Ford Christopher Frick was an American sportswriter and baseball executive. After working as a teacher and as a sportswriter for the New York American, he served as public relations director of the National League as the league's president from 1934 to 1951, he was the third Commissioner of Major League Baseball from 1951 to 1965. While Frick was NL president, he had a major role in the establishment of the Baseball Hall of Fame as a museum that honors the best players in baseball history, he extinguished threats of a player strike in response to the racial integration of the major leagues. During Frick's term as commissioner, expansion occurred and MLB faced the threat of having its antitrust exemption revoked by Congress, he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1970. The Ford C. Frick Award recognizes outstanding MLB broadcasters. Frick was born on a farm in Wawaka and went to high school in Rome City, Indiana, he took classes at International Business College in Fort Wayne worked for a company that made engines for windmills.
He attended DePauw University, where he played first base for the DePauw baseball team and ran track. He graduated in 1915, he had been a member of Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. Frick came to Colorado to play semipro baseball in Walsenburg. After his stint as a baseball player, Frick lived in Colorado, he taught English at Colorado College. Frick moonlighted for The Gazette, covering sports and news until he left to work for the War Department near the conclusion of World War I; when the war was over, Frick worked in Denver for the Rocky Mountain News. Frick returned to Colorado Springs to take a job with the Evening Telegraph, which merged with The Gazette. Around this time, he had given some thought to starting his own advertising agency. In 1921, a flood devastated much of Colorado; when other reporters had flown in to cover the flood, their airplanes had become stuck in muddy conditions and they had been stranded in Pueblo. Frick had a pilot fly him there, but instead of landing, they circled low over Pueblo while Frick took notes and photographs.
He was able to file his story a day earlier than other reporters. The recognition from the Pueblo flood helped Frick get a position with the New York American in 1922. Frick was a broadcaster for WOR in New York. At WOR, he worked with Stan Lomax. In 1934, he became the NL's public relations director, became president of the league that year. In June 1937, Cardinals pitcher Dizzy Dean began to publicly criticize the Frick. In response, Frick said. Dean indicated that he would not apologize and that he would boycott the 1937 All-Star Game, suspended or not; the Cardinals made peace with Frick. He appeared in the All-Star Game; the injury altered his delivery and he injured his arm, never returning to All-Star form. An American Communist Party newspaper known as the Daily Worker asked Frick in 1937 about the feasibility of racially integrating baseball. Frick said, he said that professional baseball required good habits and strong character. He asserted that he was not aware of a case in which race had played a role in the selection of a major league player.
In the late 1930s, Frick played a central role in establishing the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York. He gathered a team of representatives from the major news wire services, including Davis Walsh of the International News Service, Alan J. Gould of the Associated Press, Henry L. Farrell of United Press International, they took the idea to the Baseball Writers' Association of America and that organization became the voting body for Hall of Fame elections. During his tenure as NL president, when several members of the St. Louis Cardinals planned to protest Jackie Robinson's breaking of baseball's color barrier, Frick threatened any players involved with suspension. While president of the NL, Frick served on DePauw University's board of trustees, he was president of the school's alumni association, helping to create the DePauw Alumni Fund. In 1951, some baseball owners had become displeased with Happy Chandler's service as commissioner and did not want to renew his contract.
In September, the owners elected Frick to replace Chandler in a twelve-hour meeting that the Chicago Tribune called "their all-time peak in dilly-dallying". The owners were able to narrow the candidates down from five unnamed candidates to two frontrunners and Warren Giles; the owners deadlocked until Giles decided to remove his name from consideration. Giles, president and general manager of the Cincinnati Reds, succeeded Frick as NL president. Frick agreed to a seven-year contract worth $65,000 each year; when he assumed the office, Frick said that he was surprised to be elected though he knew he was a candidate for the position. Just before his announcement, the major league team owners voted that the commissioner's office should be located in a city with two major league teams. Frick decided to relocate the office from Cincinnati to New York. In 1957, Frick addressed an organized campaign of ballot stuffing for that year's All-Star Game in which most of the ballots originated from Cincinnati and had stacked the NL team with Reds.
