Formula Atlantic is a specification of open wheel racing car developed in the 1970s. It was used in professional racing through the IMSA Atlantic Championship until 2009 and is primarily used in amateur racing through Sports Car Club of America Formula Atlantic; the history of Formula Atlantic begins with the SCCA Formula B class, created in 1965 for single-seat formula cars with engines not exceeding 1600cc in capacity. Prior to Formula Atlantic, professional Formula B races were held in the United States from 1965 to 1972, firstly with the SCCA's poorly supported Formula A as part of the SCCA Grand Prix Championship in 1967 and 1968 and in their own independent series from 1969 to 1972. Formula Atlantic as a class evolved in the United Kingdom in 1971 from the US Formula B rules, with 1600cc production-based twin-cam engines. Conceived by John Webb of Brands Hatch as a category for national competitors with the performance near a Formula Two car but running costs at or below that of a contemporary Formula Three car.
A single Yellow Pages championship ran in 1971-2, with a rival BP backed series appearing in 1973. 1974 saw the BP series changing sponsor to John Player, the Yellow Pages series becoming backed by John Webb's MCD organisation and Southern Organs. Only one series ran in 1975-6, in the final year taking the title'Indylantic and adopting Indianapolis-style single-car qualifying, but the formula was under threat from Formula 3 and no series ran in 1977-78. A BRSCC-organized club racing series returned in 1979 with initial backing from Hitachi and continued to 1983, with diminishing grids and few new cars appearing; as a result of its similarity to Formula 2 and Formula 3 in terms of chassis regulations, Formula Atlantic used chassis related to these cars—with performance somewhere in between the two—so most of the manufacturers were familiar from those classes the likes of Brabham, March, Chevron early on, with Ralt and Reynard later. US manufacturer Swift came to dominate in North America. Several smaller marques appeared.
The first professional races run under Formula Atlantic rules in North America were conducted in 1974 by the CASC in Canada, drawing much attention and large fields due to its national CTV television coverage. IMSA in the United States took advantage of the large number of teams and organized their own series in 1976. During these years, the series attracted guest drivers from Europe, including Formula One at the Trois-Rivières street race in Quebec, Canada. Guest drivers included James Hunt, Jean-Pierre Jarier, Riccardo Patrese, Patrick Depailler, Jacques Laffite, Didier Pironi and Vittorio Brambilla. In 1977, the SCCA sanctioned the US events and in 1978 the CASC and SCCA series merged, conducted the series jointly until 1983, when it ran as the Formula Mondial North American Cup and was won by Michael Andretti; the series could not sustain the success of earlier seasons and was cancelled for 1984. Formula Mondial was an international category introduced by the FIA in 1983 with the intention of replacing both Formula Atlantic and Formula Pacific, the latter being a variant of Formula Atlantic, introduced in a number of Pacific Basin countries in the late 1970s.
SCCA Formula Atlantic cars are allowed wings and ground effects. They use either the Toyota 4AGE engine or the Cosworth BDD. Cars meeting Super Vee specifications were allowed but are now seen. Prior to 2006 these rules were largely used in the professional series except that all cars had to run a Fuel Injected 4AGE; this meant that competitive amateur teams could participate in professional races and that old pro series equipment could be raced at the amateur level. However, in 2006 the pro series introduced a spec chassis, the Swift Engineering 016.a and a new spec engine, the Mazda-Cosworth MZR. The result was that the cars used in the pro series were drastically different than the amateur cars. In 2009, to shore up small race fields, the pro series introduced a "C2 class" for amateur level cars the Swift 014.a, the dominant chassis in amateur competition at the time. However the C2 class was abandoned in the middle of the season. Since 2011 SCCA Club Racing has allowed the Swift 016.a and Mazda-Cosworth MZR, albeit with an inlet restrictor to maintain parity with the older Toyota-powered cars.
As of 2017 most nationals competitors were running the 016.a-Mazda combination. Eligible for the class are Mazda rotary powered cars made for the Pro Mazda Championship. In 2018 the professional series will switch to a new car and all of the rotary cars will be available for club racing use, although they appear to not be competitive with cars built to the FA specification older ones. Additionally, in 2019 the SCCA will allowed sealed Mazda MZR engines to be used in older chassis, such as the Swift 014.a, as parts availability for the Toyota engines has become an issue. The minimum weight of a Toyota or BDD powered Atlantic car is 1230 lbs. with driver. The SCCA considers it its fastest club racing class. Prior to gaining its own class, the Formula SCCA car raced in Formula Atlantic, where it was uncompetitive. With the end of the IMSA and Champ Car sanctioned professional Atlantic Championship after the 2009 season, the promoters of the F2000 Championship Series, Formula Race Productions, promoted a new pro series in 2012 using SCCA rules and sanctioned by the SCCA.
