The Philips Sport Vereniging, abbreviated as PSV and internationally known as PSV Eindhoven is a sports club from Eindhoven, Netherlands. It is best known for its football department, which plays in the Eredivisie. Along with Ajax and Feyenoord, PSV is one of the big three clubs that have dominated the Eredivisie. The club was founded in 1913 as a team for Philips employees, PSVs history contains two golden eras revolving around the UEFA Cup victory in 1978 and the 1987–88 European Cup victory as part of the seasonal treble in 1988. The team has won the Eredivisie 23 times, the KNVB Cup nine times, currently, PSV is 28th on the UEFA club coefficients ranking. Since its foundation, it has played in the Philips Stadion and has upheld its club colours and its elaborate connection with Philips can be witnessed in its sponsoring, shared technology and board member ties. Fans have named themselves boeren, taking pride in Eindhovens status of being a provincial city, to serve the need for activities with Philips employees, the company founded its own football team in 1910, the Philips Elftal.
Its ground was the Philips Sportpark, located on the location as the present day stadium. Financial turmoil and worker strikes led to a demise of the team and in 1913, its successor emerged, Philips Sport Vereniging. It was the day that Philips organized celebrations and sports competitions in light of the defeat of the French in the Napoleonic Wars. It was not until 1916, that the department switched its name from Philips Elftal to PSV. Because of World War I, the first possibility to enter a league was in the 1915–16 season, the clubs first ever match was a 3–2 defeat against Willem II Reserves on 19 September 1915. The team did achieve promotion that season to a newly created Third Division of the Brabantian FA, under the guidance of coach Wout Buitenweg, PSV were promoted in 1918 and 1921 as well, eventually reaching the Eerste Klasse. The team was relegated in 1925, but its stint in the Second Division only lasted one year when PSV were promoted again, since 1926, PSV has always played in the highest possible domestic league.
That year, defender Sjef van Run was brought in and a year Jan van den Broek joined PSV, behind the scenes, Frans Otten became chairman of the entire PSV sports union. He was responsible for bringing the club to a new level with new accommodations, after winning the district league in 1929, PSV entered the championship play-offs. In that competition, it won six out of eight matches, a 5–1 win against Velocitas from the city of Groningen meant that PSV was crowned league champions for the first time. In the following three years, PSV won the league every year, but it could not win the play-offs until 1935
Red Bull GmbH
Red Bull GmbH is a Austrian company which sells the Red Bull energy drink. The company is known for its sponsorship of a range of sporting events. In 2014, a total of 5.612 billion cans were sold in over 167 countries,10,410 employees generated €5.11 billion in revenue. The headquarters of Red Bull GmbH are located in Fuschl am See, Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz and Thai businessman Chaleo Yoovidhya founded Red Bull GmbH in 1984. While working for German manufacturer Blendax in 1982, Mateschitz traveled to Thailand and met Chaleo and he found that the energy drink Krating Daeng, developed by Chaleos company during the 1970s, helped to ease his jet lag. After seeing market potential in the drink, he partnered with Chaleo in bringing it to Europe, under their agreement, the partners invested $500,000 each into founding Red Bull GmbH. In return, they would receive a 49% stake in the company. They agreed that Mateschitz would run the company, between 1984 and 1987, Red Bull GmbH modified the formula for Krating Daeng to better match European tastes by carbonating the beverage and making it less sweet.
In 1987, the company introduced their adapted energy drink into Austria under the name Red Bull and it found huge success there by marketing to young professionals. The brand expanded throughout Europe during the early 1990s, exploding into the United States market during 1997, the wealth of Red Bulls founders grew with the companys success, and by March 2012, both Chaleo and Mateschitz had estimated net worths of over $5.3 billion each. Today, Red Bull GmbH operates in 167 countries and employs over 10,000 people and its signature product, Red Bull, remains the worlds most-consumed energy drink with 5.2 billion cans sold in 2012. The Red Bull company distributes and markets a number of drinks including Simply Cola, the Carpe Diem range of herbal soft beverages. In 2010 the company won a legal battle with The Bulldog. The Bulldog was ordered to cease the sale and distribution of its own brand of energy drink, Red Bull distributed free cases of the drink to college students in an attempt at viral advertising.