In response, Frick overruled the fan vote, removed two Reds from the starting lineup and appointed two replacements from other teams, took the vote away from the fans and kept it that way for the remainder of his tenure. Fri
In baseball, a home run is scored when the ball is hit in such a way that the batter is able to circle the bases and reach home safely in one play without any errors being committed by the defensive team in the process. In modern baseball, the feat is achieved by hitting the ball over the outfield fence between the foul poles without first touching the ground, resulting in an automatic home run. There is the "inside-the-park" home run where the batter reaches home safely while the baseball is in play on the field; when a home run is scored, the batter is credited with a hit and a run scored, an RBI for each runner that scores, including himself. The pitcher is recorded as having given up a hit, a run for each runner that scores including the batter. Home runs are among the most popular aspects of baseball and, as a result, prolific home run hitters are the most popular among fans and the highest paid by teams—hence the old saying, "Home run hitters drive Cadillacs, singles hitters drive Fords.
In modern times a home run is most scored when the ball is hit over the outfield wall between the foul poles before it touches the ground, without being caught or deflected back onto the field by a fielder. A batted ball is a home run if it touches either foul pole or its attached screen before touching the ground, as the foul poles are by definition in fair territory. Additionally, many major-league ballparks have ground rules stating that a batted ball in flight that strikes a specified location or fixed object is a home run. In professional baseball, a batted ball that goes over the outfield wall after touching the ground becomes an automatic double; this is colloquially referred to as a "ground rule double" because the rule is not written into the rules of baseball, but is rather a rule of the field being used. A fielder is allowed to reach over the wall to attempt to catch the ball as long as his feet are on or over the field during the attempt, if the fielder catches the ball while it is in flight the batter is out if the ball had passed the vertical plane of the wall.
However, since the fielder is not part of the field, a ball that bounces off a fielder and over the wall without touching the ground is still a home run. A fielder may not deliberately throw his glove, cap, or any other equipment or apparel to stop or deflect a fair ball, an umpire may award a home run to the batter if a fielder does so on a ball that, in the umpire's judgment, would have otherwise been a home run. A home run accomplished in any of the above manners is an automatic home run; the ball is dead if it rebounds back onto the field, the batter and any preceding runners cannot be put out at any time while running the bases. However, if one or more runners fail to touch a base or one runner passes another before reaching home plate, that runner or runners can be called out on appeal, though in the case of not touching a base a runner can go back and touch it if doing so won't cause them to be passed by another preceding runner and they have not yet touched the next base; this stipulation is in Approved Ruling of Rule 7.10.
An inside-the-park home run occurs when a batter hits the ball into play and is able to circle the bases before the fielders can put him out. Unlike with an outside-the-park home run, the batter-runner and all preceding runners are liable to be put out by the defensive team at any time while running the bases; this can only happen. In the early days of baseball, outfields were much more spacious, reducing the likelihood of an over-the-fence home run, while increasing the likelihood of an inside-the-park home run, as a ball getting past an outfielder had more distance that it could roll before a fielder could track it down. Modern outfields are much less spacious and more uniformly designed than in the game's early days, therefore inside-the-park home runs are now a rarity, they occur when a fast runner hits the ball deep into the outfield and the ball bounces in an unexpected direction away from the nearest outfielder, or an outfielder misjudges the flight of the ball in a way that he cannot recover from the mistake.
