Shiner is a city in Lavaca County, United States. The town was named after Henry B. Shiner who donated 250 acres for railroad right of way; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 2,069. In 1885, a post office called Half Moon was opened at a trading post near the present site of Shiner. In 1887, Henry B. Shiner donated 250 acres for a depot and right-of-way for the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway which bypassed Half Moon and was built through Henry B. Shiner's donated land and the town grew around these transportation facilities; the town called itself "New Half Moon" but in 1888 the town's name was changed to Shiner and the town was incorporated in 1890. Czech and German immigrants soon became the dominant ethnic groups, Shiner developed a cohesive Czech community that still influences the town's culture. Ranching was an important part of the town's history. Notable families of the area are the Wolters and Welhausen families which the "Edwin Wolters Memorial Museum" and the "Shiner Welhausen Park" are named after respectively.
Shiner is the home of the oldest independent brewery in Texas. The brewery is most well known for producing Shiner Bock, a dark German/Czech-style beer, now distributed in 49 states. Shiner is the home of the historic Kaspar Companies, one of the oldest continuously operating companies in America. Kaspar Companies is a holding company that consists of Ranch Hand Truck Accessories, Texas Precious Metals, Kaspar Manufacturing, Bedrock Truck Beds, Silverback Homes and Horizon Firearms. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.4 square miles, of which, 2.4 square miles of it is land and 0.41% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,070 people, 882 households, 572 families residing in the city; the population density was 849.9 people per square mile. Stg There were 1,016 housing units at an average density of 417.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.60% White, 10.87% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 1.93% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.09% of the population. There were 882 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.1% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.86. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 28.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,205, the median income for a family was $40,250. Males had a median income of $28,167 versus $17,426 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,942. About 7.4% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.7% of those under age 18 and 21.0% of those age 65 or over.
The City of Shiner is served by the Shiner Independent School District and home to the Shiner High School Comanches. The city is served by Shiner Catholic School which operate St. Paul High School and St. Ludmila Elementary School. Shiner's weekly newspaper, The Shiner Gazette, was established in 1892. Spoetzl Brewery Great Houston and Austin to Shiner Pedal. Kaspar Wire Works, manufacturers of Sho-Rack brand newsracks. Texas Precious Metals, is an independent nationwide dealer of precious metals. Ranch Hand Truck Accessories an American manufacturer of after market heavy duty truck accessories. Boedeker Plastics, plastics materials distributor and machine shop Wolters Memorial Museum EDB Museum Saints Cyril and Methodius Catholic Church St. Ludmila Elementary and St. Paul High School Shiner Catholic Church Spring and Fall Picnic Shiner Catholic Church Strudel Bake Gaslight Theatre Half Moon Holidays Historic Old Town Shiner Rotary Club Craft and Hobby Show Annual Shiner Area Big Buck Contest FFA Stock Show Eagle Scout Capital of Texas Shiner is the hometown of six Major League Baseball players: Ross Youngs, member of Baseball Hall of Fame Vic Roznovsky, catcher Carroll Sembera, pitcher Jeremy Fikac, pitcher Logan Ondrusek, pitcher Shiner Chamber of Commerce website
Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 4th-most populous city in Texas, it is the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States. As of the U. S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2017 estimate, Austin had a population of 950,715 up from 790,491 at the 2010 census; the city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,115,827 as of July 1, 2017. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, Lake Walter E. Long. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. In 1839, the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo."
Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state; the city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin. After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development, by the 1990s it emerged as a center for technology and business. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin including, 3M, Amazon.com, Apple Inc. Cisco, eBay, General Motors, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, PayPal, Texas Instruments, Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in Round Rock. Residents of Austin are known as Austinites, they include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers, a vibrant LGBT community. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World," a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.
The city adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the 1990s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird," which refers to the desire to protect small and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations. In the late 19th century, Austin was known as the "City of the Violet Crown," because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Today, many Austin businesses use the term "Violet Crown" in their name. Austin is known as a "clean-air city" for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars. U. S. News & World Report named Austin the #1 place to live in the U. S. for 2017 and 2018. In 2016, Forbes ranked Austin #1 on its "Cities of the Future" list in 2017 placed the city at that same position on its list for the "Next Biggest Boom Town in the U. S." In 2017, Forbes awarded the South River City neighborhood of Austin its #2 ranking for "Best Cities and Neighborhoods for Millennials."
