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Spirit possession

Spirit possession is the supposed control of a human body by spirits, demons or gods. The concept of spirit possession exists in many religions, including Christianity, Haitian Vodou, Hinduism and Southeast Asian and African traditions. In a 1969 study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, spirit possession beliefs were found to exist in 74 percent of a sample of 488 societies in all parts of the world. Depending on the cultural context in which it is found, possession may be considered voluntary or involuntary and may be considered to have beneficial or detrimental effects on the host. Within possession cults, the belief that one is possessed by spirits is more common among women than men. According to Augustin Calmet: The Egyptians believed that when the spirit of an animal is separated from its body by violence, it does not go to a distance, but remains near it, it is the same with the soul of a man. The magicians abuse their power over such in their incantations. Frequent experience taught them that there is a secret virtue in the body, which draws towards it the spirit which has once inhabited it.

The spirit of these creatures enters into them at the moment they eat this food, makes them give out oracles like divinities.. Porphyry, when consulted by Anebo, an Egyptian priest, if those who foretell the future and perform prodigies have more powerful souls, or whether they receive power from some strange spirit, replies that, according to appearance, all these things are done by means of certain evil spirits that are knavish, take all sorts of shapes, do everything that one sees happen, whether good or evil. – Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants Among the Gurage people of Ethiopia, spirit possession is a common belief. Wiliam A. Shack postulated that it is caused by Gurage cultural attitudes about food and hunger, while they have a plentiful food supply, cultural pressures that force the Gurage to either share it to meet social obligations, or hoard it and eat it secretly cause feelings of anxiety. Distinctions are drawn between spirits that possess men, spirits that possess women, spirits that possess victims of either sex.

A ritual illness that only affects men is believed to be caused by a spirit called awre. This affliction presents itself by loss of appetite and attacks from severe stomach pains. If it persists the victim may enter a trancelike stupor, in which he sometimes regains consciousness long enough to take food and water. Breathing is labored. Seizures and trembling overcome the patient, in extreme cases, partial paralysis of the extremities. If the victim does not recover a traditional healer, or sagwara, is summoned. Once the sagwara has determined the spirit's name through the use of divination, he prescribes a routine formula to exorcise the spirit; this is not a permanent cure, however, it is believed to allow the victim to form a relationship with the spirit. The victim is subject to chronic repossession, treated by repeating the formula; this formula involves the preparation and consumption of a dish of ensete and red pepper. During this ritual, the victim's head is covered with a drape, he eats the ensete ravenously while other ritual participants participate by chanting.

The ritual ends. Shack notes that the victims are overwhelmingly poor men, that women are not as food-deprived as men are due to ritual activities that involve food redistribution and consumption. Shack postulates that the awre serves to bring the possessed man to the center of social attention, to relieve his anxieties over his inability to gain prestige from redistributing food, the primary way in which Gurage men gain status in their society; the belief in spirit possession is part of their native culture of the Sidama people of southwest Ethiopia. Anthropologists Irene and John Hamer postulated that it is a form of compensation for being deprived within Sidama society, although they do not draw from I. M. Lewis; the majority of the possessed are women whose spirits demand luxury goods to alleviate their condition, but men can be possessed as well. Possessed individuals of both sexes can become healers due to their condition. Hamer and Hamer suggest that this is a form of compensation among deprived men in the competitive society of the Sidama, for if a man cannot gain prestige as an orator, warrior, or farmer, he may still gain prestige as a spirit healer.

Women are sometimes accused of faking possession. The Digo people of Kenya refer to the spirits that possess them as shaitani; these shaitani demand luxury items to make the patient well again. Despite the fact that men sometimes accuse women of faking the possessions in order to get luxury items and sympathy, they do regard spirit possession as a genuine condition and view victims of it as being ill through no fault of their own. However, men sometimes suspect women of colluding with spirits in order to be possessed; the Giriama people of coastal Kenya believe in spirit possession. In Mayotte 25 percent of the adult population, a