The speed of the runner is crucial as triples are rare in most modern ballparks. If any defensive play on an inside-the-park home run is labeled an error by the official scorer, a home run is not scored. All runs scored on such a play, still count. An example of an unexpected bounce occurred during the 2007 Major League Baseball All-Star Game at AT&T Park in San Francisco on July 10, 2007. Ichiro Suzuki of the American League team hit a fly ball that caromed off the right-center field wall in the opposite direction from where National League right fielder Ken Griffey, Jr. was expecting it to go. By the time the ball was relayed, Ichiro had crossed the plate standing up; this was the first inside-the-park home run in All-Star Game history, led to Suzu
Richard Rudolph, was a pitcher in the Major Leagues from 1910 to 1927. He played for the New York Giants and Boston Braves, he was an alumnus of Fordham University. Rudolph was known for throwing the spitball, he was one of the 17 pitchers allowed to continue throwing the pitch after it was outlawed in 1920. In 1914, Rudolph was a member of the Braves team that went from last place to first place in two months, becoming the first team to win a pennant after being in last place on the Fourth of July; the Braves went on to sweep Connie Mack's favored Philadelphia Athletics in the 1914 World Series, becoming the first team to win a series by 4 games to none with no ties. Rudolph won the first and fourth games, he is buried at Woodlawn Cemetery in The New York City. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Dick Rudolph at Find a Grave
The Houston Astros are an American professional baseball team based in Houston, Texas. The Astros compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League West division, having moved to the division in 2013 after spending their first 51 seasons in the National League; the Astros have played their home games at Minute Maid Park since 2000. The Astros were established as the Houston Colt.45s and entered the National League as an expansion team in 1962 along with the New York Mets. The current name—reflecting Houston's role as the control center of the U. S. crewed space program—was adopted three years when they moved into the Astrodome, the first domed sports stadium. The Astros played in the NL from 1962 to 2012, first in the West Division from 1969 to 1993, followed by the Central Division from 1994 to 2012; the team was reclassified to the AL West from 2013 onward. While a member of the NL, the Astros played in one World Series in 2005, losing in four games to the Chicago White Sox.
In 2017, they became the first franchise in MLB history to have won a pennant in both the NL and the AL, when they defeated the New York Yankees in the ALCS. They won the 2017 World Series against the Los Angeles Dodgers, winning four games to three, earning the team, the state of Texas, its first World Series title. From 1888 until 1961, Houston's professional baseball club was the minor league Houston Buffaloes. Although expansion from the National League brought an MLB team to Texas in 1962, Houston officials had been making efforts to do so for years prior. There were four men chiefly responsible for bringing Major League Baseball to Houston: George Kirksey and Craig Cullinan, who had led a futile attempt to purchase the St. Louis Cardinals in 1952. E. "Bob" Smith, a prominent oilman and real estate magnate in Houston, brought in for his financial resources. They formed the Houston Sports Association as their vehicle for attaining a big league franchise for the city of Houston. Given MLB's refusal to consider expansion, Cullinan and Hofheinz joined forces with would-be owners from other cities and announced the formation of a new league to compete with the established National and American Leagues.
They called the new league the Continental League. Wanting to protect potential new markets, both existing leagues chose to expand from eight teams to ten. However, plans fell through for the Houston franchise after the Houston Buffaloes owner, Marty Marion, could not come to an agreement with the HSA to sell the team. To make matters worse, the Continental League as a whole folded in August 1960. However, on October 17, 1960, the National League granted an expansion franchise to the Houston Sports Association in which their team could begin play in the 1962 season. According to the Major League Baseball Constitution, the Houston Sports Association was required to obtain territorial rights from the Houston Buffaloes in order to play in the Houston area, again negotiations began to purchase the team; the Houston Sports Association succeeded in purchasing the Houston Buffaloes, at this point majority-owned by William Hopkins, on January 17, 1961. The Buffs played one last minor league season as the top farm team of the Chicago Cubs in 1961 before being succeeded by the city's NL club.
The new Houston team was named the Colt.45s after a "Name The Team" contest was won by William Irving Neder. The Colt.45 was well known as "the gun that won the west." The colors selected were orange. The first team was formed through an expansion draft after the 1961 season; the Colt.45s and their expansion cousins, the New York Mets, took turns choosing players left unprotected by the other National League franchises. Many of those associated with the Houston Buffaloes organization were allowed by the ownership to continue in the major league. Manager Harry Craft, who had joined Houston in 1961, remained in the same position for the team until the end of the 1964 season. General manager Spec Richardson continued with the organization as business manager, but was promoted again to the same position with the Astros from 1967 until 1975. Although most players for the major league franchise were obtained through the 1961 Major League Baseball expansion draft, Buffs players J. C. Hartman, Pidge Browne, Jim Campbell, Ron Davis, Dave Giusti, Dave Roberts were chosen to continue as major league ball players.