This strategy was successful, resulting in the rapid proliferation of sales. Red Bull has since become known for its sleek marketing targeted at young urban professionals through various sports, the current mottoes, Red Bull Gives You Wings, and No Red Bull, No Wings are direct plays on the apparent stimulating properties of the beverage. In the 1990s, Red Bull sponsored the rower Xeno Müller, the team previously sponsored the Sauber and Arrows Formula One teams, the Red Bull Cheever Racing Team in the IRL, and from 2007 to 2011 Team Red Bull competed in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series. Also Red Bull is now sponsoring the Cyberathlete Professional League and its own air racing event called the Red Bull Air Race World Championship, the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge, a competition for driverless cars, was won by a student team from Stanford
Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of exercises requiring balance, flexibility, agility and control. The movements involved in gymnastics contribute to the development of the arms, shoulders, alertness, daring, self-confidence and self-discipline are mental traits that can be developed through gymnastics. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, most forms of competitive gymnastics events are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique. Each country has its own governing body affiliated to FIG. Competitive artistic gymnastics is the best known of the gymnastic events and it typically involves the womens events of vault, uneven bars, balance beam and floor exercise. Mens events are floor exercise, pommel horse, still rings, parallel bars, other FIG disciplines include rhythmic gymnastics and tumbling, acrobatic gymnastics and aerobic gymnastics. Disciplines not currently recognized by FIG include wheel gymnastics, aesthetic group gymnastics, mens rhythmic gymnastics and TeamGym.
The word gymnastics derives from the common Greek adjective Greek, by way of the related verb γυμνάζω, whose meaning is to train naked, train in gymnastic exercise, generally to train, the verb had this meaning, because athletes in ancient times exercised and competed without clothing. It came into use in the 1570s, from Latin gymnasticus, from Greek gymnastikos fond of or skilled in bodily exercise, Gymnastics originated in ancient Spain and was originally intended for military training, where it was used by soldiers to prepare for warfare. Don Francisco Amorós y Ondeano, was born on February 19,1770 in Valencia and he was a Spanish colonel, and the first person to introduce educative gymnastic in France. Jahn promoted the use of bars and high bars in international competition. The Federation of International Gymnastics was founded in Liege in 1881, by the end of the nineteenth century, mens gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896.
During the 1920s, women organized and participated in gymnastics events, the first womens Olympic competition was primitive, only involving synchronized calisthenics and track and field. These games were held in 1928, in Amsterdam, by 1954, Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, and uniform grading structures had been agreed upon. At this time, Soviet gymnasts astounded the world with highly disciplined and difficult performances, television has helped publicize and initiate a modern age of gymnastics. Both mens and womens gymnastics now attract considerable international interest, in 2006, a new points system for Artistic gymnastics was put into play. With an A Score being the difficulty score, which as of 2009 is based on the top 8 high scoring elements in a routine, the B Score, is the score for execution, and is given for how well the skills are performed. The following disciplines are governed by FIG, Artistic Gymnastics is usually divided into Mens and Womens Gymnastics
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat.
An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama
Real Betis Balompié, SAD, more commonly referred to as Real Betis or just Betis, is a Spanish football club based in Sevilla, in the autonomous community of Andalusia. Founded on 12 September 1907, it plays in La Liga and it holds home games at Estadio Benito Villamarín in the south of the city. Real Betis won the title in 1935 and the Copa del Rey in 1977 and 2005. Given the clubs history and many relegations, its motto is Viva el Betis manque pierda. The name Betis is derived from Baetis, the Roman name for the Guadalquivir river which passes through Sevilla, Real was added in 1914 after the club received patronage from King Alfonso XIII. Betis city rivals Sevilla FC were the first club in Sevilla, founded in October 1905, while a second club, Balompié translates literally as football, as opposed to the most commonly adopted anglicised version, fútbol. Following an internal split from Sevilla FC, another club was formed, in 1914, they merged with Sevilla Balompié. The club received its royal patronage in the year.
