Arena Football League
The Arena Football League is a professional indoor American football league in the United States. It was founded in 1987 by Jim Foster, making it the third longest-running professional football league in North America, after the Canadian Football League and the National Football League; the AFL plays a proprietary code known as arena football, a form of indoor American football played on a 66-by-28 yard field, with rules encouraging offensive performance, resulting in a faster-paced and higher-scoring game. The sport was invented in the early 1980s and patented by Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the NFL. From 2000 to 2009, the AFL had its own developmental league, the af2; the AFL played 22 seasons from 1987 to 2008. That year both the AFL and af2 were dissolved and reorganized as a new corporation comprising teams from both leagues, the AFL returned in 2010; the league's average game attendance since returning in 2010 has been 9,500. The league has had a nationwide footprint, has been recognized as the most prominent professional indoor football league in North America, offering higher payment, more widespread media exposure, a longer history than competing leagues.
From a high of 19 teams in 2007, the league contracted to a low of four teams in 2018, all in the northeastern United States. Six teams are announced for the 2019 season. Jim Foster, a promotions manager with the National Football League, conceived of indoor football while watching an indoor soccer match at Madison Square Garden in 1981. While at the game, he wrote his idea on a 9 x 12 envelope, with sketches of the field and notes on gameplay, he presented the idea to a few friends at the NFL offices, where he received praise and encouragement for his concept. After solidifying the rules and a business plan, supplemented with sketches by a professional artist, Foster presented his idea to various television networks, he reached an agreement with NBC for a "test game". Plans for arena football were put on hold in 1982. Foster left the NFL to accept a position in the USFL, he became executive vice-president with the Chicago Blitz, where he returned to his concept of arena football. In 1983, he began organizing the test game in his spare time from his job with the Blitz.
By 1985, the USFL had ceased football operations and he began devoting all his time to arena football, on April 27, 1986, his concept was realized when the test game was played. The test game was played in Illinois on April 27, 1986 at the Rockford MetroCentre. Sponsors were secured, players and coaches from local colleges were recruited to volunteer to play for the teams, the Chicago Politicians and Rockford Metros, with the guarantee of a tryout should the league take off. Interest was high enough following the initial test game that Foster decided to put on a second, "showcase" game; the second game was held on February 27, 1987 at the Rosemont Horizon in Chicago with a budget of $20,000, quadruple the $4,000 in the test game. Foster invited ESPN to send a film crew to the game. Following the successes of his trial-run games, Foster moved ahead with his idea for arena football, he founded the Arena Football League with four teams: the Pittsburgh Gladiators, Denver Dynamite, Washington Commandos, Chicago Bruisers.
Foster appointed legendary Darrel "Mouse" Davis, godfather of the "run and shoot" and modern pro offenses, as executive director of football operations. Davis hired the original coaches and was the architect of the league's original wide-open offensive playbooks; the first game in Arena Football League history was played on June 19, 1987, between the Gladiators and Commandos at Pittsburgh Civic Arena in front of 12,117 fans. The game was deliberately not televised so that it could be analyzed and any follies and failures would not be subject to national public scrutiny. Following the inaugural game and adjustments were made, the first season continued; the Dynamite and Bruisers played in the first-ever televised AFL game the next night, on June 20, 1987, at the Rosemont Horizon in suburban Chicago on ESPN with Bob Rathbun and Lee Corso calling the play-by-play. The broadcast showed a short clip of the Commandos-Gladiators game; each team played two against each other team. The top two teams and Pittsburgh competed in the first-ever AFL championship game, ArenaBowl I.