The radio broadcasting team remained with the new Houston major league franchise. Loel Passe worked alongside Gene Elston as a color commentator until he retired from broadcasting in 1976. Elston continued with the Astros until 1986; the Colt.45s began their existence playing at Colt Stadium, a temporary venue built just north of the construction site of the indoor stadium. The Colt.45s started their inaugural season on April 10, 1962, against the Chicago Cubs with Harry Craft as the Colt.45s' manager. Bob Aspromonte scored, they started the season with a three-game sweep of the Cubs but finished eighth among the National League's ten teams. The team's best pitcher, Richard "Turk" Farrell, lost 20 games despite an ERA of 3.02. A starter for the Colt.45s, Farrell was a relief pitcher prior to playing for Houston. He was selected to both All-Star Games in 1962; the 1963 season saw more young talent mixed with seasoned veterans. Jimmy Wynn, Rusty Staub, Joe Morgan all made their major league debuts in the 1963 season.
However, Houston's position in the standings did not improve, as the Colt.45s finished in ninth place with a 66–96 record. The t
An autobiography is a self-written account of the life of oneself. The word "autobiography" was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical The Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid, but condemned it as "pedantic". However, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in 1809. Despite only being named early in the nineteenth century, first-person autobiographical writing originates in antiquity. Roy Pascal differentiates autobiography from the periodic self-reflective mode of journal or diary writing by noting that " is a review of a life from a particular moment in time, while the diary, however reflective it may be, moves through a series of moments in time". Autobiography thus takes stock of the autobiographer's life from the moment of composition. While biographers rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints, autobiography may be based on the writer's memory; the memoir form is associated with autobiography but it tends, as Pascal claims, to focus less on the self and more on others during the autobiographer's review of his or her life.
See also: List of autobiographies and Category:Autobiographies for examples. Autobiographical works are by nature subjective; the inability—or unwillingness—of the author to recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information. Some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history. Spiritual autobiography is an account of an author's struggle or journey towards God, followed by conversion a religious conversion interrupted by moments of regression; the author re-frames his or her life as a demonstration of divine intention through encounters with the Divine. The earliest example of a spiritual autobiography is Augustine's Confessions though the tradition has expanded to include other religious traditions in works such as Zahid Rohari's An Autobiography and Black Elk Speaks; the spiritual autobiography works as an endorsement of her religion. A memoir is different in character from an autobiography. While an autobiography focuses on the "life and times" of the writer, a memoir has a narrower, more intimate focus on his or her own memories and emotions.
Memoirs have been written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record and publish an account of their public exploits. One early example is that of Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico known as Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. In the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars, his second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events that took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. Leonor López de Córdoba wrote; the English Civil War provoked a number of examples of this genre, including works by Sir Edmund Ludlow and Sir John Reresby. French examples from the same period include the memoirs of Cardinal de Retz and the Duc de Saint-Simon; the term "fictional autobiography" signifies novels about a fictional character written as though the character were writing their own autobiography, meaning that the character is the first-person narrator and that the novel addresses both internal and external experiences of the character.
Daniel Defoe's Moll Flanders is an early example. Charles Dickens' David Copperfield is another such classic, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye is a well-known modern example of fictional autobiography. Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre is yet another example of fictional autobiography, as noted on the front page of the original version; the term may apply to works of fiction purporting to be autobiographies of real characters, e.g. Robert Nye's Memoirs of Lord Byron. In antiquity such works were entitled apologia, purporting to be self-justification rather than self-documentation. John Henry Newman's Christian confessional work is entitled Apologia Pro Vita Sua in reference to this tradition; the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus introduces his autobiography with self-praise, followed by a justification of his actions as a Jewish rebel commander of Galilee. The pagan rhetor Libanius framed his life memoir as one of his orations, not of a public kind, but of a literary kind that could not be aloud in privacy.
Augustine applied the title Confessions to his autobiographical work, Jean-Jacques Rousseau used the same title in the 18th century, initiating the chain of confessional and sometimes racy and self-critical, autobiographies of the Romantic era and beyond. Augustine's was arguably the first Western autobiography written, became an influential model for Christian writers throughout the Middle Ages, it tells of the hedonistic lifestyle Augustine lived for a time within his youth, associating with young men who boasted of their sexual exploits. Confessions will always rank among the great masterpieces of western literature. In the spirit of Augustine's Confessions is the 12th-century Historia Cal
Sandpaper and glasspaper are names used for a type of coated abrasive that consists of sheets of paper or cloth with abrasive material glued to one face. Despite the use of the names neither sand nor glass are now used in the manufacture of these products as they have been replaced by other abrasives such as aluminium oxide or silicon carbide. Sandpaper is produced in a range of grit sizes and is used to remove material from surfaces, either to make them smoother, to remove a layer of material, or sometimes to make the surface rougher, it is common to use the name of the abrasive when describing the paper, e.g. "aluminium oxide paper", or "silicon carbide paper". The grit size of sandpaper is stated as a number, inversely related to the particle size. A small number such as 20 or 40 indicates a coarse grit, while a large number such as 1500 indicates a fine grit; the first recorded instance of sandpaper was in 13th-century China when crushed shells and sand were bonded to parchment using natural gum.
