A grand tourer is a car, designed for high speed and long-distance driving, due to a combination of performance and luxury attributes. The most common format is a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement; the term derives from the Italian language phrase gran turismo which became popular in the English language from the 1950s, evolving from fast touring cars and streamlined closed sports cars during the 1930s. The grand touring car concept originated in Europe in the early 1950s with the 1951 introduction of the Lancia Aurelia B20 GT, features notable luminaries of Italian automotive history such as Vittorio Jano, Enzo Ferrari and Johnny Lurani. Motorsports became important in the evolution of the grand touring concept, grand touring entries are important in endurance sports-car racing; the grand touring definition implies material differences in performance, speed and amenities between elite automobiles and those of ordinary motorists. In the post-war United States, manufacturers were less inclined to adopt the "ethos of the GT car", preferring to build automobiles "suited to their long, smooth roads and labor-saving lifestyles" with wide availability of powerful straight-six and V8 engines in all price-ranges of automobile.
Despite this, the United States, enjoying early post-war economic expansion, became the largest market for European grand-touring cars, supplying transportation for movie stars and the jet set. Classic grand-touring cars from the post-war era have since become valuable automobiles among wealthy collectors. Within ten years, grand touring cars found success penetrating the new American personal luxury car market; the terms "grand tourer", "grand turismo", "grande routière", "GT" are among the most misused terms in motoring. The grand touring designation "means motoring at speed, in style and comfort." "Purists define "gran turismo" as the enjoyment and comfort of open-road touring."According to one author, "the ideal is of a car with the ability to cross a continent at speed and in comfort yet provide driving thrills when demanded" and it should exhibit the following: The engines "should be able to cope with cruising comfortably at the upper limits on all continental roads without drawbacks or loss of usable power."
"Ideally, the GT car should have been devised by its progenitors as a Grand Tourer, with all associated considerations in mind." "It should be able to transport at least two in comfort with their luggage and have room to spare — in the form of a two plus two seating arrangement." The design, both "inside and out, should be geared toward complete control by the driver." Its "chassis and suspension provide suitable roadholding on all routes" during travels. Grand tourers emphasize comfort and handling over straight-out high performance or ascetic, spartan accommodations. In comparison, sports cars are more "crude" compared to "sophisticated Grand Touring machinery." However, the popularity of using GT for marketing purposes has meant that it has become a "much misused term signifying no more than a tuned version of a family car with trendy wheels and a go-faster stripe on the side."Historically, most GTs have been front-engined with rear-wheel drive, which creates more space for the cabin than mid-mounted engine layouts.
Softer suspensions, greater storage, more luxurious appointments add to their driving appeal. The GT abbreviation— and variations thereof— are used as model names. However, some cars with GT in the model name are not Grand Touring cars. Among the many variations of GT are: GTA: "Gran Turismo Alleggerita"- the Italian word for lightweight. "GTAm" indicates a modified version. GTA is sometimes used for automatic transmission models. GTB: "Gran Turismo Berlinetta" GTC: Various uses including "Gran Turismo Compressore" for supercharged engines, "Gran Turismo Cabriolet, "Gran Turismo Compact", "Gran Turismo Crossover" and "Gran Turismo Corsa"- the Italian word for "racing". GTD: Gran Turismo Diesel GT/E:"Gran Turismo Einspritzung"- the German word for fuel injection GTE: "Grand Touring Estate" GTi or GTI: "Grand Touring Injection used for hot hatches following the introduction of the Volkswagen Golf GTi GTO: "Gran Turismo Omologata"- the Italian word for homologation GTR or GT-R: "Gran Turismo Racing" GTS: sometimes "Gran Turismo Spider" for convertible models.