The club reached the Copa del Presidente de la República final for the first time on 21 June 1931, under the guidance of Irish coach Patrick OConnell on 28 April 1935 Betis won the La Liga, to date their only top division title. They topped the table by a point over Madrid FC. A year Betis went down to seventh, despite a brief return to the top division which lasted only one season, the club continued to decline and in 1947 the worst fears were reached when they were relegated to Tercera División. Many fans see the ten years spent in the category as key to the identity. During this time, Betis earned a reputation for filling its stadium and having a support at away matches. When the side returned to the level in 1954, it gained the distinction of being the only club in Spain to have won all three major divisions titles. Much of the credit for guiding Betis through this dark period, in 1955, Manuel Ruiz Rodríguez stepped down from running the club believing he could not offer further economic growth, he was replaced by Betis most famous former president, Benito Villamarín.
During his reign Betis returned to the top division in 1958–59 and his purchase of the Estadio Heliópolis in 1961 is seen as a key point in the history of the club – the grounds were called the Estadio Benito Villamarín until 1997. In 1965, Villamarín stepped down from his position ten years at the helm of the club. Just one year after Villamaríns departure, the club would again be relegated to two and falling almost consecutively until consolidating their place in the top level in 1974–75
Bayer 04 Leverkusen
Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fußball GmbH, known as Bayer 04 Leverkusen, Bayer Leverkusen, Leverkusen or simply Bayer, is a German football club based in Leverkusen, North Rhine-Westphalia. The club plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system, the club was founded in 1904 by employees of the German pharmaceutical company Bayer, whose headquarters are in Leverkusen and from which the club draws its name. In 1999 the football department was separated from the club and is now a separate entity formally called Bayer 04 Leverkusen GmbH. Bayer Leverkusen have won one DFB-Pokal and one UEFA Cup, on 27 November 1903, Wilhelm Hauschild wrote a letter – signed by 170 of his fellow workers – to his employer, the Friedrich Bayer and Co. seeking the companys support in starting a sports club. The company agreed to support the initiative, and on 1 July 1904 Turn- und Spielverein Bayer 04 Leverkusen was founded, on 31 May 1907, a separate football department was formed within the club.
In the culture of sports in Germany at the time, there was significant animosity between gymnasts and other types of athletes, SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen took with them the clubs traditional colours of red and black, with the gymnasts adopting blue and yellow. Through this period, and into the 1930s, SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen played third, in 1936, they earned promotion to the second highest class of play of the period. That was the year that the club wore the familiar Bayer cross for the first time and they made their first appearance in upper league play in 1951, in the Oberliga West and played there until 1956, after which they were relegated. SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen would not return to the leagues until 1962, just one season before the formation of Germanys new professional league. The next year saw the club in the Regionalliga West, tier II, SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen made something of a breakthrough in 1968 by winning the division title, but was unable to advance through the playoff round to the first division.
The club was relegated again in 1973, but made a return to what was now called the 2. Bundesliga after just one season spent in the third division, four years later, the club handily secured a place in the Bundesliga to start to play there in the 1979–80 season. By the mid-1980s, SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen had played its way into the half of the league table and was well-established there by the end of the decade. It was during time, in 1984, that the two-halves of the club that had parted ways over a half century earlier were re-united as TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen e. V. The new club took red and white as its colours, in addition to becoming an established Bundesliga side, the club earned its first honours with a dramatic win in the 1988 UEFA Cup. Down 0–3 to Espanyol after the first leg of the final, Bayer Leverkusen drew even in the match and captured the title on penalty kicks. That same year, long-time Bayer Leverkusen executive Reiner Calmund became the manager of the club. This is regarded as one of the most important moves in the history, as Calmund ushered in a decade
Airsoft is a sport in which participants eliminate opponents by hitting each other with spherical non-metallic pellets launched via replica weapons called airsoft guns. Airsoft is commonly compared to paintball, with key differences being, Unlike paintballs, airsoft pellets do not mark their target. Airsoft pellets may leave red marks or welts to their target however rare that might be. The sport heavily relies on a system in which it is the ethical duty of the person who has been hit to call themselves out regardless of whether or not anyone saw it happen. Most airsoft guns are magazine-fed with some, especially pistols, having co2 canisters and this makes them more popular especially for military simulation and historical reenactments. For casual players airsoft is cheaper to try than paintball, with manual-cocking pistols costing as little as $5 a piece. Gameplay varies in style and composition but often range from short-term skirmishes, organized scenarios, military simulations or historical reenactments.
