Nippon Budokan shortened to Budokan, is an indoor arena located in Chiyoda, Japan. Budokan was built for the judo competition in the 1964 Summer Olympics, hence its name, which translates in English as Martial Arts Hall, its primary purpose is to host martial arts contests and for a time was a popular venue for Japanese professional wrestling. It has hosted numerous other sporting events such as the 1967 Women's Volleyball World Championship and other events such as musical concerts. A number of famous rock music acts have played at Budokan; the Beatles were the first rock group to play there, in a series of concerts held between June 30 and July 2, 1966. Several live albums were recorded at Budokan, including releases by Bryan Adams, Bob Dylan, Eric Clapton, Cheap Trick, Dream Theater, John Hiatt, Kiss, Mr. Big, Ozzy Osbourne, Journey; the Nippon Budokan is located in Kitanomaru Park in the center of Tokyo, two minutes' walking distance from Kudanshita Subway Station, near the Imperial Palace and Yasukuni Shrine.
The 42 m high octagonal structure holds 14,471 people. The building is modeled after Yumedono in Hōryū-ji in Nara. Although it functions as a venue for big musical events, its primary purpose is for Japanese martial arts; the national championships of the different branches of the martial arts are held annually at the Budokan. The Budokan has been associated with professional wrestling's big shows from All Japan Pro Wrestling and Pro Wrestling Noah. However, due to declining business following the death of Mitsuharu Misawa and the retirement of Kenta Kobashi, professional wrestling has ceased running regular shows in the Budokan. During Wrestle Kingdom 12, New Japan Pro Wrestling announced that its yearly G1 Climax tournament's finals would be held at the Budokan; the Muhammad Ali vs. Antonio Inoki hybrid rules fight held at the Budokan in 1976 is seen as a forerunner to mixed martial arts. K-1, Shooto and Pride Fighting Championships have all held events at the arena; the Beatles were the first rock group to perform at Budokan in a series of five shows held between June 30 and July 2, 1966.
Their appearances were met with opposition from those who felt the appearance of a western pop group would defile the martial arts arena. In July 1973 Japanese television recorded the Santana performance at Budokan; the Budokan gained worldwide fame when American artists Cheap Trick and Bob Dylan used the arena to record their performances, Cheap Trick at Budokan and Bob Dylan at Budokan. In explaining the popularity of the venue for live albums, Eric Clapton described the Tokyo audience as "almost overappreciative" in interviews promoting Just One Night, his own live album recorded at the Budokan; the record for the most Budokan music concerts is held by Eikichi Yazawa, 142 times as of December 19, 2017. Artists that have released live recordings from the venue include: Led Zeppelin. Chicago. Uriah Heep; the Carpenters. Rainbow. Fleetwood Mac. Kiss. Cheap Trick. Eric Clapton. Diana Ross. Eikichi Yazawa. Bob Dylan. Sadao Watanabe. ABBA; the Police. Michael Schenker Group. Toto. Dave Grusin. Michael Schenker Group.
Asia. Frank Sinatra. Iron Maiden. Skid Row Skid Row - Live at Budokan, Tokyo 1992. Diana Ross, Tokyo 1992. Yngwie Malmsteen. Blur. Chic; this was bassist Bernard Edwards's last performance. Diana Ross. Mr. Big. Oasis.
Jim Henson Company Lot
The Jim Henson Company Lot is a studio property located just south of the southeast corner of North La Brea Avenue and Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. It was built in 1917 by film star Charlie Chaplin. After being sold by Chaplin in 1953, the property went through several changes in ownership and has served at various times as Kling Studios, the Red Skelton Studios, the shooting location for the Adventures of Superman and Perry Mason television series, as the headquarters for A&M Records and The Jim Henson Company. In 1969, it was designated as a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument. In October 1917, Charlie Chaplin announced plans to build his own film studio at the southeast corner of La Brea and Sunset Boulevard. In his autobiography, Chaplin described the decision as follows: At the end of the Mutual contract, I was anxious to get started with First National, but we had no studio. I decided to build one; the site was the corner of Sunset and La Brea and had a fine ten-room house and five acres of lemon and peach trees.