However, GTS has been used for sedans and other body styles. GT-T: "Gran Turismo Turbo" GTV: Gran Turismo Veloce"- the Italian word for "fast" GTX: "Grand Tourisme Xtreme" HGT: "High Gran Turismo" Several past and present motor racing series have used "GT" in their name; these include: LM GTE 1999-present: A set of regulations for modified road cars, used for the 24 Hours of Le Mans race and several related racing series. LM GTE was called'GT class' and was known as GT2 class from 2005-2010. FIA GT Series 2013-present: A racing series for Group GT3 cars; the FIA GT Series replaced the FIA GT1 World Championship. GT4 European Series 2007-present: A European amateur racing series with the least powerful class of GT cars. IMSA GT3 Cup Challenge 2005-present: A North American racing series for Porsche 911 GT3 Cup cars. FIA GT3 European Championship 2006-2012: A European amateur racing series for Group GT3 cars. There have been several classes of racing cars called GT; the Group GT3 regulations for modified road cars have been used for various racing series worldwide since 2006.
Sebring International Raceway
Sebring International Raceway is a road course auto racing facility in the southeastern United States, located near Sebring, Florida. Sebring Raceway is one of the oldest continuously operating race tracks in the U. S. its first race being run in 1950. Sebring is one of the classic race tracks in North American sports car racing, plays host to the 12 Hours of Sebring; the raceway occupies a portion of Sebring Regional Airport, an active airport for private and commercial traffic, built as Hendricks Army Airfield, a World War II training base for the U. S. Army Air Forces. Sebring Raceway occupies the site of Hendricks Army Airfield, a training base for B-17 pilots in operation from 1941 to 1946. After the war, Russian-American aeronautical engineer Alec Ulmann was seeking sites for converting military aircraft to civilian use when he discovered potential in Hendricks' runways and service roads to stage a sports car endurance race similar to the 24 Hours of Le Mans, a race Ulmann was inspired to somewhat re-create in the United States.
Sebring's first race was held on New Year's Eve of 1950, attracting thirty race cars from across North America. The Sam Collier 6 Hour Memorial race was won by Frits Koster and Ralph Deshon in a Crosley Hot Shot, driven to the track by Victor Sharpe; the first 12 Hours of Sebring was held on March 15, 1952, shortly growing into a major international race. In 1959, the track hosted the U. S.' First Formula One race, held as that year's installment of the historic United States Grand Prix competition. However poor attendance and high costs relocated the next U. S. Grand Prix to Riverside International Raceway in southern California. For much of Sebring's history, the track followed a 5.2-mile layout. After a disastrous 1966 12 Hours with five fatalities, the track was widened and lengthened 50 yards for 1967 with the removal of the Webster Turn between the hairpin and the top of the track and replacement with the faster Green Park Chicane; this was closer to the hairpin and allowed a flat-out run through a fast corner to the top of the track and the runway.
Another dangerous section was the Warehouse straight, where the organizers installed a left-right turn to move the track away from the warehouses and buildings after a crash where during that 1966 12 Hours a privately-entered Porsche went into one of the warehouses and into a crowd, killing four spectators. The circuit was changed and shortened in 1983 to allow simultaneous use of the track and one of the runways, major changes in 1987 allowed use of another runway. Further changes in 1991 accommodated expansion of the airport's facilities, allowing the entire track to be used without interfering with normal airport operations and bringing it close to its current configuration; the hairpin was removed in 1997 due to a lack of run-off, replaced with what became known as the "safety pin". Gendebien Bend was re-profiled to slow the cars' entry to the Ullman straight; the track is owned by IMSA Holdings, LLC through its subsidiary Sebring International Raceway, LLC via its purchase of the Panoz MSG in September 2012.
