Spoleto is an ancient city in the Italian province of Perugia in east-central Umbria on a foothill of the Apennines. It is 29 km N. of Terni, 63 km SE of Perugia. Spoleto was situated on the eastern branch of the Via Flaminia, which forked into two roads at Narni and rejoined at Forum Flaminii, near Foligno. An ancient road ran hence to Nursia; the Ponte Sanguinario of the 1st century BC still exists. The Forum lies under today's marketplace. Located at the head of a large, broad valley, surrounded by mountains, Spoleto has long occupied a strategic geographical position, it appears to have been an important town to the original Umbri tribes, who built walls around their settlement in the 5th century BC, some of which are visible today. The first historical mention of Spoletium is the notice of the foundation of a colony there in 241 BC. After the Battle of Lake Trasimene Spoletium was attacked by Hannibal, repulsed by the inhabitants During the Second Punic War the city was a useful ally to Rome.
It suffered during the civil wars of Gaius Marius and Sulla. The latter, after his victory over Marius, confiscated the territory of Spoletium. From this time forth it was a municipium. Under the empire it seems to have flourished once again, but is not mentioned in history. Martial speaks of its wine. Aemilianus, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers in Moesia, was slain by them here on his way from Rome, after a reign of three or four months. Rescripts of Constantine and Julian are dated from Spoleto; the foundation of the episcopal see dates from the 4th century: early martyrs of Spoleto are legends, but a letter to the bishop Caecilianus, from Pope Liberius in 354 constitutes its first historical mention. Owing to its elevated position Spoleto was an important stronghold during the Vandal and Gothic wars. Under the Lombards, Spoleto became the capital of an independent duchy, the Duchy of Spoleto, its dukes ruled a considerable part of central Italy. In 774 it became part of Holy Roman Empire. Several of its dukes during the late 9th Century, rose to wear the crown of that Empire.
Together with other fiefs, it was bequeathed to Pope Gregory VII by the powerful countess Matilda of Tuscany, but for some time struggled to maintain its independence. In 1155 it was destroyed by Frederick Barbarossa. In 1213 it was definitively occupied by Pope Gregory IX. During the absence of the papal court in Avignon, it was prey to the struggles between Guelphs and Ghibellines, until in 1354 Cardinal Albornoz brought it once more under the authority of the Papal States. After Napoleon's conquest of Italy, in 1809 Spoleto became capital of the short-lived French department of Trasimène, returning to the Papal States after Napoleon's defeat, within five years. In 1860, after a gallant defence, Spoleto was taken by the troops fighting for the unification of Italy. Giovanni Pontano, founder of the Accademia Pontaniana of Naples, was born here. Another child of Spoleto was Francis Possenti, educated in the Jesuit school and whose father was the Papal assessor, Francis entered the Passionists and became Saint Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows.
The Roman theater rebuilt. The stage is occupied by the former church of St. Agatha housing the National Archaeological Museum. Ponte Sanguinario, a Roman bridge 1st century BCE; the name is traditionally attributed to the persecutions of Christians in the nearby amphiteatre. A restored Roman house with mosaic floors, indicating it was built in the 1st century, overlooked the Forum Square. An inscription by Polla to Emperor Caligula suggests the house was that of Vespasia Polla, the mother of Emperor Vespasian. Roman amphitheater, it was turned into a fortress by Totila in 545 and in Middle Ages times was used for stores and shops, while in the cavea the church of San Gregorio Minore was built. The stones were used to build the Rocca; the Palazzo Comunale. Ponte delle Torri, a striking 13th-century aqueduct on Roman foundations: whether it was first built by the Romans is a point on which scholarly opinion is divided; the majestic Rocca Albornoziana fortress, built in 1359–1370 by the architect Matteo Gattapone of Gubbio for Cardinal Albornoz.