WalletHub named Austin the #6 best place in the country to live for 2017. The FBI ranked Austin as the #2 safest major city in the U. S. for 2012. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least 9200 BC; the area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9200 BC, based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area; the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, though few permanent settlements were created for some time. In 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin; the mission was in this area for only about seven months, was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.
Early in the 19th century, Spanish forts were established in what are now San Marcos. Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans. In 1835 -- 1836, Texans won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River. In 1839, the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills and pleasant surroundings. Waterloo was selected, "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name.
The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River. Edwin Wall
Lent is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends six weeks before Easter Sunday. The purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer for Easter through prayer, doing penance, mortifying the flesh, repentance of sins and denial of ego; this event is observed in the Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Methodist, Oriental Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches. Some Anabaptist and evangelical churches observe the Lenten season; the last week of Lent is Holy Week, starting with Palm Sunday. Following the New Testament story, Jesus' crucifixion is commemorated on Good Friday, at the beginning of the next week the joyful celebration of Easter Sunday recalls the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. In Lent, many Christians commit to fasting, as well as giving up certain luxuries in order to replicate the account of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ's journey into the desert for 40 days. Many Christians add a Lenten spiritual discipline, such as reading a daily devotional or praying through a Lenten calendar, to draw themselves near to God.
The Stations of the Cross, a devotional commemoration of Christ's carrying the Cross and of his execution, are observed. Many Roman Catholic and some Protestant churches remove flowers from their altars, while crucifixes, religious statues, other elaborate religious symbols are veiled in violet fabrics in solemn observance of the event. Throughout Christendom, some adherents mark the season with the traditional abstention from the consumption of meat, most notably among Lutherans, Roman Catholics and Anglicans. Lent is traditionally described as lasting for 40 days, in commemoration of the 40 days Jesus spent fasting in the desert, according to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, before beginning his public ministry, during which he endured temptation by Satan. Depending on the Christian denomination and local custom, Lent ends either on the evening of Maundy Thursday, or at sundown on Holy Saturday, when the Easter Vigil is celebrated. Regardless, Lenten practices are properly maintained until the evening of Holy Saturday.
The English word Lent is a shortened form of the Old English word lencten, meaning "spring season", as its Dutch language cognate lente still does today. A dated term in German, Lenz, is related. According to the Oxford English Dictionary,'the shorter form seems to be a derivative of *laŋgo- long... and may have reference to the lengthening of the days as characterizing the season of spring'. The origin of the -en element is less clear: it may be a suffix, or lencten may have been a compound of *laŋgo-'long' and an otherwise little-attested word *-tino, meaning'day'. In languages spoken where Christianity was earlier established, such as Greek and Latin, the term signifies the period dating from the 40th day before Easter. In modern Greek the term is Σαρακοστή, derived from the earlier Τεσσαρακοστή, meaning "fortieth"; the corresponding word in Latin, quadragesima, is the origin of the term used in Latin-derived languages and in some others: for example, Croatian korizma, French carême, Irish carghas, Italian quaresima, Portuguese quaresma, Albanian kreshma, Romanian păresimi, Spanish cuaresma, Basque garizuma, Galician coresma, Welsh crawys.
In other languages, the name used refers to the activity associated with the season. Thus it is called "fasting period" in Czech and Norwegian, it is called "great fast" in Polish and Russian; the terms used in Filipino are Mahál na Araw. Various Christian denominations calculate the 40 days of Lent differently; the way they observe Lent differs. In the Roman Rite since 1970, Lent finishes on Holy Thursday Evening; this comprises a period of 44 days. The Lenten fast excludes Sundays and continues through Good Friday and Holy Saturday, totaling 40 days. In the Ambrosian Rite, Lent begins on the Sunday that follows what is celebrated as Ash Wednesday in the rest of the Latin Catholic Church, ends as in the Roman Rite, thus being of 40 days, counting the Sundays but not Holy Thursday; the day for beginning the Lenten fast is the first weekday in Lent. The special Ash Wednesday fast is transferred to the first Friday of the Ambrosian Lent; until this rite was revised by Saint Charles Borromeo the liturgy of the First Sunday of Lent was festive, celebrated in white vestments with chanting of the Gloria in Excelsis and Alleluia, in line with the recommendation in Matthew 6:16, "When you fast, do not look gloomy".