On September 30, 1987, Foster filed an application with the United States Patent and Trademark Office to patent his invented sport. The patent application covered the rules of the game detailing the goalposts and rebound netting and their impact on gameplay. Foster's application was granted on March 27, 1990; the patent expired in 2007. From its inception, the AFL operated in a state of semi-obscurity. From the 1987 season until the late 1990s, the most exposure the league would receive was on ESPN, which aired tape-delayed games well after midnight, edited to match the allotted time slot; the league received its first taste of wide exposure in 1998, when Arena Bowl XII was televised nationally as part of ABC's old Wide World of Sports. On Saturday, July 23, 1989, much of America learned of the AFL for an unintended reason, when the Pittsburgh Gladiators' head coach, Joe Haering, made football history by punching commissioner Jim Foster during a game with the Chicago Bruisers; the national media ran with the story, including a photo in USA To
Spokane is a city in Spokane County in the state of Washington in the northwestern United States. It is located on the Spokane River west of the Rocky Mountain foothills in eastern Washington, 92 miles south of the Canada–US border, 18 miles from the Washington–Idaho border, 228 miles east of Seattle along Interstate 90. Known as the birthplace of Father's Day, Spokane's official nickname is the "Lilac City". A pink, double flower lilac variety known as'Syringa Spokane' is named for the city, it is the seat of Spokane County and the economic and cultural center of the Spokane Metropolitan Area, the Spokane–Coeur d'Alene combined statistical area, the Inland Northwest. The city, along with the whole Inland Northwest, is served by Spokane International Airport, 5 miles west of downtown Spokane. According to the 2010 Census, Spokane had a population of 208,916, making it the second-largest city in Washington, the 101st-largest city in the United States; the first people to live in the area, the Spokane tribe, lived off plentiful game.
David Thompson explored the area with the westward expansion and establishment of the North West Company's Spokane House in 1810. This trading post was the first long-term European settlement in Washington. Completion of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1881 brought settlers to the Spokane area; the same year it was incorporated as a city with the name of Spokane Falls. In the late 19th century and silver were discovered in the Inland Northwest; the local economy depended on mining and agriculture until the 1980s. Spokane hosted the first environmentally themed World's Fair at Expo'74. Many of the downtown area's older Romanesque Revival-style buildings were designed by architect Kirtland Kelsey Cutter after the Great Fire of 1889; the city features Riverfront and Manito parks, the Smithsonian-affiliated Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture, the Davenport Hotel, the Fox and Bing Crosby theaters. The Cathedral of Our Lady of Lourdes is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Spokane, the city is the center of the Mormon Spokane Washington Temple District.
The Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist represents the Anglican community. Gonzaga University was established in 1887 by the Jesuits, the private Presbyterian Whitworth University was founded three years and moved to north Spokane in 1914 In sports, the Gonzaga Bulldogs collegiate basketball team competes at the Division I level. Professional and semi-professional sports teams include the Spokane Chiefs in junior ice hockey, the Spokane Indians Minor League Baseball team located in nearby Spokane Valley; as of 2010, Spokane's only major daily newspaper, The Spokesman-Review, had a daily circulation of over 76,000. The first humans to live in the Spokane area were hunter-gatherer societies that lived off plentiful fish and game; the Spokane tribe, after which the city is named, are believed to be either their direct descendants, or descendants of people from the Great Plains. When asked by early white explorers, the Spokanes said their ancestors came from "up North." Early in the 19th century, the Northwest Fur Company sent two white fur trappers west of the Rocky Mountains to search for fur.
These were the first white men met by the Spokanes, who believed they were sacred, set the trappers up in the Colville River valley for the winter. The explorer-geographer David Thompson, working as head of the North West Company's Columbia Department, became the first European to explore the Inland Empire. Crossing what is now the Canada–US border from British Columbia, Thompson wanted to expand the North West Company further south in search of furs. After establishing the Kullyspell House and Saleesh House trading posts in what are now Idaho and Montana, Thompson attempted to expand further west, he sent out two trappers, Jacques Raphael Finlay and Finan McDonald, to construct a fur trading post on the Spokane River, which flows west from Lake Coeur d'Alene to the Columbia River, trade with the local Indians. This post was established in 1810, at the confluence of the Little Spokane and Spokane rivers, becoming the first enduring European settlement of significance in what became Washington state.