The series saw few entrants and folded af
Formula 5000 was an open wheel, single seater auto-racing formula that ran in different series in various regions around the world from 1968 to 1982. It was intended as a low-cost series aimed at open-wheel racing cars that no longer fit into any particular formula. The'5000' denomination comes from the maximum 5.0 litre engine capacity allowed in the cars, although many cars ran with smaller engines. Manufacturers included McLaren, March, Lotus, Elfin and Chevron. In its declining years in North America Formula 5000 was modified into a closed wheel, but still single-seat sports car racing category. Formula 5000 was introduced in 1968 as a class within SCCA Formula A races, a series where single seaters from different origins were allowed to compete, but which came to be dominated by the cars equipped with production-based American V8s; the engines used were 5 litre, fuel injected Chevrolet engines with about 500 horsepower at 8000 rpm, although other makes were used. The concept was inspired by the success of the Can-Am Series, which featured unlimited formula sports cars fitted with powerful engines derived from American V8s.
F5000 enjoyed popularity in the early 1970s in the U. S. and featured drivers such as Mario Andretti, Al Unser, Bobby Unser, James Hunt, Jody Scheckter, Brian Redman, David Hobbs, Tony Adamowicz, Sam Posey, Ian Ashley, John Cannon and Eppie Wietzes. Increasing costs and Lola domination meant the formula lost its appeal after 1975. Older cars continued to be used in the SCCA national races, but the most competitive teams reconverted their cars with sports car bodyworks, in the resurrected Can-Am championship, starting in 1977; the formula worked with a number of European drivers crossing the Atlantic to attend the SCCA-run championship, but when IMSA introduced the new GTP prototype regulations for the IMSA GT Championship in 1981, the old F5000 were now clumsy and slow compared to the new cars. In the UK, the arrival of the Cosworth DFV engine meant that many teams could now afford to build their own chassis around a good engine/transmission package, so Cooper and Brabham stopped the production of customer Formula 1 cars.
Smaller privateer teams and drivers that entered Britain's non-championship F1 events were left behind, the RAC adopted the American F5000 regulations. A European championship was first run in 1969 as the Guards Formula 5000 Championship; this was renamed to Guards European Formula 5000 Championship in 1970, to Rothmans European Formula 5000 Championship in 1971 and to ShellSport European Formula 5000 Championship in 1975. Unlike the American series, the European championship didn't attract many star names from Formula 1 and sports cars, was dominated by drivers that were seen in Formula 2 or at the back of F1's World Championship grids. Peter Gethin managed to launch his F1 career thanks to his F5000 championship titles. While it was based in the United Kingdom, the series managed to spread across Europe, with races held at many international circuits, including Monza and Zandvoort, attracted a significant number of continental drivers; the weak pound and the increasing cost of importing Chevrolet V8 engines caused some concern and engine regulations for European F5000 were revised to permit engines other than the 5.0 litre pushrod V8s - the DOHC Cosworth GA V6 (based on a unit used in Group 2 Capris was permitted to race at a capacity of 3500cc.
March 75A and Chevron B30 cars were successful with the V6, the March in particular being little more than a 751 Formula One car with minor modifications for the new engine. However, the same problem that befell US F5000 happened in Europe, in 1976 the European F5000 Championship evolved into the Shellsport Group 8 Championship; this was a British-based series for Formula 1, Formula 2, Formula 5000 and Formula Atlantic cars, forming the basis of what would become the Aurora F1 Championship in 1978. The F1 Championship was open to Formula 1 and Formula 2 cars only, with Formula 5000 cars no longer eligible. Older F5000 cars continued to be used in the British Sprint Championship and were common in Formula Libre races well into the 1980s. In Australia and New Zealand, the Tasman Formula, defining cars eligible for the annual Tasman Series, was extended in 1970 to include Formula 5000 cars as well as the existing 2.5 litre cars. The Tasman Series ran during the Formula One off season in the European winter, in the 1960s it had attracted the attention of the greatest names in Grand Prix racing, from locals Jack Brabham, Denny Hulme, Bruce McLaren and Chris Amon, to foreigners like Graham Hill, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, Phil Hill, Piers Courage and Jochen Rindt.