It is leased by the Sebring International Raceway, LLC, which acquired the facility from Andy Evans in 1997. The track is recognized for its famous, high-speed "Turn 17", a long, fast right hander that can make or break a car's speed down the front straight; the corner can fit up to 3 cars wide. Skip Barber Racing School held numerous programs at the facility, including a scholarship opportunity for young racers; the World Endurance Championship runs a round called the 1000 Miles of Sebring, run concurrently with the famed 12 Hours. This race was first run with Toyota Gazoo Racing winning overall. Sebring International Raceway consist of three tracks: the Full Circuit, the Short Circuit, the Club Circuit; the course of the track itself is 3.74 miles long. It is a seventeen-turn road course with long straights, several high-speed corners, technical slower corners. Many of the turns and points along the track are named for the early drivers. Due to Florida's flat nature there is little elevation change around the track and little camber on the surface, providing a challenging track for drivers when it rains.
Sebring is renowned for its rough and changing surfaces. The course still runs on old sections of World War II-era landing fields that were constructed of concrete sections with large seams; the transitions between sections are quite rough and sparks fly from the undercarriages of the cars as they traverse them. Much of the track has intentionally been left with its original concrete runway surface; the 12 Hours of Sebring is renowned as a race, harder on machinery and drivers than Le Mans, is seen as an ideal preparation run for the famed French race. The track surface has 0.7 miles of concrete. Mario Andretti, a 3-time 12 Hours winner, said that one of the hardest parts about the original Sebring track was "finding the track to begin with." There had been many accounts of drivers retiring due to accidents at night, quite because they got lost on the runway sections and couldn't find the track again. Some drivers got lost during the day because the track was poorly marked down with white lines and cones.
Sebring is most notable for hosting the 12 Hours of Sebring, sanctioned by the FIA and IMSA, as part of many major endurance racing series, including the World Sportscar Championship, Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, ALMS, now, the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship. This race is the second of four races in t
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Automobile Racing Club of America
The Automobile Racing Club of America is an auto racing sanctioning body in the United States, founded in 1953 by John Marcum. The current president of ARCA is Ron Drager, who took over the position 1996 following the death of Bob Loga; the ARCA Menards Series races stock cars similar to those seen in past years in the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, indeed most cars used in the Menards Series were used in NASCAR. ARCA's competitors contain a mix of both professional racers as well as hobby racers alike, in addition to younger competitors trying to make a name for themselves, sometimes driving as part of a driver development program for a NASCAR team. ARCA Menards Series races are broadcast on Fox Sports 1, Fox Sports 2 or MAVTV, they have been broadcast on ESPN, USA Network, CBS Sports Network, NBCSN, TBS and TNT. ARCA owns both Flat Rock Speedway. ARCA sanctioned the ARCA Midget Series from 1988 until 2002 and a truck-racing series called the ARCA Lincoln Welders Truck Series from 1999 to 2016.
On April 27, 2018, NASCAR acquired ARCA. John Marcum founded the Midwest Association for Race Cars in 1953 as a regional stock car racing series after working as an official for NASCAR founder Bill France, Sr. In 1964, the name was changed to the "Automobile Racing Club of America" when the series became national by racing on superspeedways; this ARCA is not to be confused with the organization founded in 1933 with the same name. ARCA started racing at Daytona International Speedway in 1964, during the Daytona Speedweeks, at the request of Bill France, Sr. who had raced against Marcum in the 1940s. The ARCA/NASCAR relationship continues today; the series schedule events at the same track on the same weekend. The ARCA event is the Saturday support race to the Sunday NASCAR Cup event. For several decades, ARCA used older NASCAR Cup race cars at their events, with the advent of the Car of Tomorrow, teams were able to sell off their older cars to ARCA teams. Former NASCAR drivers, such as Benny Parsons, Kyle Petty, Ken Schrader and others, have competed in and advanced through the ARCA series on the way to successful NASCAR careers.
