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Spring and Autumn period

Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from 771 to 476 BC which corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period. The period's name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC, which tradition associates with Confucius. During this period, the Zhou royal authority over the various feudal states eroded, as more and more dukes and marquesses obtained de facto regional autonomy, defying the king's court in Luoyi, waging wars amongst themselves; the gradual Partition of Jin, one of the most powerful states, marked the end of the Spring and Autumn period, the beginning of the Warring States period. In 771 BC, the Quanrong invasion destroyed the Western Zhou and its capital Haojing, forcing the Zhou king to flee to the eastern capital Luoyi; the event ushered in the Eastern Zhou dynasty, divided into the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods. During the Spring and Autumn period, China's feudal system of fengjian became irrelevant.

The Zhou court, having lost its homeland in the Guanzhong region, held nominal power, but had real control over only a small royal demesne centered on Luoyi. During the early part of the Zhou dynasty period, royal relatives and generals had been given control over fiefdoms in an effort to maintain Zhou authority over vast territory; as the power of the Zhou kings waned, these fiefdoms became independent states. The most important states came together in regular conferences where they decided important matters, such as military expeditions against foreign groups or against offending nobles. During these conferences one vassal ruler was sometimes declared hegemon; as the era continued and more powerful states annexed or claimed suzerainty over smaller ones. By the 6th century BC most small states had disappeared and just a few large and powerful principalities dominated China; some southern states, such as Chu and Wu, claimed independence from the Zhou, who undertook wars against some of them. Amid the interstate power struggles, internal conflict was rife: six élite landholding families waged war on each other inside Jin, political enemies set about eliminating the Chen family in Qi, the legitimacy of the rulers was challenged in civil wars by various royal family members in Qin and Chu.

Once all these powerful rulers had established themselves within their respective dominions, the bloodshed focused more on interstate conflict in the Warring States period, which began in 403 BC when the three remaining élite families in Jin—Zhao and Han—partitioned the state. After the Zhou capital was sacked by the Marquess of Shen and the Quanrong barbarians, the Zhou moved the capital east from the now desolated Zongzhou in Haojing near modern Xi'an to Wangcheng in the Yellow River Valley; the Zhou royalty was closer to its main supporters Jin, Zheng. In Chengzhou, Prince Yijiu was crowned by his supporters as King Ping. However, with the Zhou domain reduced to Chengzhou and nearby areas, the court could no longer support the six army groups it had in the past; the Zhou court would never regain its original authority. Though the king de jure retained the Mandate of Heaven, the title held little actual power. With the decline of Zhou power, the Yellow River drainage basin was divided into hundreds of small, autonomous states, most of them consisting of a single city, though a handful of multi-city states those on the periphery, had power and opportunity to expand outward.

A total of 148 states are mentioned in the chronicles for this period, 128 of which were absorbed by the four largest states by the end of the period. Shortly after the royal family's move to Chengzhou, a hierarchical alliance system arose where the Zhou king would give the title of hegemon to the leader of the state with the most powerful military; this political framework retained the fēngjiàn power structure, though interstate and intrastate conflict led to disregard for feudal customs, respect for the Ji family, solidarity with other Zhou peoples. The king's prestige legitimized the military leaders of the states, helped mobilize collective defense of Zhou territory against "barbarians". Over the next two centuries, the four most powerful states—Qin, Jin, Qi and Chu—struggled for power; these multi-city states used the pretext of aid and protection to intervene and gain suzerainty over the smaller states. During this rapid expansion, interstate relations alternated between low-level warfare and complex diplomacy.