The period of Lent observed in the Eastern Catholic Churches corresponds to that in other churches of Eastern Christianity that have similar traditions. In Protestant and Western Orthodox Churches, the season of Lent lasts from Ash Wednesday to the evening of Holy Saturday; this calculation makes Lent last 46 days if the 6 Sundays are included, but only 40 days if they are excluded. This definition is still that of the Anglican Church, Lutheran Church, Methodist Church, Western Rite Orthodox Church. In the Byzantine Rite, i.e. the Eastern Orthodox Great Lent is the most important fasting season in the church year. The 40 days of Great Lent includes Sundays, begins on Clean Monday and are immediatel
Chameleon Cold-Brew is an American coffee company based in Austin, Texas. It is known for its cold brew coffee and is credited as the first fair trade and organic cold brew company in the United States. In 2014, Chameleon Cold-Brew was given the Best Coffee award by BevNET. Chameleon Cold-Brew was founded in 2010 by Chris Campbell. Williams, a longtime coffee industry professional and coffee shop owner, created a unique blend of cold brew coffee to sell at his east Austin coffeehouse, Bennu Coffee. Campbell, who holds an MBA from Rice University, was working as a business consultant when he and Williams met at a neighborhood barbecue; the pair decided to join forces, utilizing Campbell's entrepreneurial ambitions and Williams’ coffee expertise, to bottle and sell a cold brew brand based off the original recipe served at Bennu Coffee. The pair teamed with Austin coffee icon and master roaster, R. C. Beall, to perfect the cold brew blend using beans from Beall's coffee sourcing company, Texas Coffee Traders.
After months of experimenting with various brewing methods and water sources, the recipe was finalized and Chameleon Cold-Brew debuted its first products in the Austin market in 2011 at a south Austin convenient store, The Whip In. The original cold brew recipe is still freshly brewed and served at Bennu Coffee's two Austin locations. Chameleon Cold-Brew was able to gain traction in the marketplace by cutting deals with local vendors such as Texafrance who bottled the product for the company. By 2012, the company had its products in 225 stores in 18 states; the company received outside funding in 2013 by selling a minority stake in the company to Fortitude Capital LLC. Funding was used for product distribution and infrastructure, it expanded to selling its products to natural and specialty retailers, including Wegmans and H-E-B, including distributing to reach six of Whole Foods Market regions. Chameleon Cold-Brew was approached by Target Corporation to sell its products; the company turned down the offer from Target as it did not want to risk going into mass too soon.
It agreed to a test distribution for 81 Target stores in Texas, Oklahoma and Louisiana. In 2014, Chameleon Cold-Brew was given the Best Coffee award by BevNET. In 2015, Chameleon Cold-Brew expanded its distribution with Target to 520-plus stores throughout the United States; that same year, it raised $4 million of a $4.5 million funding round. Funding was reported to be used to expand research and development. In November 2017, Nestle S. A. the world's largest food and drinks company, acquired a majority stake of Chameleon Cold Brew for an undisclosed sum, roping the Austin, Texas-based brand into its widening coffee portfolio and further positioning the food and beverage conglomerate to challenge and disrupt the U. S. ready-to-drink market. Chameleon Cold-Brew offers ready to drink cold brew coffee, its cold-brew coffee comes in concentrate that can be made into cold brew coffee by adding water, milk or other liquids. Its products are made through a 16-hour brewing process that uses only fair trade, organic coffee, limestone cured Texas Hill Country water for the brewing process.