ARCA has been used throughout its history as a stepping stone for hopeful NASCAR drivers. ARCA uses a simple point system to determine champions. Note: Every finishing position between 1st and 40th is separated by five points, with the winning driver receiving 200 points and the 40th place driver receiving five points. Any driver who finishes behind 40th will receive five points. Points are awarded for qualifying, with: 15 points awarded to the pole position, 10 points for the second fastest qualifier, five for the third fastest qualifier. Any driver who leads an official lap will receive five bonus points; the driver who leads the most official laps will receive an additional five points. All drivers who pre-enter and compete in a race will receive an additional 25 points. Any driver who enters and competes in each pre-designated five race leg of the overall schedule will receive an additional 100 points. ARCA Menards Series ARCA Lincoln Welders Truck Series ARCA Midwest Tour ARCA West Series ARCA West Mac's Series ARCA West Circle K ARCA Late Model Gold Cup Series ARCA OK Tire Sportsman Series CRA Super Series Official ARCA Website ARCA RE/MAX Series Sim Racing The Pit Lane - ARCA Racing News The ARCA Results Archive
Blancpain GT World Challenge America
The Blancpain GT World Challenge America is a North American auto racing series launched in 1990 by the Sports Car Club of America. It is managed by the Stephane Ratel Organisation since 2018, is sanctioned by the United States Auto Club since 2017; the series consists of four driver classifications and five classes of vehicles: GT3, GT4, Touring Car, consisting of TCR homologated cars, as well as separate TC and TCA classes featuring modified production vehicles, such as the BMW M235iR and the Mazda MX-5 Cup car. The Sports Car Club of America created a "showroom stock" class for amateur club racing in 1972. In 1984, following the success of the Longest Day of Nelson and another 24-hour race at Mid-Ohio, the SCCA combined existing races into a manufacturer's championship. For 1985, the series became a 6-race professional championship with sponsorship from Playboy magazine. Escort radar detectors sponsored the series from 1986 until 1991. In 1990, the series was named World Challenge and was restructured to adopt rules similar to the European Group A for homologated production cars.
The higher-cost "sports" classes were dropped after 1996, leaving the class format as it would stand until 2010. Speed TV network began sponsoring the series in 1999. With fields growing, the series began separate races for the GT and Touring classes in 2000, which would remain until 2010. In 2010, the series moved away from the partnership with SPEED, signed a broadcast partnership with Versus for coverage; the series moved existing touring cars into a new GTS class, while changing the rules for the touring car class to reduce costs and keep cars closer to stock. With the SpeedVision television contract, the World Challenge succeeded Trans Am as the SCCA's premier series. In July 2008, the World Challenge series was purchased by a group of investors; the Sports Car Club of America remained the sanctioning partner of the series. Starting with the 2011 season, the series signed a partnership with Pirelli and the leading tire manufacturer became the official tire supplier and title sponsor of the series.
In 2014, the Pirelli World Challenge established a GT-A classification similar to the FIA's bronze category. In 2015, the series established GT Cup, featuring Porsche 991 Cup Cars that ran as part of the overall GT class races. CBS Sports Network and Motor Trend On Demand became the new television partners. In 2016, the series established SprintX classes of racing featuring two-driver sprint races for several driver classes; as part of the partnership with the SRO, the GTS class was expanded to include GT4 homologations. For 2017, the Pirelli World Challenge transferred to USAC as its sanctioning body. GT Cup class is expanding to include Cup cars from Lamborghini and Ferrari, while SprintX classes expand in both driver classification specificity and competition-legal platforms. On May 25th, 2018, it was announced that the Stéphane Ratel Organisation had become majority shareholder of WC Vision LLC, thus majority owner of Pirelli World Challenge. On September 29, 2018, it was announced the series acquired a new title sponsor as part of the overhaul of the Ratel series.