Known as the Spokane House, or "Spokane", it was in operation from 1810 to 1826. Operations were run by the British North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, the post was the headquarters of the fur trade between the Rocky and Cascade mountains for 16 years. After the latter business absorbed the North West Company in 1821, the major operations at the Spokane House were shifted north to Fort Colville, reducing the post's significance. In 1836, Reverend Samuel Parker visited the area and reported that around 800 Native Americans were living in Spokane Falls. A medical mission was established by Marcus and Narcissa Whitman to cater for Cayuse Indians and hikers of the Oregon Trail at Walla Walla in the south. After the Whitmans were killed by Indians in 1847, Reverend Cushing Eells established Whitman College in their memory setting up the first church in Spokane. In 1853, two years after the establishment of the Washington Territory, the first governor, Isaac Stevens, made an initial effort to make a treaty with Chief Garry and the Spokanes at Antoine Plantes' Ferry, not far from Millwood.
After the last campaign of the Yakima Indian War, the Coeur d'Alene War of 1858 was brought to a close by the actions of Col. George Wright, who won decisive victories agai
Spokane Veterans Memorial Arena
Spokane Veterans Memorial Arena is a multi-purpose arena in the western United States, located in Spokane, Washington. It is home to the Spokane Chiefs of the Western Hockey League. With an aging Spokane Coliseum, along with a need for a larger facility more than twice the coliseum's capacity, the Spokane City Council and Board of Spokane County Commissioners formed the Spokane Public Facilities District to acquire, construct and operate sports and entertainment facilities with contiguous parking facilities. In 1990, the SPFD board members unanimously agreed on the following recommendations made by an economic feasibility/market study; the recommendations were: To build an arena opposed to a domed stadium An arena that could seat 12,000 to 14,000 with expansion capabilities To build the new arena on city-owned land located adjacent to the old coliseum with on-site parking for 2,000 automobilesVoters rejected the Spokane Arena four times in six years before agreeing to build it in 1991. In the fall of that year, two ballot measures were put out to voters, passed: One, to publicly finance the construction of the arena through a property tax bond issue worth US$38 million Two, a measure to validate the SPFD.
Validation was important, because it would allow the district to implement a 2% hotel tax to further fund construction. In the fall of 1991, another funding measure was passed, it involved a 0.1% raise in the sales tax. The passage of all three measures completed the $44.8 million financining needed to build the arena. Ground was broken on March 5, 1993, the Spokane Arena opened 2 years in September 1995; the Spokane Arena has a capacity for: 12,638 for end-stage concerts 12,494 for center-stage shows 12,210 for basketball 10,771 for arena football 10,759 for ice hockey 6,951 for half-house showsThe arena has a state-of-the-art audio and video system. It consists of a 15-by-20-foot Viacom Sports 12 mm LED display, capable of being used as two separate units; the video board has exceptional color reproduction and the best off-angle viewing available for any LED format. It can be moved forward 100 feet and down to 20 feet off the arena floor; the arena features a 350° color LED ribbon board, mounted on the fascia of the Spokane Arena bowl.
It is capable of displaying text messages, logos and statistics. Powered by Crown Amplifiers, the audio system is driven by Community RS880 speakers in the Arena bowl, Altec Lansing satellite speakers for the upper seating areas, Bose speakers serve the concourse, dressing rooms, backstage hallways. Large public areas are one of the greater features of the Spokane Arena; the arena floor is 32,000 square feet, the 14-foot high concourse is a spacious 35,000 square feet. 16 luxury suites contain a total of 146 seats. In addition, there are six meeting rooms located at the Spokane Arena, totalling 10,050 square feet of meeting space. On the Events Level, there are five truck docks with 8-foot x 10-foot loading doors, one 8-foot x 10-foot drive-in door, one 20-foot x 24-foot drive-in loading door, allowing large shows to load and unload eight trucks simultaneously. Trucks can load and unload unobstructed, directly into the marshalling area at the arena floor's west end. Backstage are three star dressing rooms, two promoter offices, seven team dressing rooms, as well as a dressing room for officials.