We built a perfect unit, complete with developing plant, cutting room, offices. Chaplin purchased the site from R. S. McClellan, who lived on the site and had a large grove of orange trees on the property; the lot had 300 feet of 600 feet on La Brea, extending south to De Longpre. Chaplin announced he would make his home on the northern part of the property, build his own motion picture plant on the south part of the property, cornering at La Brea and De Longpre. Chaplin's plans for six English-style buildings, "arranged as to give the effect of a picturesque English village street," were published in the Los Angeles Times in October 1917; the plans were prepared by the Milwaukee Building Company, the total investment was estimated to be in the region of $100,000. The layout of the buildings was described by the Los Angeles Times in 2002 as a "fairy-tale cottage complex." Another writer has described the style as "eccentric Peter Pan architecture."The location was at that time a residential neighborhood, Chaplin's application for a building permit was opposed by area residents, some of whom complained that it was too near the Hollywood High School.
However, the City Council voted 8 -- 1. Chaplin built his "English cottage-style studio" in three months beginning in November 1917, at a reported cost of only $35,000; the DVD collection titled "Chaplin Collection" includes Chaplin's 1918 film How to Make Movies, which depicts the studio's construction in time-lapse photography. Construction of the studios was completed in 1919. Chaplin preserved a large existing residence on the northern end of the property, planned to live there, but never in fact did. Various studio personnel lived there including his brother Sydney Chaplin; the "English cottages" along La Brea served as the facade for offices, a screening room, a film laboratory. The grounds included a swimming pool and tennis courts; the central part of the property, an orchard, became the backlot, where large outdoor sets were constructed. The two large open-air stages used for filming were constructed on the southern end of the property, the rest of the facility consisted of dressing rooms, a garage, a carpenter's shed, a film vault.
Many of Chaplin's classic films were shot at the studios, including The Kid, The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, The Great Dictator, Monsieur Verdoux, Limelight. Chaplin filmed many famous visitors at his studios on La Brea, including Winston Churchill, Helen Keller, Lord Mountbatten, Harry Lauder; the studios saw a number of changes over the next 20 years. The two open-air stages were converted to closed soundstages in the mid-1930s, before the filming of Modern Times, a smaller stage was built over the site of the studio swimming pool at that time. Stage 2 had been damaged by a fire during production of The Circus in 1927; the expansion of La Brea Avenue in 1928–29 forced the physical movement of the buildings adjacent to the street back 15 feet from their original locations. In 1942, Chaplin sold the northern portion of the property, the portion containing the residence, tennis courts, a portion of his backlot, to Safeway Stores; the house was demolished, a shopping center was built in its place.
In October 1943, Chaplin's studios were opened up for the first time to be used to shoot an outside production, produced by Columbia Pictures. The Los Angeles Times reported at the time that the Chaplin Studio "has been more or less sacrosanct, in the sense that outsiders were never permitted to work there." However, studio manager Alfred Reeves told the Times that the Chaplin organization was "not going into the space rental business," and that the use of the studios by Columbia would not create a precedent. In 1949, the studios were the site of Greta Garbo's last screen test. Chaplin, who had left America permanently in October 1952, sold the studio in 1953 to Webb and Knapp for $650,000; the new owner had planned to tear down the studio, but it was leased to a television production company and became known as Kling Studios. In 1955, it was used to shoot the Adventures of Superman television series starring George Reeves. Beginning in 1959, Red Skelton shot his television series at the facility, in April 1960 Skelton purchased the studio.
