hard and ductile, has a high for transition metals electrical and thermal conductivity; the high compressive strength of 34 GPa, predicted for ideal crystals, is never obtained in the real bulk material due to the formation and movement of dislocations. The nickel atom has two electron configurations, 3d8 4s2 and 3d9 4s1, which are close in energy – the symbol refers to the argon-like core structure. There is some disagreement. Chemistry textbooks quote the electron configuration of nickel as 4s2 3d8, which can be written 3d8 4s2; this configuration agrees with the Madelung energy ordering rule, which predicts that 4s is filled before 3d. It is supported by the experimental fact that the lowest energy state of the nickel atom is a 3d8 4s2 energy level the 3d8 4s2 3F, J = 4 level. However, each of these two configurations splits into several energy levels due to fine structure, the two sets of energy levels overlap; the average energy of states with configuration 3d9 4s1 is lower than the average energy of states with configuration 3d8 4s2.
For this reason, the research literature on atomic calculations quotes the ground state configuration of nickel as 3d9 4s1. The isotopes of nickel range in atomic weight from 48 u to 78 u. Occurring nickel is composed of five stable isotopes. Isotopes heavier than 62Ni cannot be formed by nuclear fusion without losing energy. Nickel-62 has the highest mean nuclear binding energy per nucleon of any nuclide, at 8.7946 MeV/nucleon. Its binding energy is greater than both 56Fe and 58Fe, more abundant elements incorrectly cited as having the most tightly-bound nuclides. Although this would seem to predict nickel-62 as the most abundant heavy element in the universe, the high rate of photodisintegration of nickel in stellar interiors causes iron to be by far the most abundant. Stable isotope nickel-60 is the daughter product of the extinct radionuclide 60Fe, whi