The GT Sprint Cup in Europe and GT Series Asia will now be known as the Blancpain GT World Challenge Europe and Asia, respectively. The current World Challenge will become World Challenge America; each season consists of between 5 and 16 rounds or races. Some rounds or races use a standing start, as opposed to the all rolling starts seen in other sports car racing series. Blancpain GT World Challenge races consist of two-driver, 90-minute SprintX format races with two races per weekend. GT4 America is divided into two race formats, single driver, 50-minute Sprint races and two-driver 60-minute Sprintx races; the Touring Car America championship involve separate TCR 40-minute sprint races and 40-minute TC & TCA races. The allowed body styles within this class are coupe and convertible; the cars permitted in GT are sold in the market as “sports” cars, “sport-touring” cars, or performance versions of “luxury” cars. Forced induction is permitted on cars that come equipped with forced induction stock, or on cars that the series has determined need help reaching the target horsepower range.
Power output ranges from 500 hp to 600 hp. Weight varies depending on tire size. All of the vehicles in GT are all-wheel drive. FIA GT3 class cars are now approved to compete in the class starting in 2013; the allowed body styles within this class are coupe and convertible. The cars permitted in GTS are marketed as “sports cars”, “sport-touring cars” or performance versions of “luxury” cars but at a lower permissible preparation level than GT. Forced induction is permitted on cars. Power output ranges from 300-400 hp. Weight varies depending on tire size. Front-wheel, rear-wheel, all-wheel drive configurations are permitted; as of 2017, the class rules mimic the FIA GT4 formula. Models include the Ford Mustang, Chevrolet Camaro, Acura TSX, Audi TT, Porsche Cayman, Kia Optima, Nissan 370Z and Scion FR-S. In 2016 an extended sprint format series was added as a standalone championship in addition to its existing Sprint format racing series. SprintX races are 60 minutes in feature mandatory driver and tire changes.
Beginning in 2019, GT4 America began two regional series integrated into its Sprint X Championship. The regional series consist of five rounds each in the eastern and western sides of North America in a two-driver, pro-am format; the TCR class is based on the international TCR Touring Car class employed by a multitude of series worldwide. All TCR cars are based on 4 or
Spec Racer Ford
Spec Racer Ford is a class of racing car used in Sports Car Club of America and other series road racing events. The Spec Racer Ford and marketed by SCCA Enterprises, is a high performance, closed wheel, open cockpit, purpose-built race car intended for paved road courses, such as Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca, Buttonwillow Raceway Park, Road America, Watkins Glen, many other tracks throughout North America. With more than 900 cars manufactured, it is the most successful purpose built road racing car in the United States. Spec Racer was first conceived as low-cost sports racing class by a director of the Sports Car Club of America, Ted Cronin, in the early 1980s; the car was developed and manufactured by Renault/Jeep Sport USA in Livonia, Michigan under direction of Vic Elford. The car, designed by Roy Lunn, was introduced into SCCA Club Racing in 1984 as "Sports Renault." After Renault bowed out of the program in 1989, the car was renamed "Spec Racer." The original Sports Renault/Spec Racer is now an SCCA Regional-only class and a few Renault powered cars still compete in National Auto Sport Association, Midwestern Council of Sports Cars Club and Independent Motorsports Group events.
By 1994, the supply of rebuildable 1.7-liter Renault engines was drying up in the United States. The SCCA made the decision to replace the original Renault drivetrain with a 1.9-liter engine and five-speed transmission manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. This change gave the SRF an additional 10 horsepower to 105 - enough to push the cars along at speeds up to 135 mph. Ford Motor Company started to provide a new drivetrain in 1994 and the cars with the Ford powertrain renamed "Spec Racer Ford." For a period of time, both Spec Racers and Spec Racer Ford both raced in the SCCA. Other more recent changes to what is now called "Spec Racer Ford" include the now-standard "tallman kit", an extension of the original rear roll hoop, Penske shock absorbers in addition to the original Konis, Butler Built driver seat, alloy wheels, rear wheel well cutouts, engine coolant recovery system, adjustable fuel pressure regulator, a safety modification to the brakes and an optional, smaller alternator. During the life of the car, there have been some incremental changes in various parts to increase durability.