They are played in some courses, and outdoor. Combat situations on the battlefield may involve the use of tactics to achieve objectives set in each game. Participants may attempt to emulate the tactical equipment and accessories used by modern military, a game is normally kept safe by a trained professional and the weapons are usually powered by gas or various types of batteries. A guns power is checked through a chronograph and usually measured in feet per second, the airsoft gun originated from Japan in the early 1970s. The name Soft-Air referred to the gas used as a propellant. Originally designed for shooting, their bullets could hit humans without injury. Airsoft guns spread to the UK in the late 1980s and early 1990s with a company called LS, the guns were sold in pieces and had to be assembled before they were capable of firing pellets. Airsoft equipment was designed to emulate real guns. Since the mid-1980s, airsoft guns have been adapted with a recreational application in mind. Airsoft replicas are produced globally, with the majority being manufactured in Asia, many law enforcement agencies and military units within the US use Airsoft for force-on-force training drills.
On impact, the pain an airsoft pellet causes is directly related with the energy it has
A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or paddling pool is a structure designed to hold water to enable swimming or other leisure activities. Pools can be built into the ground or built above ground, many health clubs, fitness centers and private clubs, such as the YMCA, have pools used mostly for exercise or recreation. Many towns and cities provide public pools, many hotels have pools available for their guests to use at their leisure. Educational facilities such as universities typically have pools for physical education classes, recreational activities, hot tubs and spas are pools filled with hot water, used for relaxation or hydrotherapy, and are common in homes and health clubs. Special swimming pools are used for diving, specialized water sports, physical therapy as well as for the training of lifeguards. Swimming pools may be heated or unheated, the Great Bath at the site of Mohenjo-Daro in modern-day Pakistan was most likely the first swimming pool, dug during the 3rd millennium BC.
This pool is 12 by 7 metres, is lined with bricks, ancient Greeks and Romans built artificial pools for athletic training in the palaestras, for nautical games and for military exercises. Roman emperors had private swimming pools in which fish were kept, the first heated swimming pool was built by Gaius Maecenas of Rome in the 1st century BC. Gaius Maecenas was a rich Roman lord and considered one of the first patrons of arts, ancient Sinhalese built pairs of pools called Kuttam Pokuna in the kingdom of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka in the 4th century BC. They were decorated with flights of steps, punkalas or pots of abundance, Swimming pools became popular in Britain in the mid-19th century. As early as 1837, six indoor pools with diving boards existed in London, the Maidstone Swimming Club in Maidstone, Kent is believed to be the oldest surviving swimming club in Britain. It was formed in 1844, in response to concerns over drownings in the River Medway, the club used to swim in the River Medway, and would hold races, diving competitions and water polo matches.
The South East Gazette July 1844 reported an aquatic breakfast party, the coffee was kept hot over a fire, club members had to tread water and drink coffee at the same time. The last swimmers managed to overturn the raft, to the amusement of 150 spectators, the Amateur Swimming Association was founded in 1869 in England, and the Oxford Swimming Club in 1909. The presence of indoor baths in the area of Merton Street might have persuaded the less hardy of the aquatic brigade to join. So, bathers gradually became swimmers, and bathing pools became swimming pools, in 1939, Oxford created its first major public indoor pool at Temple Cowley. The modern Olympic Games started in 1896 and included swimming races, in the US, the Racquet Club of Philadelphia clubhouse boasts one of the worlds first modern above-ground swimming pools. The first swimming pool to go to sea on an ocean liner was installed on the White Star Lines Adriatic in 1907, the oldest known public swimming pool in America, Underwood Pool, is located in Belmont, Massachusetts
Track and field
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running and throwing. The name is derived from the sports venue, a stadium with an oval running track enclosing a grass field where the throwing and jumping events take place. Track and field is categorised under the sport of athletics, which includes road running, cross country running. The foot racing events, which include sprints, middle- and long-distance events, the jumping and throwing events are won by the athlete who achieves the greatest distance or height. Regular jumping events include long jump, triple jump, high jump and pole vault, while the most common throwing events are shot put, javelin and hammer. There are combined events or multi events, such as the pentathlon consisting of five events, heptathlon consisting of seven events, in these, athletes participate in a combination of track and field events. Most track and field events are individual sports with a victor, the most prominent team events are relay races.