From behind a desk in the office once occupied by Chaplin, Skelton said: I'm not the head of the studio. I'll be president and just own the joint.... I couldn't be a studio
Peter William Ham was a Welsh singer and guitarist, best known as a lead vocalist and composer of the 1970s rock band Badfinger, whose hit songs include "No Matter What", "Day After Day" and "Baby Blue". He co-wrote the ballad "Without You", a worldwide number-one hit for Harry Nilsson that has become a standard covered by hundreds of artists. Ham was granted two Ivor Novello Awards related to the song in 1973. Ham committed suicide in 1975, when he became depressed while embroiled in band-related issues, such as label and management problems, as well as a lack of funds. Ham was born in Wales, he formed a local rock group called The Panthers circa 1961. This group would undergo several name and line-up changes before it became The Iveys in 1965; the band was relocated to London by The Mojos manager, Bill Collins, in 1966, they continued to perform for three years throughout the United Kingdom. Ham became the prominent songwriter for the band, after a Revox tape recorder was made available by Collins to encourage him.
Ray Davies of The Kinks took an initial interest in the group, although tracks produced by Davies did not surface commercially until decades later. In 1968, The Iveys came to the attention of Mal Evans and were signed to the Beatles' Apple Records label after approval from all four Beatles, who were impressed by the band's songwriting abilities; the Iveys changed their name to Badfinger with the single release of "Come and Get It", a composition written by Paul McCartney that became a worldwide top-ten hit. Ham had protested against using a non-original to promote the band, as he had gained confidence in the group's compositions, but he was convinced of the springboard effect of having a hit single, his own creative perseverance paid off as his "No Matter What" became another top-ten worldwide hit in late 1970. He followed up with two more worldwide hits in "Day After Day" and "Baby Blue". Ham's greatest songwriting success came with his co-written composition "Without You" – a worldwide number-one when it was covered by Harry Nilsson and released in 1972.
The song has been covered by hundreds of singers. An Ivor Novello award for Song of the Year was issued in 1973 along with Grammy nominations. George Harrison used Ham's talents for a number of album sessions, including on the All Things Must Pass album and for other Apple Records artist's recordings; this friendship culminated with Ham's acoustic guitar duet on "Here Comes the Sun" with Harrison at The Concert for Bangladesh in 1971 portrayed in the theatrical film of the concert. In 1972, Badfinger was picked up by Warner Bros. Records, as the Apple Records label was crumbling and it seemed the band was primed for major recognition. Warner Bros. Records sued Badfinger's business manager, Stan Polley, after an advance vanished and, after Polley disappeared, the band were left penniless. Believing his finances had been wiped out, Ham hanged himself in his garage three days before his 28th birthday, he left a note telling her son that he loved them. It read, "I will not be allowed to trust everybody.
This is better. Pete. PS Stan Polley is a soulless bastard. I will take him with me." Ham is credited as being one of the earliest purveyors of the power pop genre. His most widespread effect in popular music is the ballad "Without You", written with Badfinger bandmate Tom Evans. Collections of Ham's home demo recordings have been posthumously released: 1997's 7 Park Avenue, 1999's Golders Green and 2013's The Keyhole Street Demos 1966–67. On 27 April 2013, an official blue plaque was unveiled by the Swansea City Council to honour Pete Ham in his home town of Swansea; the public event was attended by two former members of the original Badfinger band, The Iveys, Ron Griffiths and David Jenkins, plus former Badfinger member Bob Jackson. The plaque, designed by Dan Matovina, honoured Pete and all the Iveys and Badfinger members of Pete Ham's lifetime; the unveiling of the plaque was followed by a concert featuring former Badfinger members Bob Jackson and Al Wodtke. 7 Park Avenue Golders Green The Keyhole Street Demos 1966–67 Ham appeared as a guest artist on The Concert for Bangladesh All Things Must Pass by George Harrison "It Don't Come Easy" by Ringo Starr Living in the Material World by George Harrison "No Matter What" "Without You".