However, by the 1970s Formula One had become more commercial and the Grand Prix stars no longer took part. The Tasman Series had become a competitive Australian/New Zealand local championship leaving the field to be dominated by the cream of "Down Under" drivers such as Frank Matich, Frank Gardner, Kevin Bartlett, Vern Schuppan, Graeme McRae, Graeme Lawrence, Warwick Brown, Johnnie Walker, John McCormack, Alan Jones, John Goss, Larry Perkins, John Bowe and Garrie Cooper racing against European and American drivers such as David Hobbs, Teddy Pilette, Mike Hailwood, Sam Posey, Richard Attwood and Peter Gethin; the four Australian Formula 5000 Tasman races continued as the Rothmans International Series from 1976 until 1979. Formula 5000 was the main component of Australian Formula 1 from 1971 to 1981 and this formula was the primary category contesting the Australian Drivers' Championship during those years a
A grand tourer is a car, designed for high speed and long-distance driving, due to a combination of performance and luxury attributes. The most common format is a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement; the term derives from the Italian language phrase gran turismo which became popular in the English language from the 1950s, evolving from fast touring cars and streamlined closed sports cars during the 1930s. The grand touring car concept originated in Europe in the early 1950s with the 1951 introduction of the Lancia Aurelia B20 GT, features notable luminaries of Italian automotive history such as Vittorio Jano, Enzo Ferrari and Johnny Lurani. Motorsports became important in the evolution of the grand touring concept, grand touring entries are important in endurance sports-car racing; the grand touring definition implies material differences in performance, speed and amenities between elite automobiles and those of ordinary motorists. In the post-war United States, manufacturers were less inclined to adopt the "ethos of the GT car", preferring to build automobiles "suited to their long, smooth roads and labor-saving lifestyles" with wide availability of powerful straight-six and V8 engines in all price-ranges of automobile.
Despite this, the United States, enjoying early post-war economic expansion, became the largest market for European grand-touring cars, supplying transportation for movie stars and the jet set. Classic grand-touring cars from the post-war era have since become valuable automobiles among wealthy collectors. Within ten years, grand touring cars found success penetrating the new American personal luxury car market; the terms "grand tourer", "grand turismo", "grande routière", "GT" are among the most misused terms in motoring. The grand touring designation "means motoring at speed, in style and comfort." "Purists define "gran turismo" as the enjoyment and comfort of open-road touring."According to one author, "the ideal is of a car with the ability to cross a continent at speed and in comfort yet provide driving thrills when demanded" and it should exhibit the following: The engines "should be able to cope with cruising comfortably at the upper limits on all continental roads without drawbacks or loss of usable power."
"Ideally, the GT car should have been devised by its progenitors as a Grand Tourer, with all associated considerations in mind." "It should be able to transport at least two in comfort with their luggage and have room to spare — in the form of a two plus two seating arrangement." The design, both "inside and out, should be geared toward complete control by the driver." Its "chassis and suspension provide suitable roadholding on all routes" during travels. Grand tourers emphasize comfort and handling over straight-out high performance or ascetic, spartan accommodations. In comparison, sports cars are more "crude" compared to "sophisticated Grand Touring machinery." However, the popularity of using GT for marketing purposes has meant that it has become a "much misused term signifying no more than a tuned version of a family car with trendy wheels and a go-faster stripe on the side."Historically, most GTs have been front-engined with rear-wheel drive, which creates more space for the cabin than mid-mounted engine layouts.
Softer suspensions, greater storage, more luxurious appointments add to their driving appeal. The GT abbreviation— and variations thereof— are used as model names. However, some cars with GT in the model name are not Grand Touring cars. Among the many variations of GT are: GTA: "Gran Turismo Alleggerita"- the Italian word for lightweight. "GTAm" indicates a modified version. GTA is sometimes used for automatic transmission models. GTB: "Gran Turismo Berlinetta" GTC: Various uses including "Gran Turismo Compressore" for supercharged engines, "Gran Turismo Cabriolet, "Gran Turismo Compact", "Gran Turismo Crossover" and "Gran Turismo Corsa"- the Italian word for "racing". GTD: Gran Turismo Diesel GT/E:"Gran Turismo Einspritzung"- the German word for fuel injection GTE: "Grand Touring Estate" GTi or GTI: "Grand Touring Injection used for hot hatches following the introduction of the Volkswagen Golf GTi GTO: "Gran Turismo Omologata"- the Italian word for homologation GTR or GT-R: "Gran Turismo Racing" GTS: sometimes "Gran Turismo Spider" for convertible models.