Its products are available in three main flavors. In 2015 it introduced three new ready-to-drink flavors, which started as exclusives to Wholesale Foods Market. Other concentrate flavors that have been introduced are Caramel and Texas Pecan. In 2016, Chameleon released its one-gallon bag-in-box black concentrate sold regionally. Chameleon Cold-Brew uses 100% recycled packaging for its products, it ships using a carbon offset program through Green Mountain Energy. Official website
The grapefruit is a subtropical citrus tree known for its large sour to semi-sweet, somewhat bitter fruit. Grapefruit is a citrus hybrid originating in Barbados as an accidental cross between two introduced species – sweet orange, pomelo – both of which were introduced from Asia in the seventeenth century; when found, it was nicknamed the "forbidden fruit". It is misidentified as the similar parent species, pomelo; the grape part of the name alludes to clusters of fruit on the tree that appear similar to grape clusters. The interior flesh varies in color from white to yellow to red to pink; the evergreen grapefruit trees grow to around 5–6 meters tall, although they may reach 13–15 m. The leaves are glossy, dark green and thin, it produces 5 cm white four-petaled flowers. The fruit is yellow-orange skinned and an oblate spheroid in shape; the flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on the cultivars, which include white and red pulps of varying sweetness. The 1929 U. S. Ruby Red has the first grapefruit patent.
The genetic origin of the grapefruit is a hybrid mix. One ancestor of the grapefruit was the Jamaican sweet orange, itself an ancient hybrid of Asian origin. One story of the fruit's origin is that a certain "Captain Shaddock" brought pomelo seeds to Jamaica and bred the first fruit, however, it originated as a occurring hybrid between the two plants some time after they had been introduced there; the hybrid fruit called "the forbidden fruit", was first documented in 1750 by a Welshman, Rev. Griffith Hughes, who described specimens from Barbados in The Natural History of Barbados; the grapefruit is said to be one of the "Seven Wonders of Barbados". The grapefruit was brought to Florida by Count Odet Philippe in 1823 in what is now known as Safety Harbor. Further crosses have produced the tangelo, the Minneola tangelo, the oroblanco; the grapefruit was known as the shattuck until the nineteenth century. Its current name alludes to clusters of the fruit on the tree, which appear similar to that of grapes.
Botanically, it was not distinguished from the pomelo until the 1830s, when it was given the name Citrus paradisi. Its true origins were not determined until the 1940s; this led to the official name being altered to Citrus × paradisi, the "×" identifying its hybrid origin. An early pioneer in the American citrus industry was Kimball Atwood, a wealthy entrepreneur who founded the Atwood Grapefruit Company in the late nineteenth century; the Atwood Grove became the largest grapefruit grove in the world, with a yearly output of 80,000 boxes of fruit. It was there that pink grapefruit was first discovered in 1906; the 1929 Ruby Red patent was associated with real commercial success, which came after the discovery of a red grapefruit growing on a pink variety. Using radiation to trigger mutations, new varieties were developed to retain the red tones which faded to pink; the Rio Red variety is the current Texas grapefruit with registered trademarks Rio Star and Ruby-Sweet sometimes promoted as "Reddest" and "Texas Choice".
The Rio Red is a mutation bred variety, developed by treatment of bud sticks with thermal neutrons. Its improved attributes of mutant variety are fruit and juice color, deeper red, wide adaptation; the Star Ruby is the darkest of the red varieties. Developed from an irradiated Hudson grapefruit, it has found limited commercial success because it is more difficult to grow than other varieties; the varieties of Texas and Florida grapefruit include: Oro Blanco, Ruby Red, Rio Star, White Marsh, Star Ruby and Pummelo HB. China is the top producer of pomelo, it is followed by The United States and Mexico. Grapefruit comes in many varieties. One way to differentiate between varieties is by the flesh color of fruit; the most popular varieties cultivated are red and pink hues, referring to the internal pulp color of the fruit. The family of flavors range from acidic and somewhat sour, to sweet and tart. Grapefruit mercaptan, a sulfur-containing terpene, is one of the substances which has a strong influence on the taste and odor of grapefruit, compared with other citrus fruits.