The elevation at street level is 1,900 feet above sea level. Incorporated into its original design was an area designated for future expansion of the arena. Expansion of the upper bowl would raise the seating capacity of the arena to over 15,000. In 2011, the Spokane Public Facilities District became concerned the NCAA may tighten its criteria and require a true minimum of 12,000, with no allowance for seats lost due to tournament infrastructure. In early 2012, the Spokane Public Facilities District had "Measure 1" put on the April ballot, proposing to extend 0.1% sales tax and a 2% room tax to pay for a 91,000-square-foot addition to the Convention Center and other projects, including adding 750 seats to the Arena. Measure 1 was voted yes, the 750 seats will be added to the Arena. However, the seats that are to be added may have sight obstruction to the video wall, as it would be on the same side facing away. After this phase of new seating, full expansion of the arena including a center hung scoreboard and full seating expansion will cost $3,547,000.
It is unknown as to. Spokane Arena, in addition to its duties as being the host of Chiefs and Shock games has served as a secondary home for the men's basketball programs of Gonzaga University and Washington State University for nearly every year since opened. Washington State has played 33 matchups in the Spokane Arena in 19 of the 22 years with a record of 18–15, while Gonzaga has hosted 18 games in 15 of the 22 years with a record of 12–6. In-state rivals Washington State and Gonzaga have faced off against each other in the arena on five occasions with the Zags owning a 3–2 record against the Cougars in those games; the Bulldogs' faced off against local rival Eastern Washington University at the arena in four consecutive years, each won by the Zags, but just like with the Cougars, the rivalry has gone dormant due to the rise of the Zags' program to major status since the late 1990s, while the Cougars and Eagles have not seen much national spotlight. Washington State has h
The Bakersfield Blitz were a professional arena football team based in Bakersfield, California. They played their home games at Rabobank Arena. In 2001, the original Blitz was owned by Casey Wasserman, owner of the Arena Football League team the Los Angeles Avengers, he managed the team for two seasons. During their Inaugural season the team captured a playoff berth; the head coach for the team was announced on December 7, 2001. Head coach James Fuller came out of Portland State into the NFL where he played for the 1992–1994 San Diego Chargers and the Philadelphia Eagles in 1996–97 as a defensive back, he was head coach of the Bakersfield Blitz during their 2002 -- 2003 -- 04 seasons. He went on from his time with the Blitz to become the head coach for the AFL team Philadelphia Soul owned by Jon Bon Jovi. In 2004, the team was sold to an investment group that moved the team to Fresno to become the Central Valley Coyotes, while a new Bakersfield Blitz was formed. In 2005, the AF2 owned the team, was operated by the owner of the Bakersfield Condors.
In 2006, a combination of local Bakersfield and professional sports investors bought the franchise from the AF2. However, the Blitz unexpectedly folded after the 2007 season. Although this followed a season in which two players faced rape charges, it is unclear what role, if any, this played in the Blitz's folding. In December 2001, a new AF2 franchise was established in Bakersfield. Owner Casey Wasserman hired Brad Hoffman as the first Bakersfield Blitz General Manager. Hoffman managed the team along with staff members Todd Anderson, Mike Krause, Joel Hupp and Margo Saylor-Ivester; the team's coaching staff was led by: Head Coach James Fuller, Fullback/Linebacker Coach Steven Folmar and Offensive/Defensive Assistant Rick Van Horne. The owners at the time the Blitz ceased operations: Jeff Allen, Dr. Vip Dev, William Edwards, Scott Erwin, Dr. Todd Farrer, Scott Garrison, Scott Hacker, Clayton Koerner, Paul Press, Fred Prince, Joel Shaddy, Andrew Watkins, SportsGelt,LLC among others. General Manager Brad Hoffman along with his staff came up with the idea of creating an arena style high school All-Star game to help promote arena football in Kern County.