It has six sturdy towers which formed two distinct inner spaces: the Cortile delle Armi, for the troops, the Cortile d'onore for the use of the city's governor. The latter courtyard is surrounded by a two-floor porch; the rooms include the Camera Pinta with noteworthy 15th‑century frescoes. After having resisted many sieges, the Rocca was turned into a jail in 1800 and used as such until the late 20th century. After extensive renovation it was reopened as a museum in 2007; the Palazzo Racani-Arroni has a worn graffito decoration attributed to Giulio Romano. The inner courtyard has a notable fountain. Palazzo della Signoria, housing the city's museum; the majestic Palazzo Vigili includes the Torre dell'Olio, the sole mediaeval city tower remaining in Spoleto. Temple of Clitumnus lies between Spoleto and Trevi Duomo of S. Maria Assunta: Construction of the Duomo begun around 1175 and completed in 1227; the Romanesque edifice contains the tomb of Filippo Lippi, who died in Spoleto in 1469, designed by his son Filippino Lippi.
Jenkins is a home rule-class city in Letcher County, United States. The population was 2,203 as of the 2010 census. In autumn of 1911, the Consolidation Coal Company purchased the current location of Jenkins as part of a 100,000-acre tract of land in Pike and Floyd counties from the Northern Coal and Coke Company. After the acquisition was finalized, plans were made to extend the Lexington and Eastern Railroad from Jackson to a town named McRoberts; the plans included the establishment of the town of Jenkins for George C. Jenkins, one of the Consolidation Coal Company's directors; because of the need of hundreds of homes and other structures, nine sawmills and two brickyards were erected. A dynamo was built to temporarily generate power for the houses. Next, a temporary narrow-gauge railroad was built over Pine Mountain from Glamorgan, Virginia, in order to carry supplies to further the development of the town. Jenkins's city government was established as soon; the company went as far to supply the town with its own marshals to enforce the law.
Jenkins was incorporated as a sixth-class city on January 9, 1912. In 1956, Consolidation Coal sold Jenkins to Bethlehem Steel. Bethlehem Steel closed the mine in 1988. During the Southeast Kentucky floods of 2020, water spilled over the top of the Elkhorn Lake dam above Jenkins, considered one of Kentucky’s most dangerous. About 30 percent of Jenkins is vulnerable to flooding in the event of a dam break, the town lacks a comprehensive emergency plan. Jenkins is located in eastern Letcher County at 37°10′48″N 82°37′56″W, its southern border is the Kentucky–Virginia state line, following the crest of Pine Mountain. U. S. Route 23 passes through Jenkins, leading north 29 miles to Pikeville and south over Pine Mountain 21 miles to Norton, Virginia. U. S. Route 119 leads southwest from Jenkins 12 miles to Whitesburg, the Letcher county seat, north with US 23 to Pikeville. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.9 square miles, of which 8.8 square miles are land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.34%, are water.
The city is in the valley of Elkhorn Creek, a northeast-flowing tributary of the Russell Fork, part of the Levisa Fork–Big Sandy River watershed flowing north to the Ohio River. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,401 people, 968 households, 671 families residing in the city; the population density was 281.2 people per square mile. There were 1,122 housing units at an average density of 131.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.96% White, 1.08% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.29% of the population. There were 968 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.97.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $20,143, the median income for a family was $25,985. Males had a median income of $31,087 versus $21,333 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,358. About 24.6% of families and 29.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.3% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over. Jenkins has a branch of the Letcher County Library; the David A. Zegeer Coal-Railroad Museum is housed in town in a historic railroad depot. Jenkins Homecoming Days is an annual festival celebrated in August. Kenny Baker, fiddle player and member of Bluegrass Boys Matt Figger, basketball head coach at Austin Peay University Darwin K. Kyle, Medal of Honor recipient Francis Gary Powers, pilot whose CIA U-2 spy plane was shot down while flying a reconnaissance mission over Soviet Union airspace.