Grapefruit and grapefruit juice have been found to interact with numerous drugs and in many cases, to result in adverse direct and/or side effects This happens in two different ways. In the first, the effect is from bergamottin, a natural furanocoumarin in both grapefruit flesh and peel that inhibits the CYP3A4 enzyme; the action of the CYP3A4 enzyme. If the drug's breakdown for removal is lessened the level of the drug in the blood may become too high or stay too long, leading to adverse effects. On the other hand, some drugs must be broken down to become active, inhibiting CYP3A4 may lead to reduced drug effects; the other effect is. If the drug is not absorbed not enough of it is in the blood to have a therapeutic effect; each affected drug has either a specific increase of decrease. One whole grapefruit, or a glass of 200 mL of grapefruit juice may cause drug overdose toxicity. Drugs that are incompatible with gra
Wheat beer is a beer top-fermented, brewed with a large proportion of wheat relative to the amount of malted barley. The two main varieties are Weissbier, based on the German tradition, Witbier, based on the Belgian tradition. Two common varieties of wheat beer are Weißbier based on the German tradition of mixing at least 50% wheat to barley malt to make a light coloured top-fermenting beer, witbier based on the Belgian tradition of using flavorings such as coriander and orange peel. Belgian white beers are made with raw unmalted wheat, as opposed to the malted wheat used in other varieties. Both German Weißbier and Belgian witbier are termed "white beers" because "wheat" has the same etymological root as "white" in most West Germanic languages. U. S. Brewers and Canadian brewers follow both of the main wheat beer traditions with greater variation. In Britain, wheat beer is not considered traditional; this is in line with the rising sales of other speciality products. It tends to be a hybrid of the continental style with an English bitter, rather than an exact emulation.
Other minor wheat beer styles such as Berliner Weiße, Lambic are made with a significant proportion of wheat. Weizenbier or Hefeweizen, in the southern parts of Bavaria called Weißbier, is a beer, traditionally from Bavaria, in which a significant proportion of malted barley is replaced with malted wheat. By German law, Weißbiers brewed in Germany must be fermented using a "top-fermenting" yeast, technically an "ale yeast". Specialized strains of yeast are used which produce overtones of banana and clove as by-products of fermentation. Weißbier is so called because it was, at the time of its inception, paler in color than Munich's traditional brown beer, it is well known throughout Germany. The terms Hefeweizen or Hefeweißbier refer to wheat beer in its unfiltered form; the term Kristallweizen, or kristall Weiß, refers to a wheat beer, filtered to remove the yeast and wheat proteins which contribute to its cloudy appearance. The Hefeweizen style is noted for its low hop bitterness and high carbonation, considered important to balance the beer's malty sweetness.
Another balancing flavor note unique to Hefeweizen beer is its phenolic character. Hefeweizen's phenolic character has been described as "clove" and "medicinal" but smoky. Other more typical but less assertive flavour notes produced by Weißbier yeast include "banana", "bubble gum", sometimes "vanilla". Weißbier is available in a number of other forms, including Dunkelweizen and Weizenstarkbier referred to as Weizenbock; the dark wheat varieties are made with darker, more kilned malts. The Weizenbocks have a much higher alcohol content than their lighter cousins; the four largest brands in Germany are Erdinger, Paulaner and Maisel. Other renowned brands are Augustiner, Weihenstephaner and Andechser. Regional brands in Bavaria are Hopf, Ayinger and Plank. Aventinus is an example of Weizen Doppelbock and darker version of Weizenbock, made by the G. Schneider & Sohn brewery in Kelheim. British brewers producing cask-conditioned varieties include Oakleaf Eichenblatt Bitte, Hoskins White Dolphin, Fyfe Weiss Squad and Oakham White Dwarf.
Witbier, white beer, bière blanche, or witte is a barley/wheat, top-fermented beer brewed in Belgium and the Netherlands. It gets its name due to suspended yeast and wheat proteins which cause the beer to look hazy, or white, when cold, it is a descendant from those medieval beers which were flavored and preserved with a blend of spices and other plants such as coriander and bitter orange referred to as "gruit" instead of using hops. The style was revived by Pierre Celis at the Hoegaarden Brewery in Belgium and the Celis Brewery in Austin, is traditionally made with up to 50% raw wheat rather than wheat malt; the beers have a somewhat sour taste due to the presence of lactic acid or acetic acid, much more pronounced in the past than today. The suspended yeast in the beer causes some continuing fermentation in the bottle. A minor variety of wheat beer is represented by Berliner Weiße, low in alcohol and intentionally tart. Sweetened syrups of lemon, raspberry or woodruff herb are added before drinking.