Henrietta Clive, Countess of Powis

Henrietta Antonia Clive, Countess of Powis, was a British writer, mineral collector and botanist. Her time in India, while her husband was Governor of Madras, was inspirational to her for all three of these pursuits. Born in Oakley Park, at Bromfield, into a landed and titled family, she was the daughter of Henry Herbert, 1st Earl of Powis, Barbara, granddaughter of William Herbert, 2nd Marquess of Powis, her family owned a property in significant estates in Wales and Shropshire. Her birthplace was sold to Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, in 1771, so Lady Henrietta spent her teenage years at the family's ancestral home, Powis Castle. Lady Henrietta married Lord Clive's eldest son and heir, Edward Clive, 1st Baron Clive, in 1784; the marriage was beneficial to both families. The couple settled at Lydbury North near Bishop's Castle, Shropshire, their four children were: Lady Henrietta Antonia Williams-Wynn, wife of Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 5th Baronet Edward Herbert, 2nd Earl of Powis Lady Charlotte Florentia Percy, wife of Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland, governess of the future Queen Victoria Robert Henry Clive, a politicianLady Clive inherited the Herbert estates upon the death of her brother, George Herbert, 2nd Earl of Powis, in 1801, when the Earldom became extinct.

Three years it was recreated in favour of her husband, making her Countess of Powis. The Countess of Powis died at Walcot Hall in 1830 aged 71 and was buried at Bromfield Parish Church, near Oakley Park, her husband survived her, dying in 1839. In 1798, Lord Clive was appointed Governor of Madras. Lady Clive followed him to India where she started collecting rocks and minerals, as the first aristocratic woman to pursue that hobby; as her collection was growing, Lady Clive contacted prominent collectors and mineral dealers, such as James Sowerby, John MacCulloch and the Countess of Aylesford. Her records show; the minerals in Lady Clive's collection, numbering up to 1,000, are arranged systematically by chemistry, as was usual in the early 19th century. In 1817, she organised her collection in two handwritten catalogues, using numbers to identify each specimen and helping the collection remain remarkably complete to this day. A quarter of the original collection is now kept at the National Museum Wales as one of the most important historic mineral collections, having been donated by her great-grandson, George Herbert, 4th Earl of Powis, in 1929.

Upon arriving in India, Lady Powis created a garden and kept a record of the plants in the area of Mysore and the Carnatic region. Lady Clive's Journals are one of the first written accounts of India by a British woman. Published as Birds of Passage, they were an important milestone in the emergence of female travel writers to join and challenge their male counterparts. 1758–1784: Lady Henrietta Herbert 1784–1804: The Right Honourable The Baroness Clive 1804–1830: The Right Honourable The Countess of Powis Shields, Nancy K: Birds of Passage: Henrietta Clive's Travels in South India 1798–1801 Eland 2010 ISBN 1906011370 The Noble Family of Clive

Bray–Curtis dissimilarity

In ecology and biology, the Bray–Curtis dissimilarity, named after J. Roger Bray and John T. Curtis, is a statistic used to quantify the compositional dissimilarity between two different sites, based on counts at each site; as defined by Bray and Curtis, the index of dissimilarity is: B C i j = 1 − 2 C i j S i + S j Where C i j is the sum of the lesser values for only those species in common between both sites. S i and S j are the total number of specimens counted at both sites; the index can be simplified to 1-2C/2 = 1-C when the abundances at each site are expressed as proportions, though the two forms of the equation only produce matching results when the total number of specimens counted at both sites are the same. Further treatment can be found in Legendre; the Bray–Curtis dissimilarity is directly related to the quantitative Sørensen similarity index Q S i j between the same sites: B C ¯ i j = 1 − Q S i j. The Bray–Curtis dissimilarity is bounded between 0 and 1, where 0 means the two sites have the same composition, 1 means the two sites do not share any species.

At sites with where BC is intermediate this index differs from other used indices. The Bray–Curtis dissimilarity is erroneously called a distance, it is not a distance since it does not satisfy triangle inequality, should always be called a dissimilarity to avoid confusion. Bray–Curtis and Jaccard indices are rank-order similar, Jaccard index is metric, should be preferred instead of the default Bray-Curtis, semimetric. Czekanowski J Zur Differentialdiagnose der Neandertalgruppe. Korrespbl dt Ges Anthrop 40: 44–47. Ricotta C & Podani J On some properties of the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and their ecological meaning. Ecological Complexity 31: 201–205. Somerfield, PJ Identification of Bray-Curtis similarity index: comment on Yoshioka. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 372: 303–306. Yoshioka PM Misidentification of the Bray-Curtis similarity index. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 368: 309–310. Http://doi.org/10.3354/meps07728