Hoffman's brainchild was the first arena style all-star game in the nation and continues to be the only arena style all-star game in the United States. Although the Blitz franchise changed ownership several times the huge interest in this unique game has kept it alive after the Blitz franchise folded in August 2007, it is now known as the "Bakersfield Arena Bowl." It is played every Spring....usually in April. Several of today's NFL Stars and Stars of the Future have played in the game. Most notably is Philadelphia Eagles RB #24 Ryan Mathews who still holds records for scoring in the game. Others who have played is USC QB Cody Kessler. On July 19, 2003 Blitz reported the untimely death of Bakersfield Blitz Fullback/Linebacker Julian Yearwood. Yearwood, 31, who collapsed on the team bench during the Saturday game against the Wichita Stealth at Kansas Coliseum in Wichita, Kansas. Emergency medical personnel worked on resuscitating Yearwood for over 20 minutes before he was taken off the field on a stretcher.
He was transported by ambulance to Via Christi St. Francis Hospital where he was pronounced dead at 9:37 p.m. CT on July 19, 2003, his body was transported to the Sedgwick County Coroner's office to have an autopsy performed to determine the cause of death. The passing of Yearwood rocked the AF2 family; the game was tied 7-7 in the first quarter when Yearwood came out of the game after blocking a field goal claiming that he wasn't well. He collapsed on the field shortly thereafter; the league declined to comment on the cause of death, pending an official autopsy, though some reports in the local media indicated it may be heart related. Nick Onaindia – FB/LB Bobby Pesavento – QB Rennard Reynolds – OS Alex Wallace – DS Leo Sullivan – OL Chad Elliot – QB Maurice Troutman- DL Eric Mahanke – WR/LB DeRonn Finley- WR/DB Nathan Munson- WR/DB Ben R. McCombs- DL Wil Goff- DL Gabriel Crecion-OL/DL Kevin Lacey – OL/DL Delvin Myles- DS Steve Wofford- OS Julian Yearwood- LB/FB Ryan Sloth- WR/DB J'Sharlon Jones- DS Jaret Johnson- K While in Boise, Idaho playing the Boise Burn, two members were arrested and charged with crimes related to the July 8, 2007 rape of a young woman in a hotel room in Boise.
The players arrested were Maurice Ronald Troutman, 25 and Rennard Reynolds, 30 both of Long Beach, California. Boise police arrested Troutman on July 8, for the alleged rape and Reynolds on July 9, for an alleged burglary connected to the alleged rape; the Blitz team cooperated with Boise police and delayed leaving Boise until the investigation was completed. Maurice Troutman's rape case was overturned by the Supreme Court. Documents show he never tried to take advantage of the woman. Court documents show she never was tested to see if she had taken Ambien and Alcohol. In Idaho it is illegal to engage in sexual intercourse with someone under the influence of alcohol, drugs etc. because they cannot give consent while having these things in their system. Bakersfield Blitz's Main Site Bakersfield Blitz at arenafan.com
The Louisville Fire was an arena football team that played its home games at the Brown-Forman Field in Freedom Hall in Louisville, Kentucky. They were a 2001 expansion team of the af2, their owner/operator was former Pro Bowl Louisville native Will Wolford. The team was somewhat successful. After a rocky first few seasons they found success in 2004 and made it all the way to the Arena Cup in the 2005 season. On December 19, 2001, Jeff Brohm was named the head coach of the Louisville Fire arena football team; the Fire started the 0–7 before they defeated the Carolina Rhinos 31–28 to improve to 1–7. The Fire would finish the season 2–14. In 2003, English was hired to replace Brohm as the head coach of the Louisville Fire af2 team, he was fired after just two games with a record of 2–2. In July 2007, it was announced that the team planned on selling portions of the team to local ownership in an attempt to boost season ticket sales and buy the shares back in time before the team joined the AFL. In November 2008, the Louisville Fire ceased operations.