Cenn Fáelad mac Ailella was an early medieval Irish scholar renowned for having his memory markedly improve and becoming eidetic after suffering a head wound in battle. He was a member of the Cenél nEógain, being a grandson of King Báetán mac Muirchertaig, a great-great-great-great grandson of Niall Noígiallach, a first cousin once removed of Aldfrith of Northumbria via his first cousin, Fina, his father Ailill mac Báetán was murdered in Templeport in modern-day County Cavan, Republic of Ireland, according to the Annals of Ulster: "U620.1. The slaying in Magh Slécht in the territory of Connacht of the kindred of Báetán, i.e. of Ailill son of Báetán and of Mael Dúin son of Fergus son of Báetán. According to John Healy, Cenn Fáelad's sister Sabina was the mother of Saint Cuthbert of Lindisfarne. Cenn Fáelad fought at the crucial Battle of Moira or Magh Rath in 636. During the battle he received a life-threatening head wound, was afterwards carried to the abbey of Tomregan, County Cavan to be healed in the house of its abbot, Saint Bricín.
That this abbey was situated beside Magh Slécht where his father had been slain 16 years earlier may not be a coincidence. His family had land there; this house was situated "between the houses of the three professors. And there were three schools in the place, and everything that he would hear of the recitations of the three schools every day he would have by heart every night." This merging of Latin learning, native Irish law and vernacular poetry, ensured Cenn Fáelad's place in Irish legal tradition in his own time and beyond. He is quoted in the Bretha Nemed Toisech in the section dealing with the Church, thus demonstrating the compatibility of ecclesiastical learning with native learning.<refRobin Chapman Stacey. Dark Speech: The Performance of Law in Early Ireland. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 200. ISBN 0-8122-3989-X.</ref> Tradition states that as a result of a head wound, Cenn Fáelad's "brain of forgetting was knocked out of him." The effect of this trauma led him to create "a pattern of poetry to these matters and he wrote them on slates and tablets and set them in a vellum book."
The Suidigud Tellaig Temra recounts that because of his vast store of lore, when Diarmait mac Cerbaill wished to establish the original boundaries of Tara, he had recourse to Cenn Fáelad. But his knowledge did not go back that far in time, he gathers all the wisest men of Ireland; when they, in turn, cannot provide an answer, he they consult Fintan mac Bóchra, one of the original settlers, miraculously still alive. His verses were all composed in quatrains of numbered syllables with regular rhyme, moderate use of alliteration, in contrast to a more archaic form, still practised in the south of Ireland at the time. Most or all of his historical verse relate to the Cenél nEógain, he was the first poet quoted in the Irish annals, being referred to as sapiens, a technical term denoting a head teacher or professor in a monastic school. Manuscripts of legal and grammatical texts were attributed to him, though the earliest of them seem to date from about fifty years after his death. Robin Flower stated "How far these are his may be a matter of controversy, but there can be little real doubt that the writings by him existed in the period when the vernacular learning was being eagerly cultivated."
A copy of one of the works attributed to him exists in Trinity College, Dublin Ms 1317, written by the grandfather of Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh. Edward O'Reilly gives a full account of his works in his'Irish Writers', LXIV sq.. Sub anno 668, the Annals of the Four Masters contains an obituary with an accompanying commemorative verse by Cenn Faelad: Maelfothartaigh, son of Suibhne, chief of Cinel Tuirtre, died. Ceannfaeladh said: Not dearer/ is one king to me than another/Since Maelfothartaigh/ was borne in his couch to Doire. Sharp weapons were strewn, men were strewn in Moin Mor Doire Lothair, Because of a partition not just; the battle of all the Cruithne was fought, Elne was burned. The battle of Gabbra Liffe was fought, the battle of Cul Dreimhne, they bore away hostages after conflict, thence westwards towards Cnuas Nuach, Domhnall and Nainnidh, son of Duach. The two sons of Mac Earca returned to the same battle, And the king, returned into the possessions of his father Seadna, his obituary is given in the Annals of Ulster as follows: "U679.2 Cenn Faelad son of Ailill son of Baetán, the learned, rested."
In the Annals of Inisfallen as follows: "AI678.1 Kl. Death of Cenn Faelad the learned." In the Chronicon Scotorum as follows: "Annal CS679 Kalends. Cenn Faelad, the learned, rested." In the Annals of the Four Masters as follows: "M677.4 Ceannfaeladh, son of Oilioll, a paragon in wisdom, died." In the Annals of Tigernach as follows: "T679.2 Cend Faeladh sapiens pausat."