"Day After Day" "Baby Blue" 27 club, of which Ham is a member Category:Pete Ham Pete Ham's official website Pledgemusic page for Keyhole Street Pete Ham on IMDb Pete Ham at Find a Grave
Melvyn Desmond "Mel" Collins is a British saxophonist and session musician. Collins is best known for his work in progressive rock, having been a member of King Crimson on two separate occasions and having played with Camel, the Alan Parsons Project and Chris Squire, he has worked in a wide variety of contexts ranging from R&B and blues rock to jazz. Collins was born in a family of musicians, his mother was a singer while his father was a saxophonist and session musician who toured with Judy Garland and Shirley Bassey. Collins has worked with a large number of notable recording artists, including 10cc, Alexis Korner, Alvin Lee, Eric Clapton, Bad Company, Dire Straits, Bryan Ferry, Roger Chapman, Marianne Faithfull, The Rolling Stones, Roger Waters Gerry Rafferty, Tears For Fears, Go West and Joan Armatrading, he was a member of progressive rock bands King Crimson and The Alan Parsons Project. For King Crimson he was Ian McDonald's replacement, playing on the Lizard and Earthbound albums, was a session musician on the In the Wake of Poseidon and Red albums.
He played on the Crimson Jazz Trio's second album, The King Crimson Songbook, Volume Two, released in 2009. Collins played the saxophone solo on The Rolling Stones 1978 hit single, "Miss You", played with Dire Straits on their live album, Alchemy, he was one of the members of Kokomo with Tony O'Malley, Neil Hubbard, Paddy McHugh, Frank Collins, Dyan Birch, Alan Spenner, is a frequent performer with Tony O'Malley. In 1983, Collins played the saxophone solo on the hit single "Private Dancer", the title cut on Tina Turner's album by the same name, his solo was recorded in England at the Wessex Studios. In 1984, Mel Collins toured with Roger Waters to support the album The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking. In 1985 Collins was part of the supergroup'Willie and the Poor Boys' appearing in their video with Bill Wyman and Jimmy Page, he toured again with Waters on a second leg of Cons' tour. That same year, he appeared on the album Songs From The Big Chair by Tears for Fears, playing saxophone on "The Working Hour".
In 1986 he was a musician on the animated film. He worked again with Waters in 1987, appearing on both the album Radio K. A. O. S. and the subsequent tour. In 2006 a band member on Die Harald Schmidt Show. From 2002–07 Collins was a member of the King Crimson offshoot group 21st Century Schizoid Band, with other former Crimson members. In May 2008 Kokomo was reformed temporarily. With Collins were Tony O'Malley, Neil Hubbard, Mark Smith, Adam Phillips, Andy Hamilton, Paddy McHugh, Dyan Birch, Frank Collins, Bernie Holland, Glen Le Fleur. Collins played woodwinds on the 2011 King Crimson ProjeKct 7, A Scarcity of Miracles, appearing on a King Crimson related album for the first time since 1974. In September 2013, Robert Fripp confirmed that Mel Collins would be a member of King Crimson again, the band being referred to as King Crimson VIII. Collins was a member of Pete Haycock's reformation of the Climax Blues Band in 2013, prior to Haycock's death in October 2013. Saxophone Ballads Circus: Circus The Alan Parsons Project: Eye in the Sky.
Duran Duran are an English new wave band formed in Birmingham in 1978. The band were one of the most successful acts of the 1980s, but by the end of the decade and music style changes challenged the band before a resurgence in the early 1990s; the group were a leading band in the MTV-driven "Second British Invasion" of the US. They achieved 14 singles in the top 10 of the UK Singles Chart and 21 in the Billboard Hot 100, have sold over 100 million records worldwide; when the band emerged they were considered part of the New Romantic scene, along with bands such as Spandau Ballet and Visage. However, Duran Duran would soon shed this image by using fashion and marketing to build a more refined and elegant presentation; the band has won a number of awards throughout their career: two Brit Awards including the 2004 award for Outstanding Contribution to Music, two Grammy Awards, an MTV Video Music Award for Lifetime Achievement, a Video Visionary Award from the MTV Europe Music Awards. They were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
The video age catapulted Duran Duran into the mainstream with the introduction of the 24-hour music channel MTV. Many of their videos were shot on 35 mm film, which gave a much more polished look than was standard at the time, they collaborated with professional film directors to take the quality a step further teaming up with Australian director Russell Mulcahy for some of their most memorable video offerings. In 1984, the band were early innovators with video technology in their live stadium shows; the group was formed by keyboardist Nick Rhodes and bass guitarist John Taylor, with the addition of drummer Roger Taylor, after numerous personnel changes, guitarist Andy Taylor and lead singer Simon Le Bon. These five members featured the most commercially successful line-up; the group has never disbanded, but after separation of Andy and Roger Taylor in 1986, the line-up has changed to include former Missing Persons American guitarist Warren Cuccurullo from 1989 to 2001 and American drummer Sterling Campbell from 1989 to 1991.