However, GTS has been used for sedans and other body styles. GT-T: "Gran Turismo Turbo" GTV: Gran Turismo Veloce"- the Italian word for "fast" GTX: "Grand Tourisme Xtreme" HGT: "High Gran Turismo" Several past and present motor racing series have used "GT" in their name; these include: LM GTE 1999-present: A set of regulations for modified road cars, used for the 24 Hours of Le Mans race and several related racing series. LM GTE was called'GT class' and was known as GT2 class from 2005-2010. FIA GT Series 2013-present: A racing series for Group GT3 cars; the FIA GT Series replaced the FIA GT1 World Championship. GT4 European Series 2007-present: A European amateur racing series with the least powerful class of GT cars. IMSA GT3 Cup Challenge 2005-present: A North American racing series for Porsche 911 GT3 Cup cars. FIA GT3 European Championship 2006-2012: A European amateur racing series for Group GT3 cars. There have been several classes of racing cars called GT; the Group GT3 regulations for modified road cars have been used for various racing series worldwide since 2006.
IMSA GT Championship
IMSA GT was a sports car racing series organized by International Motor Sports Association. Races took place in the United States, in Canada; the series was founded in 1969 by John and Peggy Bishop, Bill France, Sr. Racing began in 1971, was aimed at two of FIA's stock car categories, running two classes each; the first race was held at Virginia International Raceway. For the following year, John Bishop brought in sponsor R. J. Reynolds, in 1975 introduced a new category: All American Grand Touring. In 1977, the series went through a series of major changes. IMSA permitted turbocharged cars to compete for the first time, as well as introducing a new category: GTX, based on Group 5 rules. In 1981, after Bishop decided to not follow FIA's newly introduced Group C rules, he introduced the GTP class for sports prototypes. In 1989, Bishop sold off his organization. After a period of decline in the early 1990s, the sports car category was introduced in 1993 to replace the GTP category in 1994. After a period of multiple ownerships, the organization was renamed Professional Sports Car Racing.
In 1999, PSCR decided to drop their own championship series in order to sanction a new series: the American Le Mans Series. Despite having various official names, the GT series was known as the "IMSA series", as it had been the organization's dominant series; the 1971 season was the first racing season, lasted six races. The early years of the series featured GT cars, similar to the European Group 2 and Group 4 classes, divided into four groups: GTO - Grand touring-type cars with engines of 2.5L displacement or more, the letter O meaning "over 2.5L". The GTO class was dominated by Corvettes by Shelby Mustangs, various factory teams consisting of Cougars, 280zxs, Celicas and 300ZXs. GTU - Grand touring-type cars with engines of 2.5L displacement or less, the letter U meaning "under 2.5L". The GTU group was dominated by Porsche 914-6 GTs, SA22 Mazda RX-7s through the end of the 1980s. TO - Touring-type cars, such as the Chevrolet Camaro with engines of 2.5L or more displacement TU - Touring-type cars with engines of 2.5L or less displacementIn essence, these groups had been absorbed from the Trans Am Series.
Trans Am would become a support series for IMSA GT. The first champions were Peter H. Gregg and Hurley Haywood, in a Porsche 914-6 GTU. Common winners in these early years of IMSA were the Porsche 911 Carrera RSR, the Chevrolet Corvette. Camel became the title sponsor during the second season, with the series becoming known as the Camel GT Challenge Series; the sponsor's corporate decal had to be displayed and visible on the left and right sides of all racecars, Camel's corporate logo patch was required to be on the Nomex driver suit's breast area, featuring Joe Camel smiling and smoking a cigarette while driving a race car. All cars were identified with a category tag, stating which category they competed in, but from the middle of the 1975 season on, all cars within the series had to have a rectangular IMSA GT decal, which incorporated its logo on the left, followed by a large GT tag, as well as a Joe Camel decal. Starting fields of 30 or more competitors were not unusual during this era. One of the premiere race events was the Paul Revere 250, which started at midnight of the Fourth of July.