Tires are Hoosier Racing Tire radials in both dry and rain tire versions manufactured for the SRF. The SRF still uses the original Renault brake calipers, outer CV joints, suspension knuckles. In early 2013, SCCA Enterprises announced a third generation Spec Racer Ford powered by a 1.6-liter 4-cylinder, 135 HP Ford engine fitted to the existing engine mounts and transmission. On-track testing by a fleet of test cars was conducted during 2013 and 2014 for a roll-out into SCCA competition in 2015; as of 2015, the new SRF3, GEN3 class is now racing alongside the previous GEN2 cars. The existing Ford 1.9-liter Spec Racer will continue to be eligible for SCCA Club Racing a separate National class until the end of 2017 after which it will remain competing in SCCA Club Racing as a Regional-only class. SRF3 cars race in SCCA Major and Regional events; the SRF rules dictate that no performance enhancing modifications other than suspension adjustments within described parameters can be made to the car.
This eliminates the never-ending need for design enhancements and associated large cash outlays necessary in other classes of racecars to remain competitive and puts the focus on driver skill, rather than financial and technical investment. Every Spec Racer Ford weighs the same using ballast that can accommodate drivers who weigh up to 260 pounds, uses the same engine, the same transmission, the same fiberglass body, the same chassis the same tires; the idea is that all of the cars are meant to have identical performance, so the only way to go faster is to be a better driver. The SRF's engine and shock absorbers are sealed with tamper-proof devices that make it impossible to modify these components undetected. In addition, many parts of the car, including suspension arms and sheet metal are marked for compliance checking with special holographic tamper-evident stickers bearing the Spec Racer Ford logo. SCCA Enterprises periodically deploys compliance officials to conduct surprise inspections of Spec Racer Fords at SCCA Major, SCCA Regional and SCCA Pro Racing events across the US.
Tube Frame Chassis Body: fiberglass, 3-section Suspension: front/rear rocker arm, coil-over shock/spring, lower "A" arm, dual externally adjustable anti-roll bars GEN2 SRF: Ford 1.9L fuel-injected, CVH water-cooled, SOHC 8-valve, hemispherical head, inline 4-cylinder and dynamometer tested and sealed by SCCA Enterprises GEN3 SRF3: Ford Sigma 1.6L, sequential fuel-injected, DOHC 16-valve, inline 4-cylinder by Ford Performance and dynamometer tested and sealed by SCCA Enterprises ECU: Ford Motorcraft on GEN2, modified for racing, sealed by SCCA Enterprises. New for GEN3 is Ltd.. PE3 sealed by SCCA Enterprises. Ford 5-speed manual transmission, sealed by SCCA Enterprises Continental Tire radial-ply spec tire and rain versions available. Custom exhaust, spec muffler required on GEN3 SRF3 Wheels: spec 13-inch alloy from Shelby, Weld or Pack. Can run spec stamped steel wheels. Brake Pads: Hawk Cockpit Adjustable Brake Bias H-Pattern gear shifter Dampers: Penske Racing or Koni -- single adjustable, rebound only—sealed by SCC
Pony car is an American car classification for affordable, compact styled coupés or convertibles with a sporty or performance-oriented image. Common characteristics include rear-wheel drive, a long hood, a short decklid, a wide range of options to individualize each car and use of mass-produced parts shared with other models; the popularity of pony cars is due to the launch of the Ford Mustang in 1964. Produced pony cars are the Chevrolet Camaro, Dodge Challenger and Ford Mustang. In the early 1960s, Plymouth and AMC began noticing the rising interest in small, sporty cars, the increasing importance of younger customers. In order to convince the management of Ford to approve a small, sporty car for production, the Budd Company built a prototype two-seat roadster called the XT-Bird; the XT-Bird was built using the compact car chassis of the Ford Falcon with a modified 1957 Ford Thunderbird body. Ford rejected the proposal, preferring to design a four-seat sporty car instead which would expand its sales volume.