Events are almost exclusively divided by gender, although both the mens and womens competitions are held at the same venue. It is one of the oldest sports, in ancient times, it was an event held in conjunction with festivals and sports meets such as the Ancient Olympic Games in Greece. The ancient Olympic Games began in the year 776 BC, when Koroibos, a cook from the city of Elis, won the stadium race. According to some traditions, this was the only athletic event of the games for the first 13 Olympic festivals. In modern times, the two most prestigious track and field competitions are athletics competition at the Olympic Games and the IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The International Association of Athletics Federations is the governing body. Records are kept of the best performances in specific events, at world and national levels, however, if athletes are deemed to have violated the events rules or regulations, they are disqualified from the competition and their marks are erased. In North America, the track and field may be used to refer to other athletics events, such as the marathon.
The sport of track and field has its roots in human prehistory and field-style events are among the oldest of all sporting competitions, as running and throwing are natural and universal forms of human physical expression. The first recorded examples of organized track and field events at a festival are the Ancient Olympic Games. At the first Games in 776 BC in Olympia, only one event was contested and field events were present at the Panhellenic Games in Greece around this period, and they spread to Rome in Italy around 200 BC
Cycling, called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, exercise or sport. Persons engaged in cycling are referred to as cyclists, bikers, or less commonly, apart from two-wheeled bicycles, cycling includes the riding of unicycles, quadracycles and similar human-powered vehicles. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now approximately one billion worldwide. They are the means of transportation in many parts of the world. Cycling is widely regarded as an effective and efficient mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Cycling offers a reduced consumption of fuels, less air or noise pollution. These lead to financial cost to the user as well as to society at large. By fitting bicycle racks on the front of buses, transit agencies can significantly increase the areas they can serve, in many countries, the most commonly used vehicle for road transport is a utility bicycle. These have frames with relaxed geometry, protecting the rider from shocks of the road, utility bicycles tend to be equipped with accessories such as mudguards, pannier racks and lights, which extends their usefulness on a daily basis.
As the bicycle is so effective as a means of various companies have developed methods of carrying anything from the weekly shop to children on bicycles. Certain countries rely heavily on bicycles and their culture has developed around the bicycle as a form of transport. In Europe and the Netherlands have the most bicycles per capita, road bikes tend to have a more upright shape and a shorter wheelbase, which make the bike more mobile but harder to ride slowly. The design, coupled with low or dropped handlebars, requires the rider to bend forward more, making use of stronger muscles, the price of a new bicycle can range from US$50 to more than US$20,000, depending on quality and weight. However, UCI regulations stipulate a legal race bike cannot weigh less than 6.8 kg, being measured for a bike and taking it for a test ride are recommended before buying. The drivetrain components of the bike should be considered, a middle grade dérailleur is sufficient for a beginner, although many utility bikes are equipped with hub gears.
If the rider plans a significant amount of hillclimbing a triple-chainrings crankset gear system may be preferred, the relatively lighter and less expensive double chainring may be better. Much simpler fixed wheel bikes are available, many road bikes, along with mountain bikes, include clipless pedals to which special shoes attach, via a cleat, enabling the rider to pull on the pedals as well as push. For basic maintenance and repairs cyclists can carry a pump, a repair kit, a spare inner tube, and tire levers
A stock exchange or bourse is an exchange where stock brokers and traders can buy and/or sell stocks and other securities. Stock exchanges may provide facilities for issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments, Securities traded on a stock exchange include stock issued by listed companies, unit trusts, pooled investment products and bonds. Stock exchanges often function as continuous auction markets, with buyers and sellers consummating transactions at a central location, to be able to trade a security on a certain stock exchange, it must be listed there. Trade on an exchange is restricted to brokers who are members of the exchange, the initial public offering of stocks and bonds to investors is by definition done in the primary market and subsequent trading is done in the secondary market. A stock exchange is often the most important component of a stock market and demand in stock markets are driven by various factors that, as in all free markets, affect the price of stocks.