2004 – Takua Furutani – International Player of the Year 2005 – Matthew Sauk – Offensive Player of the Year 2005 – Danny Kight – Kicker of the Year 2006 – Brett Dietz – Rookie of the Year 2006 – Rob Mager – Offensive Player of the Year 2008 – Elizabeth "Liz" Horrall – Miss Louisville Fire Football Sports in Louisville, Kentucky Louisville Cardinals "Louisville Fire on ArenaFan". Archived from the original on 2007-12-12
Arena football is a variety of indoor gridiron football played by the Arena Football League, China Arena Football League, Champions Indoor Football and others. The game is played indoors on a smaller field than American or Canadian outdoor football, resulting in a faster and higher-scoring game; the sport was invented in 1981, patented in 1987, by Jim Foster, a former executive of the National Football League and the United States Football League. The name is trademarked by Gridiron Enterprises and had a proprietary format until its patent expired in 2007. Due to the patent, other indoor American football leagues that launched following the popularity of the original AFL developed variants on the arena rules. Three leagues have played under arena football rules: the AFL, which played 22 seasons from 1987 to 2008 and resumed play under new ownership in 2010, AF2, the AFL's erstwhile developmental league, which played 10 seasons from 2000 through 2009, the CAFL, which began play in 2016 but is not directly affiliated with the AFL.
While attending the 1981 Major Indoor Soccer League All-Star Game on February 11 at Madison Square Garden, Jim Foster came up with his version of football and wrote the rules and concepts down on the outside of a manila folder, which resides at the Arena Football Hall of Fame. Over the next five years, he created a more comprehensive and definitive set of playing rules, playing field specifications and equipment, along with a business plan to launch a proposed small, initial league to test market the concept of arena football nationally; as a key part of that plan, while residing in the Chicago area, he tested the game concept through several closed door practice sessions in late 1985 and early 1986 in nearby Rockford. After fine tuning the rules, he secured additional operating capital to play several test games in the MetroCentre in April 1986, the Rosemont Horizon Arena in February 1987; the next critical step for Jim Foster was securing a network television contract with ESPN and an initial group of key national corporate sponsors including United Airlines, Holiday Inn, Wilson Sporting Goods, Budget Rental Car, Hardees Restaurants.
As the league's founding commissioner he established a league office with a small staff in suburban Chicago, with addition of some much needed additional investor capital, was ready to launch the Arena Football League. On June 19, 1987, the Pittsburgh Gladiators hosted the Washington Commandos in the first league game after a two-week training camp for all four charter teams in Wheaton, Illinois. AFL football operations and training was overseen by veteran college and pro head coach, Mouse Davis, the father of the famed "run and shoot" offense; the other two 1987 teams were the Denver Dynamite. As the AFL grew into an established league with close to 20 teams, it defined itself as a major market pro sports product and welcomed commissioner C. David Baker. In the early 2000s the league appeared to have financially strong team ownership including NFL owners, as well as major names in the entertainment world, for a while, a weekly Sunday afternoon broadcast on NBC starting the week after the Super Bowl, during the stadium-played game's off season.
The growth and establishment of the AFL as a major market league spawned a developmental league that Foster helped co-found, a minor league called Arena Football 2, in 2000. The league was set up to operate in medium size markets around the U. S. where it enjoyed growth under the guidance of af2 president Jerry Kurz. Many other people have started their own indoor football minor leagues; these leagues do not technically play arena football or use the proper name "Arena Football", a registered trademark, because of the patent on the rules that Foster obtained in 1990. The other two partners were Chicago based lawyers Bill Niro and Jerry Kurz, who in early 1987 joined Foster to help secure the patents on the Arena Football game system and re-establish the Arena Football League in early 1990 as a franchised league after removing a small group of limited partners for multiple breaches of the limited partnership agreement, the basis for operating the AFL during the 1988 season; the patents expired in 2007.
The trademarks only cover the words "arena football" in immediate succession. Arena football is played indoors, in arenas designed for either basketball or ice hockey teams; the field is the same width and length as a standard NHL hockey rink, making it 55% of the dimensions of a regular American gridiron football field. The scrimmage area is long, each end zone is deep. Depending on the venue in which a game is being played, the end zones may be rectangular or, where necessary because of the building design, rounded; each sideline has a padded barrier, with the padding placed over the hockey dasher boards. The goalpost uprights are 9 feet wide, the c
San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it is the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States, with a population of 395,326. San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521. Puerto Rico's capital is the third oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic, founded in 1496 and Panama City, in Panama, founded in 1519. Several historical buildings are located in San Juan. Today, San Juan is Puerto Rico's most important seaport and is the island's manufacturing, financial and tourism center; the population of the Metropolitan Statistical Area, including San Juan and the municipalities of Bayamón, Cataño, Canóvanas, Toa Alta, Toa Baja and Trujillo Alto, is about 2.6 million inhabitants. San Juan is a principal city of the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area; the city has been the host of events within the sports community, including the 1979 Pan American Games.