The Budd Company approached American Motors Corporation with the Budd XR-400 prototype, based on the AMC Rambler with a shortened chassis and the body moved 16 in rearward to allow for a longer hood. The automaker's "management expressed interest in a new car with a sports flair" and work on the AMC Rambler Tarpon, a 2+2 coupe with an elongated fastback roof, began in early 1963. Examples of production cars that included sporty and youthful appeal were the 1960 Chevrolet Corvair. Positioned as an economy car, the Corvair's plusher-trimmed and sportier Monza model sold around 144,000 units by 1961; the Corvair Monza's bucket seats and floor-mounted transmission shifter started a trend towards these features being offered in cars ranging from compacts to full-size cars. Competing models inspired by the Corvair Monza included the Ford Falcon Futura and Futura Sprint models and the Rambler American 440-H and Rogue models. Most sporty compacts were powered by the same economical six-cylinder engines as their more mundane counterparts, but in some cases optional V8 engines were available, along with four-speed manual transmissions.
The first pony car to be released was the Plymouth Barracuda, which went on sale on April 1, 1964. The Barracuda was released as a fastback coupe, based on the platform of the Plymouth Valiant compact car. Chryslers's precarious financial situation meant that there was a limited development budget for the Barracuda, which led to a compromised design; the Barracuda was criticised for having insufficient distinction from the Valiant and the styling drew mixed reactions. As a result, Barracuda sales were a fraction of the Mustang's. At the Ford Motor Company, executive Lee Iacocca had comissioned marketing studies which suggested that if a unique-looking sporty car could be offered at an affordable price, it would find many buyers; therefore Ford continued development of a sporty 2+2 car based on the Ford Falcon platform, leading to the launch of the 1965 Ford Mustang on April 17, 1964. The Mustang was available as a two-door coupé and convertible, had a unique "long hood, short deck" appearance.
In its base specification, the drivetrain was typical of an economy car: a 170 cu in six-cylinder engine and three-speed manual transmission. Its attractive US$2,368 base price included bucket seats, floor shifter, sport steering wheel, full wheel covers. However, options such as V8 engines, a four-speed manual gearbox, air conditioning and power steering could increase the price by up to 60%, which made such cars profitable for Ford; the Mustang was an enormous success, with first year sales forecasts of 100,000 units being shattered on the first day, when Ford dealers took orders for 22,000 vehicles, forcing the company to shift production mid-year. The extended model year sales totaled 618,812 Mustangs; the Mustang broke all post-World War II automobile sales records, "creating the'pony car' craze soon adopted by competitors."The 1965 Mustang provided the template for the new class of automobiles. The term "pony car" to describe members of its ranks was coined by Car Life magazine editor Dennis Shattuck.
The characteristics of a pony car were defined as: A sporty compact car for the masses, which could carry four people Long hood, short deck profile, "open mouth" styling Affordable base price Wide range of options to individualize each car Manufactured using mass-produced parts shared with other models Youth-oriented marketing and advertisingMany pony cars were produced with economical six-cylinder or small V8 engines and although powerful engines and performance packages were offered, the majority were sold with six-cylinder engines or small V8 engines. The high-performance models saw limited sales and were limited to drag racing, road racing or motorsport homologation purposes. General Motors believed that the restyled 1965 Chevrolet Corvair would be an adequate challenger for the Mustang. However, when it became clear that the Corvair itself was doomed, the more conventional Chevrolet Camaro was introduced for the 1967 model year built on the new GM F-body platform and used a conventional front-engine layout.
A few months the Camaro-based Pontiac Firebird was introduced. The Mustang was redesigned for the 1967 model year, became the basis for the upscale Mercury Cougar on a longer wheelbase. American Motors introduced its first pony car in 1967 with the AMC Javelin, it was described as a "roomy, comfortable and handsome example of a so-called pony car, the type of automobile that's showing up more and more on US highways."In 1969, the Dodge Challenger joined the crowded pony car segment. The