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Spotify

Spotify Technology S. A. is an international media services provider. It is domiciled in Luxembourg and is headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden. Founded in 2006, the company's primary business is providing an audio streaming platform, the "Spotify" platform, that provides DRM-protected music and podcasts from record labels and media companies; as a freemium service, basic features are free with advertisements or automatic music videos, while additional features, such as offline listening and commercial-free listening, are offered via paid subscriptions. Launched on 7 October 2008, the Spotify platform provides access to over 50 million tracks. Users can browse by parameters such as artist, album, or genre, can create and share playlists. Spotify is available in most of Europe and the Americas, New Zealand, parts of Africa and Asia, on most modern devices, including Windows, macOS, Linux computers, iOS, Android smartphones and tablets; as of February 2020, the company had 271 million monthly active users, including 124 million paying subscribers.

Unlike physical or download sales, which pay artists a fixed price per song or album sold, Spotify pays royalties based on the number of artist streams as a proportion of total songs streamed. It distributes 70% of its total revenue to rights holders, who pay artists based on their individual agreements. Spotify has faced criticism from artists and producers including Taylor Swift and Thom Yorke, who have argued that it does not compensate musicians. In 2017, as part of its efforts to renegotiate license deals for an interest in going public, Spotify announced that artists would be able to make albums temporarily exclusive to paid subscribers if the albums are part of Universal Music Group or the Merlin Network. Spotify's international headquarters are in Stockholm, though each region has its own headquarters. Since February 2018, it has been listed on the New York Stock Exchange and in September 2018, the company relocated its New York City offices to 4 World Trade Center. Spotify was developed in 2006 by a team in Sweden.

The company was founded by Daniel Ek, former CTO of Stardoll, Martin Lorentzon, co-founder of TradeDoubler. The company's title, according to Daniel Ek, was misheard from a name shouted by Martin Lorentzon, they thought out an etymology of a combination of "spot" and "identify". Spotify operates internationally under a multitude of companies in different regions. Spotify has 44 offices that operate internationally; the Spotify application was launched on 7 October 2008. While free accounts remained available by invitation to manage the growth of the service, the launch opened paid subscriptions to everyone. At the same time, Spotify AB announced licensing deals with major music labels. In February 2009, Spotify opened public registration for the free service tier in the United Kingdom. Registrations surged following the release of the mobile service, leading Spotify to halt registration for the free service in September, returning the UK to an invitation-only policy. Premium cards were offered for the 2009 Christmas season that allowed recipients to upgrade an account to "Premium" status for 1, 3, 6, or 12 months.

For the service's launch in the United States in July 2011, Spotify had a six-month free ad-supported trial period, where new users could listen to an unlimited amount of music. In January 2012, the free trial started expiring, with users limited to ten hours each month and five song replays. In March, Spotify removed all limits on the free service tier indefinitely. In April 2016, Ek and Lorentzon wrote an open letter to Swedish politicians demanding action in three areas that they claimed hindered the company's ability to recruit top talent as Spotify grows, including access to flexible housing, better education in the programming and development fields, stock options. Ek and Lorentzon wrote that in order to continue competing in a global economy, politicians needed to respond with new policies, or else thousands of Spotify jobs would be moved from Sweden to the United States. Towards the end of 2016, the company launched its "largest campaign to date", by placing large-scale billboards in major cities around the world that humorously mocked users' listening habits.

Billboards featured commentary such as "Dear person who made a playlist called: ‘One Night Stand With Jeb Bush Like He’s a Bond Girl in a European Casino.’ We have so many questions". Spotify's Chief Marketing Officer Seth Farbman told Creativity that "there has been some debate about whether big data is muting creativity in marketing, but we have turned that on its head... For us, data inspires and gives an insight into the emotion that people are expressing."In February 2017, Spotify announced a major expansion of its United States operations in Lower Manhattan, New York City, at 4 World Trade Center, into one of its largest operations, adding 1,000 new jobs and retaining 832 existing positions. The company's US headquarters are located in New York City's Flatiron District. On 14 November 2018, the company announced a total of 13 new markets in the MENA region, including the creation of a new Arabic hub and several playlists, while supporting right-to-left text in their apps. In October 2015, "Thinking Out Loud" by Ed Sheeran became the first song to pass 500 million streams.

A month Spotify announced that "Lean On" by Major Lazer and DJ Snake featuring MØ was its most streamed song of all time with over 525 million streams worldwide. In April 2016, Rihanna overtook Justin Bieber to become the biggest artist on Spotify, with 31

József Dudás

József Dudás, a Hungarian politician and resistance fighter, was born in Marosvásárhely in Austria-Hungary. As a young man, he joined the illegal Communist Party in Transylvania. In 1933 he was sentenced to nine years in prison; when Northern Transylvania was transferred to Hungary as part of the Second Vienna Award in 1940, he was released and he moved to Budapest. During World War II, he worked within the anti-fascist movement acting as a liaison between groups; when the war ended, Dudás was a member of an unofficial ceasefire delegation that visited Moscow, he was a founding member of the Liberation Committee of the Hungarian National Uprising. In late 1945 he joined the Independent Smallholders' Party and was elected to the Budapest government; as the communists mounted their campaign to take over Hungary, Dudás was arrested and detained until he was handed over to Romanian state security in 1951. Released in 1954, he returned to Hungary. Working as an engineer when the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 broke out, he took to addressing crowds and on 29 October, established the Second District National Committee, with a 25-point program demanding, a coalition government, a multi-party system and neutrality.