The reunion of the original five members in the early 2000s created a stir among the band's fans and music media. Andy Taylor left the band once again in mid-2006, guitarist Dom Brown has since been working with the band as a session player and touring member. John Taylor and Nick Rhodes formed Duran Duran in Birmingham, England, in 1978, where they became the resident band at the city's Rum Runner nightclub, they were doing jobs at John working the door and Nick deejaying for £ 10 a night. They began rehearsing and playing at the venue. There were many nearby nightclubs where bands such as the Sex Pistols and the Clash played gigs, the most significant was called Barbarella's, they went on to name the band after the Milo O'Shea character from Barbarella, a Roger Vadim sci-fi film, "Dr. Durand Durand"; the band's first singer was Stephen Duffy. Simon Colley soon joined Taylor and Duffy. Colley was the band's original bass player; this was the first complete line-up of the band. For percussion, an electronic drum machine belonging to Rhodes was used.
Colley left the band prior to the addition of Andy Taylor. A few guitarists were subsequently auditioned unsuccessfully, as well as a handful of vocalists after Duffy left Duran Duran early in 1979. Among them was a vocalist they had prior to Simon Le Bon, Andy Wickett, who had a major part in the writing of "Girls on Film" during his tenure with the band, according to Andy Taylor's autobiography. Wickett is featured on some of the demos that were presented to EMI. According to both Wickett's and John Taylor's websites, Wickett co-wrote an early version of the song that came to be known as "Rio". Upon Colley's and Wickett's departures, the band enlisted singer Jeff Thomas and guitarist Alan Curtis, each for only a brief period, before settling on Andy Taylor for lead guitar and Le Bon for vocals in 1980; the meeting of drummer Roger Taylor in 1979 with John Taylor and Wickett at a party, as well as the departure of Colley, led John Taylor to switch to bass. Roger Taylor became their original drummer.
It was this line-up. In April 1980, guitarist Andy Taylor came from Newcastle to audition after responding to an advertisement in Melody Maker. In May 1980, London vocalist Simon Le Bon was recommended to the band by an ex-girlfriend who worked at the Rum Runner; the owners of the club, brothers Paul and Michael Berrow, became the band's management, paying them to work as doormen, disc jockeys and busboys when they were not rehearsing. In 1980 they performed in clubs around Birmingham and London; that same year, when touring as an opening act for Hazel O'Connor, the band attracted critical attention, resulting in a bidding war between the record companies EMI and Phonogram. "A certain patriotism" toward the label of the Beatles led them to sign with EMI in December. Duran Duran were amongst the earliest bands to work on their own remixes. Before the days of digital synthesizers and easy audio sampling, they created multi-layered arrangements of their singles, sometimes recording different extended performances of the songs in the studio.
These "night versions" were available only on vinyl as b-sides to 45-rpm singles or on 12-inch club singles until the release of the compilation Night Versions: The Essential Duran Duran in 1999. From the beginning of their career, all the members had a keen sense of visual style, they worked with stylist Perry Haines and fashion desig
George Harrison was an English musician, singer-songwriter and film producer who achieved international fame as the lead guitarist of the Beatles. Referred to as "the quiet Beatle", Harrison embraced Indian culture and helped broaden the scope of popular music through his incorporation of Indian instrumentation and Hindu-aligned spirituality in the Beatles' work. Although the majority of the band's songs were written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney, most Beatles albums from 1965 onwards contained at least two Harrison compositions, his songs for the group included "Taxman", "Within You Without You", "While My Guitar Gently Weeps", "Here Comes the Sun" and "Something". Harrison's earliest musical influences included Django Reinhardt. By 1965, he had begun to lead the Beatles into folk rock through his interest in Bob Dylan and the Byrds, towards Indian classical music through his use of the sitar on "Norwegian Wood". Having initiated the band's embracing of Transcendental Meditation in 1967, he subsequently developed an association with the Hare Krishna movement.