In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded the original settlement. It was named after the Province of Cáceres in Spain, the birthplace of Nicolás de Ovando the Governor of Spain's Caribbean territories, Today it is part of the Pueblo Viejo sector of Guaynabo, just to the west of the present San Juan metropolitan area. A year the settlement was moved to a site called Puerto Rico, Spanish for "rich port" or "good port", after its similar geographical features to the town of Puerto Rico of Gran Canaria in the Canary Islands. In 1521, the newer settlement was given its formal name: Puerto Rico de San Juan Bautista; the ambiguous use of San Juan Bautista and Puerto Rico for both the city and the island in time led to a reversal in practical use by most inhabitants: by 1746 the name for the city had become that of the entire island, leading to the city being identified as Puerto Rico de Puerto Rico on maps of the era. San Juan, as a settlement of the Spanish Empire, was used by merchant and military ships traveling from Spain as the first stopover in the Americas.
Because of its prominence in the Caribbean, a network of fortifications was built to protect the transports of gold and silver from the New World to Europe. Because of the rich cargoes, San Juan became a target of the foreign powers of the time; the city was witness to attacks from the English led by Sir Francis Drake in 1595 and by George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, in 1598. Artillery from San Juan's fort, El Morro, repelled Drake. After a few months of English occupation, Clifford was forced to abandon the siege when his troops began to suffer from exhaustion and sickness. In 1625 the city was sacked by Dutch forces led by Captain Balduino Enrico, but El Morro withstood the assault and was not taken; the Dutch were counterattacked by Captain Juan de Amézqueta and 50 members of the civilian militia on land and by the cannons of the Spanish troops in El Morro Castle. The land battle left 60 Dutch soldiers dead and Enrico with a sword wound to his neck which he received from the hands of Amézqueta.
The Dutch ships at sea were boarded by Puerto Ricans. After a long battle, the Spanish soldiers and volunteers of the city's militia were able to defend the city from the attack and save the island from an invasion. On October 21, Enrico set the city ablaze. Captains Amézqueta and Andrés Botello decided to put a stop to the destruction and led 200 men in an attack against the enemy's front and rear guard, they drove Enrico and his men from their trenches and into the ocean in their haste to reach their ships. The British attack in 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars, led by Sir Ralph Abercromby, his army laid siege to the city but was forced to withdraw in defeat as the Puerto Rican defenses proved more resilient than those of Trinidad. Various events and circumstances, including liberalized commerce with Spain, the opening of the island to immigrants as a direct result of the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815, the colonial revolutions, led to an expansion of San Juan and other Puerto Rican settlements in the late 18th and early 19th century.
On May 8, 1898, United States Navy ships, among them the USS Detroit, USS Indiana, USS New York, USS Amphitrite, USS Terror and USS Montgomery, commanded by Rear Admiral William T. Sampson arrived at San Juan Bay; the USS Yale captured a Spanish freighter, the Rita in San Juan Bay, thus being the first hostile encounter between the warring sides in Puerto Rico. On May 9, Yale fought a brief battle with an auxiliary cruiser of Spain, name unknown, resulting in a Spanish victory. Around this time, Captain Ángel Rivero Méndez was assigned the command of the Spanish forces in the fortress of San Cristóbal in San Juan. On May 10, the Yale returned to San Juan Bay, Rivero-Méndez ordered his men to open fire upon the USS Yale using an Ordoñez 15 centimeter cannon, thus becoming the first attack against the Americans in Puerto Rico during the Spanis