Duke Yin of Lu ascended the throne in 722 BC. From this year on the state of Lu kept an official chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals, which along with its commentaries is the standard source for the Spring and Autumn period. Corresponding chronicles are known to have existed in other states as well, but all but the Lu chronicle have been lost. In 717 BC, Duke Zhuang of Zheng went to the capital for an audience with King Huan. During the encounter the duke felt he was not treated with the respect

Sandy Montgomery

Sandy Montgomery is an American softball coach. In 29 years as the head coach of SIU Edwardsville Cougars softball, she has more than 1000 career wins, more than any other coach in SIUE history in any sport, male or female; as of May 13, 2017, Montgomery had a career record of 1026 wins, 519 losses, 2 ties, for a.664 winning percentage. She led the Cougars to the Division II NCAA softball championship in 2007. In 2014, Montgomery passed the 900 win mark while leading the Cougars to their first Division I NCAA Division I Softball Tournament. Montgomery is the longest-tenured head coach at SIUE and the Associate AD for Alumni Relations in the SIUE athletic department. In addition to coaching softball, she began the SIUE volleyball program in 1995 and coached for its first four years, guiding it to a record of 83–54 and its first appearance in the NCAA Division II tournament in 1998. After leading the softball Cougars to the regular season title, Montgomery was named the 2015 Ohio Valley Conference Coach of the Year.

Montgomery's players earned her 1000th career victory in a 4–2 win over the Holy Cross Crusaders in the "Under Armour Showcase" in Clearwater, Florida on March 10, 2017. She became only the 32nd head coach in all divisions to top the 1,000 win mark. Primary source: Sandy Montgomery was a pitcher for the SIUE Cougars from 1982 through 1985 building a record of 84–26 in 117 appearances, including 108 starts. On the Cougars' career pitching records lists, she remains #1 in lowest earned run average, shutouts, no-hitters, she remains #2 in most batters faced, #3 in wins and innings pitched, #4 in strikeouts and games started. Additionally, she still holds the Cougars' single-season records for most shutouts and saves while remaining among the leaders in wins, lowest ERA, games started, innings pitched, batters faced, saves. In her senior season, Montgomery had a record of 30-8 with a 0.64 earned run average, was the Cougars' Most Valuable Player, was named to the National Fastpitch Coaches Association’s All-Central Region team.

For her play, she has been inducted into the Illinois Amateur Softball Association’s Hall of Fame and the SIUE Athletics Hall of Fame. Sources: SIUE softball webpage

Silver Wings (film)

Silver Wings is a 1922 American drama film directed by Edwin Carewe and John Ford. Ford directed only the prologue of the film. Silver Wings is now considered to be a lost film; as described in a film magazine, Uncle Andrew lives with Anna and John Webb, rejoices when the Webbs get an offer of $10,000 for his invention, but Mother Webb advises building their own factory and taking a chance on the invention. Her advice proves wise, by the time the children are grown, the family is on its way to prosperity. Harry, the elder son and mother's favorite, gives her the affection she craves, but she cannot see his shallowness and general unworthiness. John, both as a child and when grown, suffers for his brothers sins, at last taking the blame for his brother's thefts from the factory. Harry drives his sister Ruth from home because he does not want her to marry a working man, this after their father has died on Christmas Day while all the family was together, his wife telling him of the happiness he has given her.

Mrs. Webb takes over the management of the Webb shop, has the help of John and Uncle Andrew, but Harry is lazy and caddish. Ruth and John are both driven away by Harry, but the mother carries on until she discovers that Harry has forged her name and taken or lost everything ov value. Anna breaks down and sells what is left, after Harry runs off, she becomes a wandering derelict. After she is struck by an automobile and Ruth come to her, bringing Ruth's child. A reformed Harry returns, for a happy ending with the mother's arms around her children at the fade out. Mary Carr as Anna Webb Lynn Hammond as John Webb Knox Kincaid as John Joseph Monahan as Harry Maybeth Carr as Ruth Claude Brooke as Uncle Andrew Robert Hazelton as The Minister Florence Short as Widow Martin May Kaiser as Her Child Percy Helton as John Joseph Striker as Harry Jane Thomas as Ruth Roy Gordon as George Mills Florence Haas as Little Anna L. Rogers Lytton as Bank President Ernest Hilliard as Jerry Gibbs List of lost films 1937 Fox vault fire Silver Wings on IMDb Silver Wings at AllMovie