He started a newspaper, which headlined, ‘We do not recognize the present government!’ At this same time the so-called "Dudás Group" consisting of about 400 armed men was formed. Dudás soon acquired a bad reputation among the revolutionary forces, as he started negotiations with Colonel Malashenko, acting chief of staff of the Soviet Special Forces, with the aim of being recognized by the Soviets as the main seat of political and military power in Hungary, instead of Imre Nagy; the Dudás group became known for the campaign of terror it unleashed against members of Hungary's AVH Secret Police, lynching or otherwise executing offenders on sight. The activities of the group went to such an extreme that other revolutionaries began arresting AVH officers for their own protection, he continued publishing his newspaper criticizing the Nagy government until his own armed men dismissed him on 3 November, he was arrested by government forces for acts attributed to him, or rumors of such acts. On 4 November he was taken to a hospital.

On 21 November he was arrested by the Soviets. He was charged with leadership of a conspiracy and on 14 January 1957 he was sentenced to death, he was executed on 19 January 1957

Tin Toy

Tin Toy is a 1988 American computer-animated short film produced by Pixar and directed by John Lasseter. The short film, which runs five minutes, stars Tinny, a tin one-man-band toy, attempting to escape from Billy, a destructive infant; the third short film produced by the company's small animation division, it was a risky investment: due to low revenue produced by Pixar's main product, the Pixar Image Computer, the company was under financial constraints. Lasseter pitched the concept for Tin Toy by storyboard to Pixar owner Steve Jobs, who agreed to finance the short despite the company's struggles, which he kept alive with annual investment; the film was a test of the PhotoRealistic RenderMan software, proved new challenges to the animation team, namely the difficult task of realistically animating Billy. Tin Toy gained attention from Disney, who sealed an agreement to create Toy Story starring Tom Hanks and Tim Allen, inspired by elements from Tin Toy; the short premiered in a completed edit at the SIGGRAPH convention in August 1988 to a standing ovation from scientists and engineers.

Tin Toy went on to claim Pixar's first Oscar with the 1988 Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, becoming the first CGI film to win an Oscar. With the award, Tin Toy went far to establish computer animation as a legitimate artistic medium outside SIGGRAPH and the animation-festival film circuit. Tin Toy was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant" in 2003; the film takes place in one room and stars the toy of the title, a mechanical one-man band player named Tinny, a baby named Billy. At first, Tinny is delighted at the prospect of being played with by Billy until he sees how destructive the infant can be; when Tinny tries to walk out of Billy's reach, the musical instruments, which are on his back, play notes, accidentally attract Billy's attention. Tinny is chased by Billy. Tinny soon finds cover under the couch, only to find that many other toys have hidden themselves from Billy there since they are afraid of the baby, have learned the same experience.

Unaware of this, while walking and trying to find Tinny and the other toys, Billy tumbles helplessly over, lies on the floor, starts bawling. Tinny, feeling sorry for the baby, goes to the child in an attempt to cheer him up. Billy, upon seeing Tinny, stops wailing, cheers up, grabs the toy, but shakes him around for a few moments, ignores him while being distracted by the box Tinny was packaged in to played with. Annoyed, Tinny is still ignored, he pursues Billy, instead more happier playing with boxes and shopping bag while some toys come out from the couch to play. Pixar, purchased in 1986 by entrepreneur and former Apple Computer head Steve Jobs, received many accolades for films produced by its small animation division, headed by animator John Lasseter. Lasseter's primary role, as defended to Jobs by company founders Edwin Catmull and Alvy Ray Smith, was to produce short films to promote the company's own Pixar Image Computers; the department was never meant to generate any revenue as far as Jobs was concerned, but after the release of two shorts, Luxo Jr. and Red's Dream, some of the engineers working on the company's products wondered whether it made sense to keep the animation group going at all.

Pixar was losing money every year and Jobs were supporting the cash-strapped company SO through a line of credit with his personal guarantee. The engineers felt they were working hard to make money for Pixar while Lasseter's group was only spending it, their passion was for building computers and software, not entertainment. They discerned, to their chagrin, the reason why the company was supporting the division: the real priority of Catmull and Smith was to make films; the engineers were not alone in wondering about the value of Lasseter's short films. On repeated occasions in the late 1980s, Catmull dissuaded Jobs from shutting down the animation division due to financial constraints. At this same time, Jobs was clashing with Alvy Ray Smith, which would lead to his resignation from Pixar after a heated argument during a meeting. Things were by no means well at the company and Lasseter and his team of animators knew this, were afraid to ask for money to finance another short, which they storyboarded as Tin Toy.

In the spring of 1988, cash was running so short that Jobs convened a meeting to decree deep spending cuts across the board. When it was over and his animation group were too afraid to ask Jobs about authorizing some extra money for another short, they broached the topic and Jobs sat silent, looking skeptical. The short would require close to $300,000 more out of his pocket. After a few minutes, he asked. Catmull took him down to the animation offices, Lasseter started his show. With the storyboards pinned on his wall, Lasseter did the voices and acted out the shots—just as story men had done on the Disney lot for decades—and thereby showed his passion for the project; the stakes here were much higher than before, however. Ralph Guggenheim, manager of the animation unit, recalled, "We knew that he wasn't just pitching for the film, he was pitching for the survival of the group." Jobs agreed to provide the money. "I believed in what John was doing," Jobs said. "It was art. He cared, I cared. I always said yes."

His only comment at the end of Lasseter's presentation was, "All I ask of you, John, is to make it great."