After the band's break-up in 1970, Harrison released the triple album All Things Must Pass, a critically acclaimed work that produced his most successful hit single, "My Sweet Lord", introduced his signature sound as a solo artist, the slide guitar. He organised the 1971 Concert for Bangladesh with Indian musician Ravi Shankar, a precursor to benefit concerts such as Live Aid. In his role as a music and film producer, Harrison produced acts signed to the Beatles' Apple record label before founding Dark Horse Records in 1974 and co-founding HandMade Films in 1978. Harrison released several best-selling singles and albums as a solo performer. In 1988, he co-founded the platinum-selling supergroup the Traveling Wilburys. A prolific recording artist, he was featured as a guest guitarist on tracks by Badfinger, Ronnie Wood and Billy Preston, collaborated on songs and music with Dylan, Eric Clapton, Ringo Starr and Tom Petty, among others. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 11 in their list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".
He is a two-time Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductee – as a member of the Beatles in 1988, posthumously for his solo career in 2004. Harrison's first marriage, to model Pattie Boyd in 1966, ended in divorce in 1977; the following year he married Olivia Arias, with whom he had Dhani. Harrison died from lung cancer in 2001 at the age of 58, two years after surviving a knife attack by an intruder at his Friar Park home, his remains were cremated and the ashes were scattered according to Hindu tradition in a private ceremony in the Ganges and Yamuna rivers in India. He left an estate of £100 million. Harrison was born at 12 Arnold Grove in Wavertree, Liverpool, on 25 February 1943, he was the youngest of four children of Harold Hargreaves Louise. Harold was a bus conductor who had worked as a ship's steward on the White Star Line, Louise was a shop assistant of Irish Catholic descent, he had one sister and two brothers and Peter. According to Boyd, Harrison's mother was supportive: "All she wanted for her children is that they should be happy, she recognized that nothing made George quite as happy as making music."
Louise was an enthusiastic music fan, she was known among friends for her loud singing voice, which at times startled visitors by rattling the Harrisons' windows. When Louise was pregnant with George, she listened to the weekly broadcast Radio India. Harrison's biographer Joshua Greene wrote, "Every Sunday she tuned in to mystical sounds evoked by sitars and tablas, hoping that the exotic music would bring peace and calm to the baby in the womb."Harrison lived the first four years of his life at 12 Arnold Grove, a terraced house on a cul-de-sac. The home had an outdoor toilet and its only heat came from a single coal fire. In 1949, the family was moved to 25 Upton Green, Speke. In 1948, at the age of five, Harrison enrolled at Dovedale Primary School, he passed the eleven-plus exam and attended Liverpool Institute High School for Boys from 1954 to 1959. Though the institute did offer a music course, Harrison was disappointed with the absence of guitars, felt the school "moulded into being frightened".
Harrison's earliest musical influences included George Formby, Cab Calloway, Django Reinhardt and Hoagy Carmichael. In early 1956 he had an epiphany: while riding his bicycle, he heard Elvis Presley's "Heartbreak Hotel" playing from a nearby house, the song piqued his interest in rock and roll, he sat at the back of the class drawing guitars in his schoolbooks, commented, "I was into guitars." Harrison cited Slim Whitman as another early influence: "The first person I saw playing a guitar was Slim Whitman, either a photo of him in a magazine or live on television. Guitars were coming in."Although Harold Harrison was apprehensive about his son's interest in pursuing a music career, in 1956 he bought George a Dutch Egmond flat top acoustic guitar, which according to Harold, cost £3.10. One of his father's friends taught Harrison how to play "Whispering", "Sweet Sue" and "Dinah", inspired by Donegan's music, Harrison formed a skiffle group called the Rebels with his brother Peter and a friend, Arthur Kelly.
On the bus to school, Harrison met Paul McCartney, who attended the Liverpool Institute, the pair bonded over their shared
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.