The race was conducted at night. In 1975 a new category, All American Grand Touring, was introduced to counteract the Porsche dominance in GTO. In 1981, the Bob Sharp Racing team used a loophole in the rules to build a Datsun 280ZX inside the U. S. with a V8 engine from a Nissan President. The car was not a success, it became obsolete when the new GTP category was created. TU would be phased out in 1976. Turbochargers were not permitted until the middle of the 1977 season, they were allowed following protests by Porsche's motorsport department, after inspecting Al Holbert's AAGT winning Chevrolet Monza, which had won two titles. Prior to 1977, Porsche privateers struggled with obsolete 911 Carrera RSRs against the AAGT cars. Engine sizes were determined by IMSA officials, who had devised a set of rules to determine fair competition, using a displacement versus minimum weight formula. Turbochargers were taken into account as well as rotary power, fuel injection, many other engine features; as a result, the new premier class known as GTX, brought on the absolute dominance of the Porsche 935.
The 935 became the most successful car in the series. The most successful driver of the 1970s was Peter Gregg, who won championships in 1971, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979. Twin turbos were outlawed at the end of the 1982 season after John Paul Sr. and John Paul Jr. dominated in a modified 935. In 1984, all GT cars were required to display a large square decal to identify which category the car competed in. A GTU car, for instance, would have a black U on white, a GTO car, a white O on black. All others had standard IMSA GT decals. One significant change to the rules during the 1980s was the 2.5 liter limit being increased to 3.0 liters, with the maximum 6.0 liter limit still in place. 3.0 L cars were required to weigh 1,900 lb. In an effort to equalize the competition, two-valve turbocharged cars were required to weigh 15% more, four-valve turbocharged cars 20% more. Electronic fuel injection became common. Steering, braking and suspension were left up to t
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The BOSS GP Series is a motor racing series in Europe. The category evolved into the EuroBOSS Series. BOSS is an acronym; the BOSS series was founded in 1995 under the regulations of the RAC Motor Sports Association and raced in Great Britain. It was renamed to European BOSS following the involvement of Paul Stoddart's European Aviation and their expansion into European circuits, it saw grids of around 12–15 cars but on occasions dropped as few as five cars have competed. Common EuroBOSS entries include Formula One machines from Benetton, Tyrrell, Minardi and on occasions a V12 Ferrari has appeared. Other frequent entrants are Lola and Reynard CART chassis, the 1997-2002 Panoz and Dallara IndyCar chassis, from 2012, the 2003-2011 Dallara and Panoz Champ Car chassis after the new IndyCar formula began; the Panoz Champ Car DP01 chassis from 2007 is now legal. After the 2009 season, drivers Marijn van Kalmthout, Klaas Zwart, Henk de Boer and Frits van Eerd decided to split off and organize their own race series.
For 2010 EuroBOSS and BOSS GP both existed. EuroBOSS decided to cancel the last 3 rounds. BOSS GP, on the other hand, flourished with many drivers making the switch to the new series. Subsequently most of the entries have been recent secondary level single seaters such as GP2 cars and Renault World Series cars with a small number of Formula 1 cars; as of 2013 two rounds of the BOSS GP series form an official German championship sanctioned by the DMSB. In the 2018 season, BOSS GP drove for the first time at the Grand Prix Germany in July as a support series of the Formula 1 and in September at the Red Bull Ring in Austria as part of the DTM-Weekend. EuroBOSS is the European equivalent of USBOSS and OZBOSS. EuroBOSS tends to have F1 Cars, while USBOSS comprises Indy and Champ Cars and OZBOSS tends to have Formula 4000 or equivalent. Over the years the classes have been updated. Nowadays relative new cars like the Dallara GP2/08, Dallara T08 and Lola B05/52 are allowed in the series. For 2010 EuroBOSS allowed the Tatuus N.