Gesine Manuwald

Gesine Manuwald is a Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Greek and Latin at University College London. She focuses on Roman drama and oratory and the reception of Roman literature Neo-Latin poetry. Gesine Manuwald studied Classics and English at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, with a year as an affiliate student at UCL, she was awarded the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz-Preis in 2001 for work on classical philology. From there she did her Ph. D. on Valerius Flaccus and a post-doctoral habilitation on the Roman dramatic genre fabula praetexta. During this time she worked on a research project on Roman tragedy, which led to a five-year research fellowship in which she was able to produce her commentary of Cicero's Philippics 3–9. In 2007, Gesine Manuwald joined the UCL Department of Greek and Latin, she became a member of the Academia Europaea in 2014. Die Cyzicus-Episode und ihre Funktion in den Argonautica des Valerius Flaccus, Göttingen 1999 Fabulae praetextae. Spuren einer literarischen Gattung der Römer, München 2001 Pacuvius – summus tragicus poeta.

Zum dramatischen Profil seiner Tragödien, München / Leipzig 2003 Römische Tragödien und Praetexten republikanischer Zeit: 1964–2002, Jahrgang 2001, Band 43, 2004, 11–237 Cicero, Philippics 3–9. Edited with Introduction and Commentary. Vol. 1: Introduction and Translation, References and Indexes. Philippics. Edited and translated by D. R. Shackleton Bailey. Revised by John T. Ramsey and Gesine Manuwald, 2 vol. Cambridge / London 2009. Roman Drama: A Reader, London 2010 Roman Republican Theatre, Cambridge 2011 Tragicorum Romanorum Fragmenta. Volumen II. Ennius, Göttingen 2012 Nero in Opera. Librettos as Transformations of Ancient Sources, Berlin / Boston 2013 Cicero, London 2015

Arnoglossum

Arnoglossum is a North American genus of plants in the sunflower family, described as a genus in 1817. Common name Indian plantain despite not being related to the common plantain nor to the cooking plantain Arnoglossum is a member of the tribe Senecioneae, undergoing extensive revisions in recent years. Many of the species now in the genus were classified in other genera such as Cacalia and Senecio; the remaining species are all native to North America. The name Arnoglossum is from the Greek word "arnos" meaning lamb, "glossum" meaning tongue and is the ancient name for some species of Plantago. SpeciesArnoglossum album L. C. Anderson - Florida Arnoglossum atriplicifolium H. Rob. - Pale Indian Plantain - much of eastern + central USA Arnoglossum diversifolium H. Rob. - Variable-leaved Indian Plantain - Georgia, Alabama Arnoglossum floridanum H. Rob. - Florida cacalia - Florida Arnoglossum ovatum H. Rob. - Ovateleaf cacalia - from eastern Texas to North Carolina Arnoglossum plantagineum Raf. - Tuberous Indian-plantain or Groovestem Indian plaintain - from Ontario south as far as Texas and Alabama Arnoglossum reniforme H.

E. Robins. - eastern USA Arnoglossum sulcatum H. Rob - Georgia Indian plaintain - Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi Media related to Arnoglossum at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Arnoglossum at Wikispecies

Haemodracon riebeckii

Haemodracon riebeckii is a species of lizard in the family Phyllodactylidae. The species is endemic to Yemen; the specific name, riebeckii, is in honor of German ethnologist Emil Riebeck. H. riebeckii is found on nearby Samhah Island. Both Islands belong to Yemen; the preferred habitats of H. riebeckii are rocky areas and shrubland, at altitudes of 0–938 m. H. riebeckii is active at night. H. riebeckii is oviparous. Boulenger GA. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Musem. Second Edition. Volume I. Geckonidæ... London: Trustees of the British Museum.. Xi + 436 pp. + Plates I-XXXII.. Peters W. "Über die von Herrn Dr. E. Riebeck auf Socotra gesammelten Reptilien ". Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1882: 42-46... Rösler H, Wranik W. "A key and annotated checklist to the reptiles of the Socotra archipelago". Fauna of Arabia 20: 505-534