Shark skin has been used as an abrasive and the rough scales of the living fossil, Coelacanth are used for the same purpose by the natives of Comoros. Boiled and dried, the rough horsetail plant is used in Japan as a traditional polishing material, finer than sandpaper. Glass paper was manufactured in London in 1833 by John Oakey, whose company had developed new adhesive techniques and processes, enabling mass production. Glass frit has sharp-edged particles and cuts well whereas sand grains are smoothed down and do not work well as an abrasive. Cheap sandpaper was passed off as glass paper. In 1921, 3M invented a sandpaper with silicon carbide grit and a waterproof adhesive and backing, known as Wet and dry; this allowed use with water, which would serve as a lubricant to carry away particles that would otherwise clog the grit. Its first application was in automotive paint refinishing. There are many varieties of sandpaper, with variations in the paper or backing, the material used for the grit, grit size, the bond.
In addition to paper, backing for sandpaper includes cloth, PET film, "fibre", or rubber. Cloth backing is used for sandpaper discs and belts, while mylar is used as backing for fine grits. Fibre or vulcanized fibre is a strong backing material consisting of many layers of polymer impregnated paper; the weight of the backing is designated by a letter. For paper backings, the weight ratings range from "A" to "F", with A designating the lightest and F the heaviest. Letter nomenclature follows a different system for cloth backings, with the weight of the backing rated J, X, Y, T, M, from lightest to heaviest. A flexible backing allows sandpaper to follow irregular contours of a workpiece. Sandpaper backings may be glued to the paper or form a separate support structure for moving sandpaper, such as used in sanding belts and discs. Stronger paper or backing increases the ease of sanding wood; the harder the backing material, the faster the sanding, the faster the wear of the paper and the rougher the sanded surface.
Types of abrasive materials include: glass: no longer used flint: no longer used garnet: used in woodworking emery: used to abrade or polish metals aluminium oxide: The most common in modern use, with the widest variety of grits, lowest unit cost. Sandpaper may be "stearated". Stearated papers are useful in sanding coats of finish and paint as the stearate "soap" prevents clogging and increases the useful life of the sandpaper; the harder the grit material, the easier the sanding of surfaces like wood. The grit material for polishing granite slab must be harder than granite. Different adhesives are used to bond the abrasive to the paper. Hide glue is still used, but this glue cannot withstand the heat generated during machine sanding and is not waterproof. Waterproof sandpapers or wet/dry sandpapers use a waterproof backing. Sandpapers can be open coat, where the particles are separated from each other and the sandpaper is more flexible; this helps prevent clogging of the sandpaper. Wet and dry sandpaper is more effective used wet because clogging is reduced by particles washing away from the grinding surface.
Arguably there are benefits due to lubrication and cooling. Sandpaper comes in a number of different shapes and sizes: sheet: 9 by 11 inches, but other sizes may be available belt: cloth backed, comes in different sizes to fit different belt sanders. Disk: made to fit different models of disc and random orbit sanders. May be perforated for some models of sanders. Attachment includes pressure-sensitive adhesive and "hook-and-loop". Rolls: known as "shag rolls" by many contractors sponge: for tight places Grit size refers to the size of the particles of abrading materials embedded in the sandpaper. Several standards have been established for grit size; these standards establish not
Leo Ernest Durocher, nicknamed Leo the Lip and Lippy, was an American professional baseball player and coach. He played in Major League Baseball as an infielder. Upon his retirement, he ranked fifth all-time among managers with 2,009 career victories, second only to John McGraw in National League history. Durocher still ranks tenth in career wins by a manager. A controversial and outspoken character, Durocher had a stormy career dogged by clashes with authority, the baseball commissioner and the press. Durocher was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1994. Leo Durocher was born in West Springfield, Massachusetts, on July 27, 1905, the youngest of four sons born to French Canadian parents, he was educated locally and became a prominent semi-professional athlete, with several employers competing to have him play on their company teams. After being scouted by the New York Yankees, Durocher broke into professional baseball with the Hartford Senators of the Eastern League in 1925, he was played in two games.