T07 International Formula Master car to race in the series. The car was never allowed in the BOSS GP series. Actual classes and cars in the BOSS GP Series: Official websiteThe FIA-approved international BOSS GP Series is for 25 years the fastest race series in Europe and one of the most spectacular series in the international motorsport world
A Daytona Prototype is a type of sports prototype racing car developed for the Grand American Road Racing Association's Rolex Sports Car Series as their top class of car, which replaced their main prototype racing class Le Mans Prototypes. The cars competed in the merged series of the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship, they are named after the Rolex 24 at Daytona. For the 2003 Rolex Sports Car Series season, the Grand American Road Racing Association announced that they would stop support of their two premier open cockpit classes, known as SRP-I and SRP-II; these cars modified from Le Mans Prototypes, were technologically advanced and could reach high speeds on the Mulsanne Straight at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. However, these same speeds were found to be dangerous at GARRA's premier track, Daytona International Speedway; the concrete walls of the oval section of the road course that the series runs were dangerous enough on their own, but were on the parts of the track where cars reached their highest speed.
Therefore, GARRA decided that they would need to slow down their competitors in order to make their racing series safer. At the same time, due to the technological advancement of Le Mans prototypes, GARRA decided that they would lower the overall cost of their prototypes. To do this, they would use closed cockpit chassis made of tube frames, instead of high cost carbon fiber composites, they would standardize the amount of technology that could go into a car, as well as not allowing teams to develop their cars over a season, instead being forced to stay with the same basic car. This would stop teams from having to spend money on aerodynamic tweaks and technological experimentation, as well as private track testing. To further restrict cost, the series would regulate who could provide chassis and who could provide engines, thus preventing teams from trying a unique chassis or engine that may end up being a failure. Engines would have to be based on a road-legal production unit from a major manufacturer.
At the same time, major manufacturers would not be allowed to run Daytona Prototype teams, in order to help keep competition level and costs down. Combining the low cost elements with the speed and safety elements, the designs for Daytona Prototypes were laid down, with constructors having freedom to develop a car however they wished so long as it fit within the smaller dimensions of a Daytona Prototype over a Le Mans Prototype; these smaller dimensions in length, helped to create a more blunt front end to the car that would slow the cars down, regardless of how much a constructor put into sculpting the design. In order to help regulate the field and to help keep it level, GARRA only allows a certain number of chassis to be used. At the same time, each approved chassis is allowed to participate for a period of five years before GARRA reselects their approved chassis; each chassis fits within GARRA's regulations in regards to dimension, but each approved chassis is uniquely different in design.
From 2003 to 2007 seven manufacturers had their chassis approved by GARRA: Chase CCE Crawford DP03 Doran JE4 Fabcar FDSC/03 Multimatic MDP1 Picchio DP2 Riley MkXI For 2008, new chassis designs were allowed to be submitted, with several companies purchasing the rights from existing entries. Lola Racing Cars, in association with Krohn Racing, purchased Multimatic's entry for the construction of a new prototype under the name Proto-Auto. Dallara purchased Doran's entry as well, with assistance from SunTrust Racing.. Cheever Racing purchased Fabcar's license and developed under the Coyote name, with assistance from former manufacturer Picchio; the new chassis available from 2008 onward were: Crawford DP08 Coyote CC/08 Dallara DP-01 Proto-Auto Lola B08/70 Riley MkXX Sabre RD1GARRA allows for modifications to the bodywork of each Daytona Prototype only in certain areas, most to the rear wing and Gurney flap as well as front dive planes. Various changes have been made to the Daytona Prototypes for the 2012 season: The greenhouse area became nearly identical for all newly constructed cars, but featuring a one-inch zone throughout the greenhouse surface to allow for individual styling cues, including windshield implementation and window outlines.
New minimum body cross-section provisions gave the new DPs a more upright front fascia and nose, rather than the more sloped layout of previous generations cars. This allowed manufacturers to add more design character to their cars, making them closer to their production cars while still offering the dramatic message embodied by a prototype Flexibility has been introduced into the rules for side bodywork, including production-derived sidepods and open vents behind the front wheels that enable styling elements from street cars to be functional on the race cars; these changes notwithstanding, the basic chassis structure below the greenhouse remains the same, including suspension details, engine installation, gearbox, electronics and safety systems. Gen2 cars could be updated to Gen3 specifications; the Gen3 cars are: Riley MkXXVI Corvette DP As well as the chassis, the engines used are standardized and regulated. Unlike chassis, engines must come from a major production car manufacturer, using the block from an engine used on a production car.
However, these engines can have their displacements modified in order to equalize the field. For 2007, all engines will be required to use standardized ECUs in order to better regulate engine performance; the following engines are approved by GARRA: BMW 5.0 L V8 BMW 4.5L V8 Fo