There is usually no obligation for stock to be issued via the exchange itself. Such trading may be off exchange or over-the-counter and this is the usual way that derivatives and bonds are traded. Increasingly, stock exchanges are part of a securities market. The idea of debt dates back to the ancient world, as evidenced for example by ancient Mesopotamian clay tablets recording interest-bearing loans, there is little consensus among scholars as to when corporate stock was first traded. Some see the key event as the Dutch East India Companys founding in 1602, economist Ulrike Malmendier of the University of California at Berkeley argues that a share market existed as far back as ancient Rome. One such service was the feeding of geese on the Capitoline Hill as a reward to the birds after their honking warned of a Gallic invasion in 390 B. C. Participants in such organizations had partes or shares, a concept mentioned various times by the statesman, in one speech, Cicero mentions shares that had a very high price at the time.
Such evidence, in Malmendiers view, suggests the instruments were tradable, the societas declined into obscurity in the time of the emperors, as most of their services were taken over by direct agents of the state. Tradable bonds as a used type of security were a more recent innovation, spearheaded by the Italian city-states of the late medieval. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully fledged capital market, the Dutch East India Company became the first company to offer shares of stock. Control of the company was held tightly by its directors, with shareholders not having much influence on management or even access to the companys accounting statements. However, shareholders were rewarded well for their investment, the company paid an average dividend of over 16 percent per year from 1602 to 1650. Financial innovation in Amsterdam took many forms, by the 1620s, the company was expanding its securities issuance with the first use of corporate bonds
Società Sportiva Lazio, commonly referred to as Lazio, is a professional Italian sports club based in Rome, most known for its football activity. The society, founded in 1900, play in the Serie A and have spent most of their history in the top tier of Italian football. Lazio have been Italian champions twice, and have won the Coppa Italia six times, the club had their first major success in 1958, winning the domestic cup. In 1974, they won their first Serie A title, Lazios traditional kit colours are sky blue shirts and white shorts with white socks, the colours are reminiscent of Romes ancient Hellenic legacy. Sky blue socks have been used as home colours. Their home is the 70,634 capacity Stadio Olimpico in Rome, Roma until the year 2018, when the latter will leave for the Stadio della Roma. Lazio have a rivalry with Roma, with whom they have contested the Derby della Capitale since 1929. Lazio is a club that participate in 40 sports disciplines in total. Società Podistica Lazio was founded on 9 January 1900 in the Prati district of Rome, in 1927, Lazio was the only major Roman club which resisted the Fascist regimes attempts to merge all the citys teams into what would become A. S.
The club played in the first organised Serie A in 1929 and, led by legendary Italian striker Silvio Piola, the 1950s produced a mix of mid and upper table results with a Coppa Italia win in 1958. Lazio was relegated for the first time in 1961 to the Serie B, after a number of mid-table placements, another relegation followed in 1970–71. Lazio improved such successes the following season, ensuring its first title in 1973–74, tragic deaths of Re Cecconi and Scudetto trainer Maestrelli, as well as the departure of Chinaglia, would be a triple blow for Lazio. The emergence of Bruno Giordano during this period provided some relief as he finished League top scorer in 1979, Lazio were forcibly relegated to Serie B in 1980 due to a remarkable scandal concerning illegal bets on their own matches, along with Milan. They remained in Italys second division for three seasons in what would mark the darkest period in Lazios history and they would return in 1983 and manage a last-day escape from relegation the following season.
The 1984–85 season would prove harrowing, with a pitiful 15 points, in 1986, Lazio was hit with a nine-point deduction for a betting scandal involving player Claudio Vinazzani. The arrival of Sergio Cragnotti in 1992 changed the clubs due to his long-term investments in new players to make the team a Scudetto competitor. A notable early transfer during his tenure was the capture of English midfielder Paul Gascoigne from Tottenham Hotspur for £5.5 million, gascoignes transfer to Lazio is credited with the increase of interest in Serie A in the United Kingdom during the 1990s. Lazio had two more Coppa Italia triumphs in 1998 and 2004, as well as the last ever UEFA Cup Winners Cup in 1999 and they reached the UEFA Cup, but lost 0–3 against Internazionale