Leipziger Gose is similar to Berliner Weiße but stronger at around 4% ABV. Its ingredients include salt, which are unusual for German beers. Belgian Lambic is made with wheat and barley, but differs from nearly all beers in the use of wild yeast for spontaneous fermentation. A variation on the barley wine style involves adding a large quantity of wheat to the mash bill, resulting in what is referred to as wheat wine; this style originated in the United States in the 1980s. Wheat beers vary in name according to the place in which they are brewed and small variations in the recipe. Among those used are: Weißbier, short Weiße: "Weiß" is German for "white"
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after philosopher George Berkeley, it borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills; the 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. Berkeley is home to the oldest campus in the University of California system, the University of California and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, managed and operated by the University, it has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world. Berkeley is considered one of the most liberal cities in the United States; the site of today's City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived. Evidence of their existence in the area include pits in rock formations, which they used to grind acorns, a shellmound, now leveled and covered up, along the shoreline of San Francisco Bay at the mouth of Strawberry Creek.
Other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776. Today, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley; the De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay. Luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. For his services to the King of Spain, he was granted a vast stretch of land on the east shore of San Francisco Bay for a ranch, including that portion that now comprises the City of Berkeley. Luis Peralta named his holding "Rancho San Antonio"; the primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, but hunting and farming were pursued. Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons. What is now Berkeley lies in the portion that went to Peralta's son Domingo, with a little in the portion that went to another son, Vicente.
No artifact survives of the Domingo or Vicente ranches, but their names survive in Berkeley street names. However, legal title to all land in the City of Berkeley remains based on the original Peralta land grant; the Peraltas' Rancho San Antonio continued after Alta California passed from Spanish to Mexican sovereignty after the Mexican War of Independence. However, the advent of U. S. sovereignty after the Mexican–American War, the Gold Rush, saw the Peraltas' lands encroached on by squatters and diminished by dubious legal proceedings. The lands of the brothers Domingo and Vicente were reduced to reservations close to their respective ranch homes; the rest of the land was parceled out to various American claimants. Politically, the area that became Berkeley was part of a vast Contra Costa County. On March 25, 1853, Alameda County was created from a division of Contra Costa County, as well as from a small portion of Santa Clara County; the area that became Berkeley was the northern part of the "Oakland Township" subdivision of Alameda County.
During this period, "Berkeley" was a mix of open land and ranches, with a small, though busy, wharf by the bay. In 1866, Oakland's private College of California looked for a new site, it settled on a location north of Oakland along the foot of the Contra Costa Range astride Strawberry Creek, at an elevation about 500 feet above the bay, commanding a view of the Bay Area and the Pacific Ocean through the Golden Gate. According to the Centennial Record of the University of California, "In 1866…at Founders' Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate. One of them, Frederick Billings, thought of the lines of the Anglo-Irish Anglican Bishop George Berkeley,'westward the course of empire takes its way,' and suggested that the town and college site be named for the eighteenth-century Anglo-Irish philosopher." The philosopher's name is pronounced BARK-lee, but the city's name, to accommodate American English, is pronounced BERK-lee. The College of California's College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land.
To this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeley's modern street plan. Their plans fell far short of their desires, they began a collaboration with the State of California that culminated in 1868 with the creation of the public University of California; as construction began on the new site, more residences were constructed in the vicinity of the new campus. At the same time, a settlement of residences and various industries grew around the wharf area called "Ocean View". A horsecar ran from Temescal in Oakland to the university campus along; the first post office opened in 1872. By the 1870s, the Transcontinental Railroad reached its terminus in Oakland. In 1876, a branch line of the Central Pacific Railroad, the Berkeley Branch Railroad, was laid from a junction with the mainline called Shellmound into what is now downtown Berkeley; that same year, the mainline of the transcontinental railroad into Oakland was re-routed, putting the right-of-way along the bay shore through Ocean View.
There was a strong prohibition movement in Berkel