Durocher spent two more seasons in the minors, playing for the Atlanta Crackers of the Southern Association in 1926 and St. Paul Saints of the American Association in 1927. Durocher rejoined the Yankees in 1928. A regular player, he was nicknamed "The All-American Out" by Babe Ruth. Durocher was a favorite of Yankee manager Miller Huggins, who saw in him the seeds of a great manager — the competitiveness, the passion, the ego, the facility for remembering situations. Durocher's outspokenness did not endear him to Yankee ownership and his habit of passing bad checks to finance his expensive tastes in clothes and nightlife annoyed Yankee general manager Ed Barrow. Durocher helped the team win their second consecutive World Series title in 1928 demanded a raise and was sold to the Cincinnati Reds on February 5, 1930. Durocher spent the remainder of his professional career in the National League. After playing three seasons with the Reds, Durocher was traded to the St. Louis Cardinals in mid-1933.
Upon joining the Cardinals he was assigned uniform number 2, which he wore for the rest of his career, as player and manager. That team, whose famous nickname "Gashouse Gang" was inspired by Durocher, were a far more appropriate match for him. Durocher remained with the Cardinals through the 1937 season, captaining the team and winning the 1934 World Series before being traded to the Brooklyn Dodgers. A shortstop, Durocher played through 1945, though his last year as a regular was 1939, he was known as a solid fielder but a poor hitter. In 5,350 career at bats, he hit 24 home runs and had 567 runs batted in. Durocher was named to the NL's All-Star team three times, once with St. Louis and twice with the Dodgers. In the 1938 game in Cincinnati, Durocher hit the only Little League Home Run in All-Star Game history. In 1938, Durocher made history of a sort by making the final out in Johnny Vander Meer's second consecutive no-hitter. After the 1938 season — Durocher's first year as Brooklyn's starting shortstop — he was appointed player-manager by the Dodgers' new president and general manager, Larry MacPhail.
The two were a combustible combination. MacPhail spared no expense in purchasing and trading for useful players, such as Dolph Camilli, Billy Herman and Kirby Higbe, he purchased shortstop Pee Wee Reese from the Boston Red Sox. By the end of the 1941 season, Reese impressed Durocher enough that he gave up his spot as the regular shortstop so Reese could get a chance to play, though Durocher would make "cameo" appearances in the lineup in 1943 and 1945. Other major purchases by MacPhail included another young star, Pete Reiser, when he was ruled a free agent from the Cardinals' farm system. In his first season as player-manager, Durocher came into his own; the most enduring image of Durocher is of him standing toe-to-toe with an umpire, vehemently arguing his case until his inevitable ejection from the game. Durocher's fiery temper and willingness to scrap came to epitomize the position for which he was to become most famous; as manager he valued these same traits in his players. His philosophy was best expressed in the phrase for which he is best, albeit inaccurately, remembered: "Nice guys finish last".
Durocher once said, "Look at Mel Ott over there. He's a nice guy, he finishes second. Now look at the Brat, he can't run, can't field. He's no nice guy, but all the little son-of-a-bitch can do is win." Durocher was notorious for ordering his pitchers to hit batters. Whenever he wanted a batter hit, he would yell, "Stick it in his ear!" In 1939 the Dodgers were coming off six straight losing seasons, but Durocher led a quick turnaround. In 1941, his third season as manager, he led the Dodgers to a 100–54 record and the National League pennant, their first in 21 years. In the 1941 World Series the Dodgers lost to the Yankees in five games, they bettered their record in 1942, winning 104 games but just missing out on winning a second consecutive pennant. Despite all the success of his first three years and MacPhail had a tempestuous relationship. MacPhail was a notorious drinker, he was as hot-tempered as his manager. He